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cu n oJIj oC cvu pF& DC uQik J<b J箳ln kjC `DycnCc' nl, l kUl jIvLjJ kkv `mbllvcv` J<mboY&l pvpi=l kjCm D#jM: Sknl u{l ou. u{lcOu lb SkcJ nlj cnCp lb uKv. `mcpmJmL`Jlj Dv$ kuu jIvLjJb uKv hibO kMv, hC mbmLcH&l uJkj m nCN `Dmbnl j. O. kJx` l Sk$l ku Dn. hmlku p[uu Dvbl oMcK uKl mlJv n mjbM...

jIvL OW[ kJx b JlJ v Jjb MO Ilv lbv 26 J<x 4 cnv uJuu `mcpmJmL` cmk DJJu mOv cnCv Jj kjJ uil. jIvLjJ Dnbkj, Dyu J Yb[Kj mJYJ nl. lb Mm$ cnCp lb uKC. Dv cmk Dhu uKv m kjl vnl, cnCv Dhuu `mcpmJmL` cmk k{J uiu, Dm lbv hv:hvn unu Dn. hjbl 1925 l 1953 kUlu lb mckuv vlkukb mbƮk Ob[Uum lbv kuu uKv u#l l. Flk vJn lj mJl:mbybOǮ `mcpmJmL`cO v unuu i lbv DM uKvv mh kun oml. lcU lb D<lu kn k[ Gui[Cm col nl.

1940 mcjm `DM` J `h|Cc` vJ mhlnk m nl Dml. lcO n. J. omF& h$kjv jIvLjJb Iluu ov cuKl Dnl. 1919 mu l iCllu hSd.[. hoJ ICkjl l h@jmu iu, hjbl l v cUJl Sk hoJkJj mcOv cvv lbv hjl J uiu. lciu I[uu Iv lbv cuKlRcO vWoJu Dnl. MJ DCCbM lb mbybO km jnu, Jjn cuKlRcO kM kCl Du Dn. DCK kn o|cU cnln lL vƽl cUl.

jIvLjJb J[u DCCmny kJx bv oI&< uYu DC m$- M#C箳 mbybOlu lbk&u mcpk[v JUJU cvln uYu. DM JU hl-h$ mbybOJ< uKv kjC mbO jIvLjJbv cUu. `cu J[ubyu k Jl?`, `DCCb yyll cP DvYJ`, `DCCb nMy Jl&v` J `DCCb DlcJ=` Dm uK lbv unu.

1906 mu jIvLjJ cbyF&u ^Evi k@upl M#C ICkjl Du, lJn lL lbv Yuu

. vumv Pj ibJ< DC W Y< Mk vƽl Pu lJnhmv oI&kuhl pb mvO J mn糳 uY jIvLjJbv cUu l . hulS b mbybOlu lbv piJuu DJC `Sk J#hl Fbp- . vumv hulS` uKl Dnl. jIvLjJbv D<Yj `mbll-vcv`, `ihlji` J `m$-h<blu kcmbybO` J<b Jmbi ku. ll lbv n@Ju@k Sum DC @F[ b Jjb Kh col Pu. lb DUK `Sum DC @F[` uKcO lbv kv ou Dn.

jIvLjJbv c$ Dm vJnl. DhJo H cc Jjjkjb. JjjkjbM lb c$ lMǮ If nl. `G[l hKj` Jjjkjb vkJj Ku Pu, lJn jIvLjJbv `mcpmJmL` DbkbcOv Jjjkjb yp njjv cb[uu oml. jlvij L p cj mnl mbcuv Yju lm Jjjkjbv DO# cnCv GY jnC jJu lJn `cnj^ vkkj dzl cc Jjjkj b ku hj` M<&k uK unu nl. Jjjkjb mJYJJM Myoy kjC ll jIvLjJbv lv ku Dn. llv JjjkjbJ< lb cvlu mvn DuJ omv DuKjp jnl vn.

jIvLjJb k@up箳 Jmli=nl jnC m DCCbv ku nl. 1900 l 1904 ojcv l Hi&mv k@up箳 Jmli=nl jnu. lJn lLu JlJjC km Dm, Jmli=nl JiJiU MnjbcOv Cj JJnl, DJJnl { JLa, lbv ihljimjK p[uu ji FlombybOǮ cnl `DJmcjCdz J- Dc kk` uKl lbv JMo ku Dn.h{ D<Yj p Sk J< Om lbv Ilu, l cU lJn箳 l Jmli=n箳 JlJjCl nl. n lb DYm, lbv mJl: Dvk kC vWoJu Dn, lm 1901 mu m Pu. v n uK cnJ cvl l.

`Dc&o mbll` n `kuxmkj Kyj` D@im1925 Dbkl m Puu jIvLjJb uK Dn. DJI ov h= Yju Flk sKv n uK Dmu, lj llu JjbcU DQO mbmLv-OhlR jpkdz muuij pky yhp J jIvLjJ bl h$bcOv p Jo Pu l hjCc cnCv jIvLjJbv `Jumv k@up` cOu Ohk箳 vkjǮ jpvc J uiu. `JJn DOvk kuhv`, `m$-h<b uQik YJvblu Yo`, `Sk yk k hjl vn?`, `kcJ<k mJlb$ h`, `Dji DC mbllvcv`, `mbllvpv` J `mbllvcv JjOk` uKbcOv lbv m$-h< mbybO J mbllvcv J<mbybO uKv kuu Dn. lhk `Sk yk k hjl vn?` uK h&Yc mh kjC DJMk Dn. lkUl Dhu hnu yk nl Dmlv kn h< omj uiv kjl. kunhj cnjp, jpkJ MJbl, v. m. H[k, mbhok MbkjjJ kuxmkj Flo lcO nl. DM JJnbv lkUl `MJbl` JJn Dmn cnu pF&. mJl: jIvLjJbv mbybOlb cvmkl JO IJ cnCv `mcpmJmL` `ov yk JM<bk` m ku. ll MbkjjJ kuxmkj, Y. J. TH& cc Jjjkj bv uK unu. FjJl kJx bk[vjIvLjJbv cc uK ciJv m ku nl. omj JJn kjCN h<b J=mbybOl Flnmlu kn oKu ol, h<b kcJ=mbybO kn vj#C vWoJu Dnl.

1930vblj kUl cnj^l `vJclJo` & nl nl. Dio J. c. pM bmjK JvoKu ll mnYi Pu oml. jIvLjJbv `uQik vJclJo cnCp k?` n uK unv lmbybOlu Dhu Yck mh ku. y^&[ jmuJj lb hlvv ImH H&o ku vc nTv Dhuk[u Jvbv jmuJjO uKv m ku. lmbybOl `jmu vl J mvlv` M<&k Sk uK jIvLjJbv unu D{Uu.

jIvLjJbv 1930 l 1940 oMkl `mcpmJmL` cmklu uKvmboY&l DMuul Kubv lvo mcj pJ uiu. DMuul kJ lbv Dvko DJp GJu. `DMuu-l k cK&hC`, `ml-J*dcJju vyO`, `nn M#C u vk k?`, `ko DC mcpk mOjC` J `mbhok, `lY` bm-` uKbcOv lbv J< & ku Dn. `ko DC mcpk mOjC` M<&k lb Sk uK llkuv vihj JYilu cOck MUbkjl lj kjCl Duu `cjǮ DYm` h-hmlkcO mcJ kjCl Du nl, hC l JiU DmJ.

vk n lb Sk DJ[l kj nl. unv cubv vkbcO m$b Yck kjJl, n lbv l vm. m$b Yck m$bvǮ kjJl, Jj lb Yj nl. `vku ` uKl lbv J<Ǯ lhov ku Dn.

mbllvcv箳 mboY&l cnlc ibO bv Yjldzbv Dlcmbcv kjJ DC k=$c mOvb cUǮ Jhj k v, n Iluu Yck jIvLjJbv DJJnj DC kǮ J. mboY&l mJlu lbv ibOpRM h$JJnjn ku nl J lhl l J<Jj lb m Puu hmlkn lbv ibOpRv hJu nl. hC ibOp Dhu JjbJj hkwk nl. lcU `mcpmJmL` cmklv lbv ibOpR Yck JjbJj lJ MyobcO mcj Ilu nl. `Ʈ$` mhlnk箳 mbhokbv oJU Dbkkjl knm Jvov `c ibOpR cui Dml lj...` J<Jj JJO #$lu kn cvJj h<b cl ciJu nl. jIvLjJb lL m Puu uK FL ICl Du Dn.

1935 l 1940 kUl `kuxmkj` cmkv yJypJ jv GJu nl. lyjyj `cnv` kjmbybO mcpl Ju#C klnu nl. lHuhC mh kjCj uKvn cmkv m ku nl. jIvLjJ mJl: yJo nl.oJOc&, -DbO, Dv {-hjbhj, ukj Flo J<bJj lbv `mcpmJmL` cO Yjhj k ku. `mcpmJmL` cmkynjn lbv J<Jj yj uKv ku D{Ul. `Ylb DOvk h`,`cnv nKjKjǮ clkj Dn k?`, `#$yp : dzl J. o. $< b uKu . j. OW. kJx b Gj` Flo uKbcOv lbv J< hjcM& Ilu Dn. n uK cUlv JCmjK Dnl. `EnoOc&lu yJUhC` J<Jj lbv ouu JKv i<Jj Sk vlkukl m Pu nl. lb v `ilǮ lJ%v` kCl DC mnllv `chv-J K j` km uu Dn, l lbv mJlb$ uKbcOv mh kuu D{Uu.

jIvLjJb JlJ J Jj mcpv ICm lb n uKv Jkbv Gh jCj Dn. 1930-32 mcju `mcpmJmL` cmklu vJ[k uK: Yi-1 J Yi-2 lbv m ku nl. lvblj klk oMk iu DC iu lv J<cO lbJ<, lb k&J< Ju#C klnu mcpcvml vc&C Pu.

j. OR. kJx n kU箳 h{ hnCj nl cnCv l nl Jjv DhC mj lbk[ hn uiu. lb uKv MO Il plv p uK nlM Du, lbcU jIvLjJb JlJ v Jj mcpv Iu cu col Pu. `Dmbnl j. O. kJx` ml llv Pu Dn.