jJJj, 9 HyJj 2003                                                  mbmk=l DC mnlJ<k H#k HjJC

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Dic
jpIjClu m$ J mcv m$pJv


`lbpJj cj jp DC mbmk=l` h@huj kMvlHx kMl nl Dmuu Dic hmlklu kn DbM.

lbpJj jpbv Dhu JJnk mbybO MnCCJ kU cjbM p[uu D{Ull. MnCCJ kU cj n #$ mcpu pl Dml. GonjCL& Mkx, cn[k,EvyUkj, Ymu, Mmo Flo. JbkpǮ hlv ohyF& n cnl IjClu nl. Mnjp omj hlv YijLyF& MMukj FbiU IjClu nl. jp lhEmn ynC McyF& cunjp i[jJ IjCl ou. llkuv LcC ynhlvlJ u jpIjCln u nl. GonjCL& Jbkp hnu m ov jC nl - ohyF& J DCCyF&mny. Mnjp omj m ov jC nl. FbiU IjClu YijLyF& J ƮcCyF&. lUpjp omj m j jC nl. lhEmnm ov jC nl. Mnp cnjp J s$hl MJp cnjp bvn Dvk JJn kuu nl.

jpIjClu m$u cv op& nl. JUmbi jp Dhu hlvR muu Il Dm. GonjCL& s$hl MJp cnjpb o#C mJjǮ mbi ohyF&v Jbkpm muu ou l h{ucC :

``....DhC mbiJ, DhC vJv k mbhou l oKJJ. lc cUJu l lj cil vn? DC pJmlJMn yul vnl Dm Dmv DhC kCl DL& v Jil vnl... Dl mJcm mbk h[v Jj ymu cnCv Jvbl kjl. SMm p Gc omu l kjJ. Dvc Dmu l li kjJ. Dc J< vJn. mu cpkj Jol ku.``

Eno hlcC jpyjyj jCmn hfY<k ku pl Dm. lbpJj cj jpbv jCbv hfY<k ku GuuK lbpJj c[ kioh$l D{Ul-

~~54~~ 4 ``m. c. yF&m~~
~~m. c. m̳by yF&m~~
~~m. c. Gcby yF&m~~
M hfY<k yu K&.``

l hfY<km uiCj K& ou Dn, hjbl jC kC箳 nl, K& kl, JO km ku pl Dm J<Ǯ lhMu cUl vn. n GuuK F.m. 1852 cOu Dn. hjbl Jv DM L F.m. 1852 hJan ul DmJl.

jpkjCl m$ DOkj ipJl nl. jpkdz hmbi GodYJum jC mJl:k[ jp m$ Il Dmu GonjC D{Ul. Jbkp omj 箳 c=lvblj F.m. 1736 l 1738 hl l JOJ hlv mpvyF& nv jp m$ nl Ilu. Jbkp hnu hlv ohyF& n O|ck cJ=Ǯ, lYmbhV, JjiMu DC modiC nl. jpIjClu m$ ovMj nl. GonjCL&, Jbkp hnu hlv ohyF&. lUpjp omj cui DTyF&. jCb vJv s$cd ybOC L lbpJjl { nl. lUpjp omj v ccmu L Dhu hlv jpkcjby箳 mcjCL& jpkcjbyyF& s$cd ybOu. lhEmnv Dhu hlv hoyF& mcjCL& c$ji[ L ho yuhjcd s$cd GYju.

h[o hl

jpIjClu m$bcO h[o hlǮ u ul nl. lcU m$ ynj pi yI Mkl, hC ynj pi lbv yI Mkl vm. n L mO nl Dmuu Ymu IjC JbMp lUpW jp b kUhl u nl. m$ huKlv pl. l pChJa mJ& h<bv oj nJu pF&. h[o hl cnj^lu jpIjCcO kc cCl nl.

ml

ml pC hl lbpJj jpl DmllJl nl. lhEmn- jC mu#CyF& J jpmyF& J DcjEmn jC ml iu GuuK lchlv l.DcjEmn箳 ml iuu jCǮ vJ GuuK ll vn. jpIjClu m$b-cO jp箳 c=lvblj ml pC, n jCǮ FsJj DJubyv nl. kwJƮl mbi hlǮ c=lvblj m$ JOJ DJmLl jnl Dml. GonjCL&, lUpjp omj JOJ hlv jp箳 c=lvblj $Um J<x piu. Jbkp hnu hlv ohyF& nv hlǮ cIj JOJJmLl jnv ovOc& ku. Jbkp omj hlv mpvyF& nv ml v pl jpkjYjln Yi Ilu.hlǮ c=lvblj ml v pl jpkjCl Yi ICN cnj^lu ppyF&, ljyF&, myF& m$ JM< m nl.

jK EkJ j#

j# JC hl n l kUl mJ&cv nl. lbpJj ynlk mJ& cj jpbv j#nl. GonjCL&, ibiyF& n Jbkp hnu j# nl. k=<CyF& lhEmn j# nl. j# JJO plǮ Dml. GonjCL&, lUpjp hnu m h v[ kU箳 J Sk cjb j# nl. lhEmnm h v[ kU箳 jK Dmu GuuK lbpJj MuuKl Dn. v[ cnCp vk DmJl, kjC lbpJj MuuKl lbpJj JpjIJ jp GuuK JpjIJv[Dm ku Dn. j#bv mcpk J jpkdz l vm.mjHp omj v j#bv jnCmF.m.1824 mcjm kuC cnu ybOu. kuC cnul l箳 Jm j# jnl Dml. MJp omj 箳 j# cbiu cnul jnl Dml. j# J lb mbllm kn Y J mJul cUl Dml. kn j# lYmbhV, nMj J mboj nl.lhEmn j# chuuv nv m lcU vk `vkdz jOk mblJvcd` ju. lLh j#bv JM< mcpk op& vm. jp j# Dbl$u pl vm.

m$ M#C

jpIjClu m$bv M#C IC DOkj nl.hjbl m$bv M#C kM kj J kCl J< ou pF&, l mcp Mkl vn. lLh kn m$ lYJbl kJMm$vhC nl. Jbkp hnu hlv ohyF& lYJbl nl. m$bv jpkjC M#Cn ou pl nl, mpvyF&v jp m$ nll IluJv n mh nl. m$ ho, ml$ unl. hdkfF&- DbyyF&, yvyF& #jmij m$-kJ nTv iu. jpIjClu m$bv `GhoMcd` IC DOkj nl. lLh, mJ&mcv m$ M#Chmv JbƮl nl.

JJn mcjbY

mjHp omj h$ MJp omj kv mkJjyF& b JJn Muk DkMl nmluKll hnJm cUll. Jv SkCmJ Mlklu JJnmcjbYJj kM h[l. MukbcO JJnmcjbY cbiu-khv Jmljv J cpoj JC&v ku Dn. uiv箳 Dou oJM oJlhv kjl. uivl ovn ypv Skckbm DnjoKu Jml ou pl. mJilmcjbY, mvcK, u#chpv, Dby EMhC, Jjl J viC mjK LbJ< cnl cUl. mJ& L cnj^dz LM pJU omll. cbiuk kjC L lbpJjkjbv cnj^dzbk[v Guuu oml.

Dkwk

cnj^l pbv DhC kCyC cnCl, lbv lbpJjl cjb kUl Dkwk cnCl Dml. Dkwkb-J<Ǯ cnl mjmJl cnulu c[ kioh$bJv cUl. Dkwkb jlL& mjkj uJl Dm. l youl Dkwkbv pvcYj jpb kj kjJ uil Dm. icdyu vJ Dkwk jpJ[l MJp omj 箳 kUl Du. Dkwkbv JJn DOkj vJnl. Dkwk J lb cubv cbiuJumcnucO Ju pF&. lbv cnvu h l D h hij ou pl Dm. lLh, lb kc ku mJh nl, Jj kM h[l vn.

oJom

oJomǮ Ji& lbpJjl cjb- kUl nl, Dm mjmJl-cnulu kioh$bJv mcpl. oJom v=l J iv kubcO vhC nl. JM O|ck mbi l cbojl v=l, iv kjl Dml. jbY, Fs Dmum lbv JJn DOkj nl. l JJnm U cnCl Dml. hjbl , vblj lbv JJn DOkj vkjCl Du. oJom cbojbm Jkl Ilu pl Dml. SKo m$ mJl:nv oJom Pum lu cmk hij cnCv h Hvc J Sk kmc m[ cUl Dm. mboj cuRv oJomR Jhjl c Ekcl l Dm. `mboj` vJ oJom mjHp omj 箳 kUl JM< m nl. lu Km mJul ou nl. oJombv o#Clu v=l-mbil hjbhj kc jKu. l hb[l, vhC iƳk, kMu pij J mbY<Clj Dml. oJomǮ L cjb kUl cnj^ln { nl. DM kj oJu Jnuu cum cjU J cum JI cnCl. lbpJjl cubv oJm Jnl Dml EkJ vn, mboY&l cnl GhuyO Puvn.

m$b Kjo-J

m$b Kjo-JǮ L cjb kUl lbpJjl { nl. p cuR J nl Dm, lbv pvcYj vkj cnCv jnJ uil Dm. m$ iucb Ekcl lb mQo& J Dbi箳 kuiCbJj DOjl nl. L[kwl m$bv mLJj cuc Yi mcpu pl Dm. n L cOil mJ&$ nl.

JMJJm

lbpJjl cjb kUl JMJJm DmllJl Dmu GuuK J*dclv D{Ul. jcbjJ lb[ucd bv unuu `kuuj$` DKvkJl SkCmJ Mlkl JMJJm DmllJl Dmu GuuK Dn. kuu lcU Myo DL& kbYj. kuu MJY J vlcbl Dml. Dhu kc DhuJj l MJoM&v kv Ij pl Dm. Dm Sko Ij pl Dml JMv Yjuu U l箳 DbiJj l. lcU kuu `MJ MJ` cnCl. lJn JMu Dhu k kUv l. JM kuu #c civ lu Jj DCl. kuu lu #c kjl. JM l cvjbpv kv kuu- jlL& L&v kjl. hjbl kuu lu vkj oTv hjl l, Jij. hjbl J*ddcv GuuK JiUl JM JJm DmllJl Dmu Flj$ hjJ cU Mku vnl.

Jju mJ& JJvJv mh nl k, m$Ǯ pJv Hjm biu vJnl. yuJJn, ynhlvlJ, ml, JOJ- JJn, JMJJm, oJom, m$Ǯ nCj Kjo-J i n mh kjll k,m$Ǯ pJv ko nl.