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kJl DC k@chj
Sk c$b mlJ

kJl cnCp kJǮ Dlc Godij! kJlFlkb Jv omjb kn vmu!... hC lyjyj kJlFlkb Jhk, mJ&mhMa omjb kn vmu. kjC kJlu Dmuub uǮb Jjov! uJj mJj nTv kJl Y<, mbmk=lR EYl Yov mJ&oj hnl. kuom箳 kJlM ib c$ pUlb, lj Mkwmhjb m@v cOJ puvbb mvl nlb... k@chj cnCp lb$%v vJvlc DJ<kj! `pj` Jv phCj, hC lyjyj #CO&l lu Yiuk EYl Yov mN J箳 kvkhNl mbj kju uJ MkCj!

kJl cvmJ lj k@chj lu `H[` kuu `@c` ybOu! cvmJ Dmu lj kJlu uǮ Mml Dml. J=y, sboy Dm k csbolu, l箳 Myo-Myo箳 Gjb Sk iCl, Sk mbil Dmlb. llv cjmjK Y<l pL Gjvmj D#jpv nl pl, lL lj uǮ n Mml k@chj MmlM yjyj kjCj Dml. ci k@chj DC kJl nll nl ibHv ulu? oIb cUlv- `k@ch-h`lv, cj Y< Gjvmjl uY nl, pilu Flj Y<bv yjb kn ol F&u...

MYvv ibiu bv Jjvb `k@ch-h` n mbkuhv cb[u Dn-

k@chj Jhj mJ& Y<blv, ilv mnplv ku pT uiu Dn. k@chju p DhC %v ol l l Dhuu hjl kjl EkJ l Ghi kv l Dhuu cnl hjJl. ci hyu kl cnl k@chju kUu, kM kj l k@chju hjJl F&u 箳yyl Jj kjC i ju.

h箳 Gichmv l Jhj km, kCkCl, kCkCl hlv nl yUyO Jj kjl Dhuu Dm cnCl F&u, kJ, kJǮ Jj, kJǮ YJv, l % J lY, kio-hv-hvmu, Myohlu h, shF&-hmlk, m cOc, Jk, kJl mbkuv J mJC, Jij lu lk kC k@chj Ghi J Jhj kv IC Mkw Dn. hjbl uKl kioJj unu iuu h, llv ih# vc&C nCj JiU pCJ SJ{hjl Jj k.

i J h blu mc mLU J Hjk yN hmlkbl JJO kj unuu Dn. [@. cOJ hJO&vb `svojv` bLl cnub, ``p lk[ cnCp ho J jC n ilu JkwbcC DL&hla DvjOv h[l vnl lj cKlJ vcl Dbljv CN Jjcb kC h[ll DC p箳 jClu D#jjvu D#jmbK DC uic iRl knlj vc Dmuv p mJYJkhC DL&h# uk[ DOk u# oTv Skbojv muihC, iUJj, kn jJk kC jJk JU Lbyl, cnu pl l h n...``

h Jj Yjldz J hjoMdz bLblv hnu Dml, `DL&h# uk[ DOk u# oTv` Dm EkJ DM kj GuuK Duu omll.

[@. cOJ hJO&v b `hkM` hmlkl `u` ouu JK DM Dn : ``h n unucC mjU cnCl plv mjK kUl cnu pCN D#jib pCJ nTv mjK Dbljv U JpJl jnJm Jl. n p h iC oml lu u cnCJ.`` [@. cbiUkj b `mbil Mm$ JpƳv` bLl ouu JK DM Dnl :

``hlu mc, DJO, JU, il chC箳 Ƭu lu cnCll.``

``hlu U JpJl pC- Ƭl kuchv Dml, lu lu cnCll. lulu ov c$bcOu mcv Dblju u cnCll.``

Myolv J ku iuu `u` JKlu Hjk J mcmLU L D{Ull. h n c-sbo, sbo, pl, J= hk pj kmn Dmu lj Gjlv h pC Dhuhl hl. Gj n kioJju h Jkv Jlv, kJv h cnCv oKJlv, ikk[v h Sklv, Jij jllv kUl. Flk vJn ul h箳 Gj hb kCln Jlv pj Sku lj l hlu `Gj pC` JJ#l iCOcv Dhuhl hl. kjC cnCp lk Gju uiCj JU J Gj iCOc& n n.

Gj iCOc& l Gjlv vc&C nCj u, k, lu, c[C, l-mLU, UǮ kC DM iR Jj nT Mkl. mJ& iCOc祮n yjkF&v vj#C k@chjv kjl l.

hl kuchv Dml kjC lv h il cpu pl. n il `Jbpv DC mJj` bv hl Puu Dml. cnCp lk Jbpvu uiCj Gjlu JU, lk mJju uiCj Gjlu JU, mJj J Jbpv bv cUv uCj Gjlu JU, ov D#jbcOu Jjcu uiCj Gjlu JU, ov MyobcOu Jjcu uiCj Gjlu JU DC ho, jC bcO uiCj Gjlu JU b Jj ilcO nl.

lk Jbpv J mJj n JiJiU Ik Dmuv l lk iCOc& JiJiU Dnl. DOk yjkF&v J<k[ hnl Jbpv J mJj lk Ik Dm cnCJ uiu, kjC Flkw JJOlv lb Dbljbi J iCOc& cb[l lu Dm Jl. Dp k@chj mcU lb yj yjkJ k@chj mc=ll Iuv lb i pi J i hlv Ghi kv IC Mkw Dn.

h kuchv kju EkJ h il cpu Dhuu ovhk kCln cC Jhjl F&u. hk hnu cC n hJ&hj ul Duu uI-i᪮ cC n. l `D#j` n cuYl Ik mcpuu Dn. l kU mh J mml cnCv l vJ[u iu. omj cC n DhC Dl箳 k@chj iM mmby J lcU Ph Mku Dm `Jbpv J mJj` Dmn jJ Mkl.

uK Jhl c&ol JCm DhC `D#j` n cuYl Ik cnCv cvv u. D#j EkJ D#jb mcn cUv, cvJu Y<m Jhjl lu DM Gjb DUK pilu JJO Y<blv kuu Dml. kJl Dbljbil Mj Pum, Dhuu kioJj unuu Y< Jlv, llu D#jb J Myob Gj km ku pl i pCJ Pu hnp J l cnl k@chjhl hnJl Du hnp.

im k@chj mc=ll kJU D#jb J Myob `Ʈ$` DYl Dmll. `Ʈ$b` DUKlv l l Y<v lbv ƮkJuu DL& Jlv Dhuu mcpl. ci Dhu DvYJM mbi[ Iul DhC llu YJ mcpJv Il. hm MJ k@chj mc=ll `Gjb DUKǮ pC`m kv oC DlJMk Dn. `Gjb DUKǮ pC` cnCp Gj Gv oKJC vJn n u#l Ilu hnp. Gju uiCj JU, M, lC DM i ll ll.

vou G-vǮhC, unv-chC J pl-iCJM Dm iC Dmll. Sk lkov Gj kjl, unu lm Jlv DhC i DLJ h Gjl iu lj llu lk GjD#ju uiCj JU n jJk, vcl Dml. lv uI-i kuhv pvc Pu. D#ju Gjm uiCj JU n l箳 uI-i᪮ DUKlv yjm kU Mkl.

lk Y<l JC& cnCp D#j DUK kv oCN KC Dmll. pm cjl `D`, `D` J Fbpl 'A', 'B' Jij. b Dvc Gj cjlu D#jb `D`, `D` J Fbplu D#jb `S`, `y` Dm nl. hC pJn n D#j l l Y<l Jhv l Myo yvll lJn lb Gj l jnl Dm vn. kJl Dbljbil MjCm lk Y<lu Phonic pllin cnCp Gjh D#j EkJ D#jb mcn b %v Dhuu k@chjhl hJl Du hnp.

p Y<l cU#jb Gj n lb Jhj kv yvuu Myolu lb GjmjK Dmu, l Y<lv h pC k@chjhl hJC mh pF&u.

Dp DM kCl Y< DmllJl Dnl, Jj kjl u#l F&u k, mbmk=l Y<lv vc&C Puu yN Yjldz Y< kj Dnl. k@chju mnpil kUu m DM Phonetic spelling Gjh D#j, Dmuu Y<, k@chj hlu JJjm Gh ju.

cj Y< yjǮM Gjh Y< Dn. cnCp kM n hnCm Fbp J cj Y<blu GonjC DhC ITv hn.

cjl `D` DM Gjm `D` n D#j Dn. Flj kCln D#jlv DLJ D#jb mcnlv `D` Dm Gj nl vn. Fbpl `D` DM Gjm o, oe, oo, ou, u, a, ai, e, i Dm D#jb mcn JhjJ uill. come cO o, does cO oe, flood cO oo, trouble cO ou, cup cO u, alone cO a, fourtain cO ai, moment cO 'e, pencil cO 'i.' Y<lu D#j KC J lmǮ Gj Ilu lj cjl `D` D#j `D` Dm Gj nl. Flj kCln Gjm `D` Jhju pl vn.

Fbpl 'a' D#j Gj D, D@, D, , @, DD@, D@ Dm Dvc alone, hat, age, care, half, all, watch l lj nl hC ''a'' n letter omN l yjyj Jhv DCK yj Gj nll. l ai=plaid, al=walk, au=laugh, ao=gaol, ay=say Jij yj ol lu.

DL& D#jb Sk set DC Gj omj set lu elements cO cjl yN kC Skm Sk DM p[ k{C Mkw Dn, hC Fbpl Skm Sk DM Skn p[ vI Mkl vn, Jv Dm cnCl l k D#ju J llv yvuu Myou Gjm kl JU uil n Fbph# cjl Hj mnphC MOl l.

`cjl yN kC Skm Sk DM p[ k{C Mkw Dn,` Dm Jj cnu Dn. llu `yN kC` cnCp vkwk k n FL L[kwl mbiC cnJ jl. pilu JJO Y<blu Gjhll Dmuu Hjk Ovl Il Dm oml k l Hjk n ``, j, u, J`` JbpvbcU GhmLl Puu Dn. ``, j, u, J`` n c=o Jbpv Dmuv l mnplv hKuhC omN Jbpvu p[l ll. lcU p[#jlu Gju uiCN mJ&mOjC JUh# kC JU kc uil, kjCv l lu lk Jbpv pC mJlb$ Jbpv Dn, Dm DYm kjl l GhmLl jnl. hC Gj箳 hllv Jj kjl l p[#j cnCJ uil. GonjCL& : cjl Dmuu `` Jbpv Gj n. `c lu ` n Jbpv vcl Gj Dn. hC `n lu ` n `` DM p[#j Gjlu Dn. `c lu ` Gjlv uiCN JUh# `n lu ` GjCm pml JU uil. Dl `n`cOu `` Gj ``, ``, `s`, `n`, `:` Dm yN kj pj ku lj c$ MOlv lb Dbkl cnCp kuchvl Hjk h[l vn EkJ DioǮ kc h[l k p Dhuu h{ yjkF&v k@chju mbil l, cjl DCKn kn Gjlu Hjk , p bJlj Dnl lln k@chj v JiUhC pCJv oC Mkw Dn. p Y<l `Skm Sk` DM p[ pmll pml vIll l Y< k@chju hcO JJjCm i cnCl F&u. l v cj n Y< i n.

ci Mv Dm h[l k lntenational Phonetic Alphabet k@chj hlu JJjm k Jh v. lj mbybOlu cP kjC DM- k@chjcOu kCln c n mJ& Dbibv DO Test Pu hnp. l programme yvJlv DpClhC kn kǮ i=nl Oju iu lj l u#l Cm kCllj Y< DOj Ilu Dml l mh pF&u. l Y<lu h n l Y<lu $mn/ $Jj cl kv/ $ Dbikjl/ $Rv mbYUv Il DM yN DJ<kjlv yvuu Dml. JJO hllu %v k@chju oCl DhC k J kl kc h[u Dnl, n ll Dphl mLj Puu hM h[lUv yIl Mkw nF&u J vkwk Dm ƮjmL vc yvJC箳 lvbv M cU Mku Dm cu Jl. omj kjC cnCp cj n cP Y< Dn. DpJj JJO Y<blv `cj` yj Mkl Du. Dl DhC cjlv piu kn oT Mkl Dmu lj l FL cu mh[u Dn, Dm Jl. cnCv DJp&v cjǮ Ghi kjC cP Dn Dn. 3) k@chju h箳 bll MjkJ kv oC mnp mh cUǮ vn. hC ljn pj cjl lm lv k Mku lj l pilu kCln Y<l DCl T Mku, Dm cu Jl. mbmk=l, cj J Flj Yjldz Y<blu h Ghi kv Il Il k@chju pilu Flj Y< mcpJv oC Hj kC pCj vn.

Yjldz mbil p[C-I[C n `l`Jj DOjl Dn. llu lk `l` n Sk Duhl vo Dn. hʳ mbill Skh# DOk OJvlv Sk Dm vo vc&C kv lJj mbil DOjuu Dn. hʳ mbil pC n vKU mllJj DJubyv Dml. Yjldz mbillu mJj SkckbJj DJubyv Dnl. l mJj cb, cO J lj Dm lv kj Dnl. `mbillu mJj` Jju lv kjbl cCYVlcU JiU DmumjK Ymu lj l Sk Dml. `m` mJjM lb ybOuk DyOl jnl. hnu `m` n vblj `m` frequency vcc Dml. cU Gj箳 Ƭlu vo GvǮhC pCJ k@chju oC mh pF&u. llu `lC` n Yi iCll cb[C Mkw nF&u. U k h[l, lu, u DM i cb[C J k@chju mbiC pcu, Dm Jl. Mm$M Jbpvb iJj cb[C cjl Jbpv箳 ilv oml lM International Phonetic Alphabet cO oml vn. `n` J Dvvmk DM cb[Clv Gj hllu J nCj M. DJJbJj h[Cj lC, uiCj JU, Jbpvlu $ Jij i mjU DM k@chj Y<l pC mbilumjK JJl, SJ{ l cjl mJshC Dnl.

cuYl kjCbcU Mm$dz mbillu yjkJ, lm hlu vc, mbmk=lM mbybO Dmuu Yjldz Y<blv Hj hJa pJ{ Jkml Pu lJ{ Flj hjoMdz Y<bl D{Ul vn. kjC Yjldz Y< yNM Phonetic spelling, Gjh D#j, lv yvuu Dnl.

k@chju Dm Gj %v n `uI-i` cb[Clv ol l. `uI-i`cU Dhuu k@chjcOv kUCN i cnCp, D#jmbK, c$, Jjc DC lcC jC J DU lv nCN Jmlv uiCj JU n n. MJ Flj yN i Dhuu llv MOl, Mkl, DvYJl ll. Myob Dbljbil Mv lk Jbpvu, mJju GjCm uiCj M J lC 箳M JU J c$ bM ljlc Jv DUR Graph yvJl l. lbv JJO Dimensions hjcC- oTv mbnl kuu cnl vJv cnlM h[lUv yIl F&u. D#j mJl: pl J iCJM l hlu jClu J DURlu Flj D#jbmcJl Duv kCJj km J kl hjCc nl n Graph mjulJv jJl F&u. ybiu Y< Sku i[ uil, DM kj yN Y<bv ouu yjǮ JM<C Y< Myolu Dbljbilv Graph mn糳v lm Audio / visual alarm cOv pCl F&u.

SK Y<l Dphl mLjJuu mJ& Myobv pj DhC uI- i᪮ cpchl DOǮ ymJC jJu k, plv l Y<lu mJ& i J h b DUlu c$ cpl lu; lj Dm Jj kjC Mkw vn. kjC Y< n DIJl Dml. Y<l mll you nl J l Dh#l Dml. vJv { nT uiuu Myob Dkuv Dioj nT Mkl vn. cnCp Y<l DmllJl Dmuu Gj hllv Dhuu ci& k{l iu hnp.

mcp, DhC Sk h k@chjcO type ku DC Dhuu l hlu lk DUlu h{u i kUu lj h{ h箳 mboY&l k@chjcOv yN i kjl lu k, Jj kjJ uiu. `uI-i` hllv DUlu D#jmbK, c$b mbK, jClu D#jmbK, jCu uiCj JU, DUu uiCj JU i pj k@chjcOv MOC Mkw Pu lj lh{ k@chjcOv h箳 bll yj MjkJ kjl F&u k, n Mv J l Gj n uK Hul mcpl F&u.

 

   
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