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J%v cnCp kwu, mcpCm DJI[ Dm knm mckjC mJ&mcvb cvl Jmuu oml. cU J%v n Dhu bl vJn, Dmb cnCl l oM cMHj UCk[ mJ&mcvb ku DOk Dml. Dio omj J ul Dmlv Dm oM Dvk D[J Du lj lu yiu oTv oj Jvb ul pCb hmbl kub plb.

DM JUm l J%v箳 iJ pTv cpl lLu ynjbi mQo&mLUb DmJo ICj kC mK Dhuu cvjbpk h$ unv l oM hj kv ol Dmu lj ci Dhu Gyoj DC mj#l cpIjl ymv l J%v箳 iJk[u i Sku yjb Jlb. cvJ mJYJ} Dmuu kLJC D{ DC l p%m SJ{b mhkjC yyl ol F&u. vn k?

[@. yU HW[k b `pJ J%v箳 iJ` hmlkcO, h$uKv箳,JkM Dlbl pJUk mOCN cOclv DM J%v箳 iJ kuu ckwkclu MUh箳, hC %vJO&k i Dhu Yu Duu Dnl. J%vk mlyyl JJv, Gui[ kjCj, Dhu cvlu klnu McJCj, Mv vc&C kjCj, lb Gku kjCj, cnl hjJCj, %v J{JCj cvjbpk DC Jj kjCm J= kjCj Skboj 47 h$ hmlkl mbnl kuu Dnl.

[@. HW[k bv kC yyjJbv n h$ unuu Dnl. n yyjJ mJ&mcv pvl lvO Dnl. uKkv h$uKvm Jhjuu Y<lv n mh nl. yyjJbv mbyOlv, uKku Dmuu mJ&mcv cCm箳 %v-nCyyl Dojn mll J nl jnl.

cCmu J%vyyl klnu Dn, hjbl ovbov JJbv DC Flj kn kjCbcU lu J%v箳 iJ mHj kjC Mkw vn, n u#l ITv [@. HW[k bv h$J<b vJ[ kuu Dn.

kM箳 Jib Lkwk kjCjb iCl, m=pv箳 lJb-vmi& kjclǮ clkjk hu, Ji Dk cpch kjCj GhkjC, h=LJǮ lv b, mjy@j DC hC FbOv cnCv Jhj, onyu- GlblǮ Jjm, YcO mc i{, Mjjlu nkb$, ol DC Dji, 40 npj J<hJa cvJ Dnj, uuJl bL, hjnJm, vmi& mclu, b$k clov, b$mbmk=l, hjlv mbmk=l, ukmbK J{, vhuv km, h<箳 JiCkǮ jnm, mjmh, ckwb Y<, cyF&u Hv J k@vmj, piy[, nccvJ-9750 J<hJa c=lon, pJ DC Enl, cv k lj mJ& k, mjC箳 Dkj y, OJvo<C, mh-cbimb vlb, Jn pvc, j oJm c, Ph DC mbjk. mbilhj, cj DC DiDi, k-J cOcb cubJju hjCc DM Skh# Sk mjm J<Jj DIJl Y<l kuu Mm$dz Y< h$bv Sk JiU hlUJj ITv pl. Sk ykl Jv k{J, DM Fs JnJ, Flk n hmlk Jkcv hk[ Il.

Jkb UkwJj `n I yO, n I cuM#C` Dm cnCl nj kjCSJp lb cvjbpv kjl, lu jPJl, l箳 yu nuk uv ol i l yO l箳 cvl GljJC kc kjCl n hmlk kcuǮ MmJ ju Dn, Dm cnum DlM jCj vn.
`pJ J%v箳 iJ`: [@. yU HW[k; jJjp kMv, hC;
h=- 215,
cu- 160.

DL&k JmnlJo TnHn

.kUkj bv pilkkjC箳 Ƭl vCvO J pilk yBk b YckcU vJ JmnlJo km vc&C Pu,J< JMu<C ku Dn. hlǮ JMu<C cjlv kjC mll Ghc hmlkj Pu pCJl.

pilk Mv pl J pl YJvlv v m[Jl mJv Sk$ Tv m[JJ DM jC j kUl mLhv Puu Dbljj^dz vCvO J pilk yBk ov mbmLb ci nl. uv箳 Dbljj^dz cul mLjl vmum Dbljj^dz JhjJj l lku hjCc nl. lv vc&C Puu vCJ<k mcm m[JC-m Dbljj^dz vCvOǮ mLhv Pu Dn,lj DJkml j^bv Yb[Ju J lb$%v hjJv lb Jkmu nlYj uJC, n pilk yBk mLhvci cK nl Dn. DM Go nlv mLhv Puu pilk mbmL l#l k& kjl Dmlv p vlǮ DJuby kjl Dnl, lcU vJ-JmnlJo vc&C nl Dm . kUkj b Jo Dn. lb v u h kjC Dnl : 1) D|Lk col olv mbmL p D uoll lcU il oMb ypjhb Jmlj nl J JkmvMu oMb D|Lk M<C nl.2) Dcjk-mjK Yb[JuMn j^b mbmLbJj YlJcU mJ& JJnj Jkml j^b H箳 kvlv ku pll.3) Yb[JuMn j^b clOkw J lb D|Lk mn糳Jj mbmL DJubyv DmucU lb DoM-cC ynM: mbmL k&jl Dmll. 4)JkmvMu oMb D|Lk Mv pC vmuu Dk&#c DOkjJi& 5) DOkjJi&l JkmvMu oMbv Hj Duh lvOlJ Dn.

MLukjC,GojkjC, pilk-kjC J KpikjC i OjC iY Dn. OjC箳 hjCcb & h<kU Pu Dn. . kUkjbv l & omN J lmN kjCl ku Dn. pilk yBk J vCvO vl ypjOl Dmv l JkmvMu j^Jj nCj hjCc L J hJ kjCbl DlM mJmljhC |u Dnl. ypjCl DL&JJmL (Mak divn conomic) c&o oKJv oC n kjC cK nl Dn.

. kUkjb clcC vCvOǮ pk DRcU $Ck j^b DL&JJmLJj, JM<l: JkmvMu j^bJj l Jhjl hjCc Pu J n j^ kp& mhUl D[kl iu. lyjyj ykj J J<cl bmjK mcm l j^bmcj GY jnu.

kp&cU JkmvMu j^b D|Lk OjCJj yBk If hk[ ymu J lcU vJ-JmnlJo j#m vc&C Pu. mboY&l . kUkj cnCll k, ypjOl DL&JJmL kl kc kjCN mbIvbk[v Dp箳 mcmb vjkjC nC Dh# kjC n lb$k Jmbil Dn. iu Jm J<l vc&C Puu J<cl, oj, ykj mjK mcmbJj cl kjCkjl jp voxMl Jkm n Sk ci& JkmvMu oMbh{ Dn.

. kUkjb clvmj, D|Lk mn糳 olv Dbljj^dz mbIvbv Iluu DǮ hl&l kjlv, hJ& DMlu p oM `JI` cnCv mbyOu pl nl, lb DJmL Dp `JI Y#` cnCv Pu Dn. mbmLb pk DRcU oMlu Glhov M, mJ&pvk #$lu iblJCk J jpij Iu. hjoM mhOxu lW[ J uiu. Jdz #$ DmLj Pu J D|Lk J<cl J{u.

1990-1991 mul Yjll vc&C Puu Mv, k[k vb$C J Dv Gh J pvb mn糳v mC Mkwl nl. Dbljj^dz Yb[JuMn MRv Dbli&l Yb[JuMn MM nl cUJCk kv Yjldz MmvJj b[ o[hC DCu J mOjCb ci&u yiu oCm Yi h[v Yjl箳 D|Lk Jkm i[ JiU ci&Jj DCv Ju. . kUkj u `Yjl njkj` Dm mbyOll.

MlJ<k OjCl Ml#$lu mJul k{v IC D Dmv Mlcu箳 Dlyyl Ku DL&JJmL hjmkj ku Dn. n F&m Fb[ kbhvǮ kUlu Ku Jhj hvpaJv Dn. Hjk Flk k, n OjC jpkdz J&mJkjl vmv JkmvMu oMb D|Lk omlJm Dn.

Dik #$, D|Lk mOjC J Yjldz J #$lu mOjC mboY&l . kUkj cnCll, k D|Lk mOjC k&jl nTv on J<x Pu lj D|Lk Jkmu Dh il J kThC Du vn. ynj^dz kbhvbv Yjllu ypjhl jm Dn, Jkml vn. lbv JuvkjC J Sk$kjC ci&v Yjldz GiJj DcC ku Dn.

. kUkjbv mboY&lu h& OjC k DmJ, n mJmlj & ku Dn. yN JU mLhl OjCJj khhC kjlv, vck h& kCl. & nl vn. hjbl . kUkjbv h& OjC cb[v DlM mkjlck Yck Ilu pCJl. l h& OjC L[kwl Dm Dn- Sk cnCp DlcvY&j J v Dm cv< mcp J omj Yb[JuMn oMb D|Lk cb[uklJKu Dmuu hjJuby mcp. lu vJ[ mh Dn, hjbl lm Dmc li lj DmC DJMk Dmv, lcC mcp cvmkl I[JC DJMk Dmu mh mboM JJvlv cUl. kjl . kUkj vpvcK DL&JJmL hjmkj kjll hjbl Dm kjlv vpv, lb$J%v J Jkm ci& J<Ǯ hv|Jj Dn lhov kjll.kWkjC, Jso-kjC hjlcll n Dp箳lb$J%v hjCc Dnl. vJ h& MOlv DOvk lb$J%v n JM u#l IC DJMk Dn.

D|Lk GojkjC箳 OjCcU oj J ykj n ov Mv ibYj Pu Dnl. mcpk #cl J mJlb$ n cu, Snk ijpb hla, vmi&M mclu J hjlclhmv c n Dmv oCj vJmcpjv kjJ Dmu lj l mcpu kCl lb$J%v JhjJ uiu, Jj kjC DJMk Dn. JkWkjC J GlhV mcv JljC n mcp G DmJ. vJv lb$-%v箳 mboY&l mbMOv kv mJl: ijpcC lb$J%v vJv #lp Ob[UC DJMk Dn.

uYo hC& jpij, mbhǮ JkWkjC, vmi&M mclu, GlhV mck JljC, n G p mcpjvcU mllv hC& nlu DM mcpjv ybOC DJMk Dn. mboY&l . kUkjbv D|Lk ukMnǮ DJMkl lhov ku Dn. mcpjv JM h{u Dmlu. 1) mcplu Glhok Dhu Glhov mbmL JJmLhv `ck ukMn` hlv kjlu (`ck` Myol Jlvkjl kc kjCj cpj Flhl DL& c&ol vn.) 2) DL&JJmLcO ovbov uCj JJnj ypjhlv ciC hjJcH&l nl jnlu. 3) Yb[Ju箳 vJv iblJCkJj mcpk vb$C Dmu. 4) vmi&Jo DL&kjCu Ov ou pF&u. hC, nJ, Jvmhl, hjmj nn vmi&lu Ik Glhov cK mOv Dmv l Ppn u#l Ilu hnp. {yU j^dz GlhV J{u,lj vmi& vk=kjC箳 mJhlu K& {yU j^dz GlhVlv Jp nl vn. Jkm mOl Dmlv,ijylu ijy cCm kWmLv DmC DJMk Dn. lkjl DV, pUC, hC hC, Dji, Ij J M#C lu hjM cCl J mll cUl jnC n G Dmu hnp. vJv mcpjv n { mJhvjbpv Ju. Yb[JuMnv cvJ mcpu KF&l uu Dn. lcU nCj mJ& vM UCkjl Jj mJucC Yb[JuMnu h& MOuMJ ilblj vn. cvJ mcpv DM lNn DJnv mJkju Dmv l Dl mJkjCl kClǮ D[C Dm v.

. kUkjb lk&mbil JMu<C JkmvMu j^bv mJkjuu JkmJ<Ǯ hcO cuYl hjJl&v mJCj Dmv, l v Jjb Gb c Dn. Dvk DL&lp% . kUkjb JjM mncl nCj vnl. cCk clYo vWoJlv-oKu Sk h& vl cnCv . kUkjb Jj cu Kh c Dn. lJj mKu & nC, ijp Dn. mcpk Yv DmCN kCln mbJovMu cCmu llu lUcU, cCkhC, vJv `mcpcv` I[JCj DMJo pCJu. cCk clYo DmCcO JJi knǮ vn. Gu hlǮ JjcbLv mcp J DL&Mm$箳 DYmkbcO nC, n l l mcp箳 J̮jk ilǮ DuK Gb vCkjl col kjl Dml. . kUkjb hmlk v iov c Dn.
`vCvO J pilk yBk b vJ-JmnlJo` : bkbl kUkj; ukJ*ddc i=n, cbyF&; h=-273; cu- 250 .
y. jb. jjkj

cj J=H$m=Ǯ pvk j$

Lj cCm mcv Jj kjll, DM DL& Sk Fbp cnC Dn. Lj cCmb pvcovbkyu Jo Dmll, Dmn Dhuu cnCl F&u. s$hlR pvcljK Jo DhC J<&lv ovo jbiJl Dnl. cj J=h$m=Ǯ pvk `oh&C`kj yUMm$ pbYkj bn lv mk Puu vn. mboY&-mOvb kcljl n Dhu mbMOvlck uKvJ=u cUuu Mh Dn. kc pv pcvlu DJCR GcU k{CN cj mcpv pv mbƮl-mboY& D#c nUmb[ ku, nn Dhu mcpk Gomvl J Givl u#C Dn. kcljlJj cl kjl vu GhO bv yUMm$ pbYkj b j$ unu Dn.

1825 mu hWYux- jphj Lv cbyF&m Tv yUMm$ bv FbpǮ DOv m ku. Fbp J iCl J<bl lbv Flk JC cUJu, k 1829 mu, DOhvoMlu lmN J<&hmv ojcn hbOj h JlvJj lb iCl DOhk cnCv vcCk Pu. lvblj `y@cy vJn SpkMv mm` [h vJn mj, Dkwkukkj Jjpb jpM#k, 1834 mu SuHvmv k@upcO hnu oM Dmmb Hmj, kuy JOMU mbuk, `v@c&u DOhk-mku` mbuk DM Dvk ho lbv mcL&hC mbYUu.

[@. YT op, vjC op, . kj u#cC s$, ooYF& vJjp lb M<bv h{ Dhu DC Dhu i᪮n vJ Dcj ku. Yiu, iCl, Flnm, JkjC kwu J<bJj yUMm$ pbYkjbv bLuKvn ku.

1945 mu lbv kn mvn-JLv myl ITv `y@cy vJn pvju uyj` vJ mJ&pvk bLu-mbmL m ku.

6 pv. 1832 mu `oh&C` n h#k lbv m ku. cbyF& J EnomLvlu jpkdz J mcpk hjmLl, J=h$- JJm hjmLl, `oh&C` JJmL b K JC&v uKkv ku Dn. j cnvbl h#kJv mhlnk mJhl m nT uiuu `oh&C` D J<l ybo h[J, n cj mcp oJo|Jum cnCJ. `oh&C` Dbljbin lhMuJj JC&v l ou Dn. l cvv `oioM&v` cmkyu HjM cnl ouu vn. c$ n ovn Ghc D|Lk hyUDYJ ybo h[u. kCln kj D|Lk JJnj cj cCmm kOǮ Op&C vJnl, n Kj.

M#k, uKk-DvJok, h$kj Dm n Dvkhu JcJ %Jbl J箳 kJU lmJ J<a c=l hJu. llkuv mJ& vlkukbv, cvJjbv lb oKu Ilu. lbJj DuK unu iu. lbn hjcM& uKkv Ilu Dn.
`iJl&k yUMm$ pbYkj- kU DC kl=&lJ` : vu GhO; J kMv, hC; h=- 158;
cu- 180 .

JO ICN mnmkL

Dhuk[ jnmkL, i{kL,F. JCNb Sk Km Ji& Dn. `mnm` mbkuhv kn Sk JM m Dhu cvJj ymu Dn. M$Ӯ sJCl pTv lu kbmvv IuC M̳& ipJCN vO[ slǮ MjJjm `mnm` cnu pl. il vƽl lL Dn. hjbl ovbov pJv Ju kjlv Dvh#lhC mcj CN mbkbv lJ{ M̳&v lW[ oCj cCmn vƽlhC lJ{ mnm Dml. DM mnmJjb nkil `c=lhl h oJm` kLmbnl Dhuu Ju cUl. Mjjk mnmyjyj cv mclu jKC,nn mnm J=Ǯ lk cvu nJ. kLmbnl DM mnm JR Ʈ$C Dn.

`c=lhlu h oJm` oI&kLl,DhnjCklkjJ pJblhCǮ pcvKu hju iuu cu mk kjCm J[ubk[v ku iuu lv DC lJU l cuk[v lLv Dhu mk kv ICm Puu O[h[ DbiJj k DCl. `Fphl YlkU pi nl lJn...` oI&kLcO Fphl箳 v mbmk=lǮ Dhu hlv MO IC lv kjCN yupccOu GcjJv mbiluu l箳 DvYJb kL Dhu m jKv Jl. FphlcOu `cc` n mJ祮 klnu J< Dn. lmboY&l mbMOv kjlv lu Duu DvYJ piJiU Dnl.

mJl: C hJ& v kjl, Divul mh[uu D@uv c|v ^kuk C JJCN vDc Ekwuv cnu i kbJ ^uj ^k uku JJCm mJl: Cb yp uJuu D@C[^ k@uvm O[h[ Dhuu yj kn mbiv pl. Y<C hJml mh[uu cukb mk, mJlb$ cUJC-m cCmv kuu O[h[ Kh DvK hlv uKkv cb[u Dn.

mbnl SkC 14 kL Dmv mJ& kL kcDOk cCl JOk ju Dnl. kn kL JiU Dmu lj, lb yp Sk Dn. llvn, n mjǮ kLm$ hjkdz OCǮ Dmu k<&v pCJl jnuv, Jvl knm ojJn l. nuuǮ yN hmlkbcO sƮ$ DLJ jKƮ$bj kLu GJ oC lv ku pl. mbnl c$ lM Ʈ$n vnl. JM<l: `y|uv` mnmkL Jlv lj n GCJ k<&v pCJl. DJkMmnm kLln kL ciCcC Jcvb Ʈ$ ou Dml, lj mnmkLu DOk GJ Du Dml, Dm Jl.

cCmv DlckWlhC m[v L[m Dpypu yIlu DC omNu colǮ nl oT ku lj l c hTu ju, Dm mboM mnmkLbj oCl oJOj kn cCl vƽlhC MmJ ju Dnl.
`c=lhlu h oJm DC kn Ju#C mnmkL` : Jp oJOj;
vJlv kMv, cbyF&;
h=-202;
cu-150 .

 
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