jJJj, 9 HyJj 2003                                                  mbmk=l DC mnlJ<k H#k HjJC

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Dpn cnvijl yjkF&v MO Ilu, lj ovM mbKv Slnmk lHb mbmk=lk J vpjm h[l. l n Ju#C knC.

hl&ipbk[v Fbpbv1665cO cbyF& ly cUu, lJn cK yJj j hlU lHbmnl hl&ipb `y@cy k@mu' cnCv Sk unv kuu nl. h{ 1716 cO Fbpbv l Jmlj kv `H&' c kuucO hblj ku. cnCv Dpn l mbhC& Yiu H& n vJ ul Dn. kuu- mbhC& lyboJj unv-c DM mnM lH Mn yyl nl.kn c kb lH-i[Jj, lj kn unv i[Jj. l kU vijkbv JU kUC-m ohj Sk Jpl J j$ vT Jpl,mO箳 m$ vu-mcju lyboJju lHu mjy ou pF&.h{ Mnj箳Jmljkjl 1862 cO lybo l[u, slJn vcc箳 Jj lH pcvcO i[v ku.moJv kn Ju. Sk kU Di DkCN l lHb n DiU Ob[U.

1) `iJ D@H Fb[' YJ JmlӮ ov ypu ov c lH pcvcO DO& hjuu Dnl. mc箳 KN hCv lb unkbl jp P[l. lJv m@u iv mvcv oCN lHb Ghi mO oozJv uB箳 ojKb[m nl.

2) vmv uvi JMj-ynj j Hb ov unv lHm DO& hjuu Dnl.

3) pv kmc nTm箳 biCl kn J<hJa SkCm lH pcv-cO Jl&Ukj hjuu nl. MmvlHx llu ov lHb lL mMYkjC kv ykǮ mlj lHb cb$ul mLublj ku. l ov lHbv LN DOj oTv, ljbiCN kb JƮ$ p[kc ku Dn. cb$ulu j lH vMyJv cnCv lbv cKbiCl mbicjJj LNJj mvcv cUu. ykǮ oozJ lj lH ciu Gvl ou&#l Pu Dnl. lu ov lH mn H, lj omN Dkj lH D H uby Dmv, lbJj 1851 mv J y@ vbyj Dbkl Dn.

4) kmc nTm箳 ypu vou箳 `ivi' JMjynj on H uby, lv H Jm箳 ov Yjoml lH omll. kU jbi箳, yM jpƮvn箳 c lHbcU JMju ivi n vJ oTv vouv lb mvcv ku Dn. lHbmboY&l vou箳 hƽc JYi cK JnFm D@[cju cvnj DJ bv DbpoJ yJju yj lH vmv cKu J cPckjl cUJu, l GuuK `[Tv ccj uv'- uKk: nj @H, hmlkcO D{Ul.

5) G vupJU mJ&pvk ybOkcKl箳 Fcjlciu DJjl Sk m[ml J omj lv H, DM ov lH LNJj omll.

6) JvK[ m[cmcju Dkj Kl箳 upbi FcjlǮ JM-jmcj D H uby, o[ H Jm c lH LNJj Jjpcv Dn. l箳 ov ypu mn Hb ov lHb mMY-kjC kuu oml.

7) @m covl Ƭk KUll l箳 ku, Dkj YJvlu c lH Sk pU ynC oml. l箳pJU mn Hb omj lH Dn.1985 kBm- Mlyovc cb[h箳 Kokcl lH mh[u.

8) YKUu ppcl Gvl omN cnlu lHi[Jj SkcJ lH Dn. , Kfmnl hmlucC lu ^ijm Dn. hl&ipb y@cy k@mucO p j hlU lH nl, lhk SkcJ o|cU lH YT op u[ mbnucO Dn.v#oj Juyf- 1640 mu, h H ubyǮ, clmk=l hk[Ǯ n hl&ip yvJǮ Sk lH Dp Muuk Dn. n mcj ov Hb unv lH Dn. Mm$ oM&vcO o[ H J ov H ubyǮ ov hlU lH omll. JuyfǮ lH ynlk MY okcm DmJl. mbnuynj cb$u箳 mcn-lu 1851 mu Sk lH oml. l箳 ypu h H uby, ov H Jm JiU omCj lH Dn. kjC mlj lHiUbm nu unvc mlj s Dnl. ynO ivuBj kjlu n lH DmJ.

9) cuyj nu箳 jpYJv hjmjlu pumYi=n YJ JmlӮ h&cO ov lH D{Ull. biClu njJUJj lHi[mn lbv v Jl, mO LNJj khNcO l Dnl. lcU lb Mn yy vnm Pu Dn, kjC lHi[MJ lH cnCp cvMJ luJj.

10) kuycOu mmv [@kcO luil vT lH DO& hjuu Dnl.KN hCv jp PpCN Slnmk lHb Ghim oozJv uB ybOCm ku pl.DM kj Flj [@kwmcO-m DM klk lH Dnl.

11) uv iciu [bkv [@k lUJj luil hbOj lH DO& hjuu Dnl.mHo lujbi ouu lHbv mKUob[ p[kc ku Dn. DM kj mbhC& vou-luJj klk lH Dnl.

12) s$hl MJp mbnu箳 Gvl cbyF&lu mJ&l c DM yj H uby, j H Jm DJ{J lH Dn. l箳 ypu Sk unv lH D{Ul. omN c|ikcO mn Hb ov lH Dnl.c^ mvc-mcju DPo covl Kokc箳 JU mh[u. JMjpJU j Hb DC Dl ov hlU lH uk[ i[Jj Jjpcv omll.

13) ukcv Uk ci&Jj hum C-cO boj jbi nl-i[Ǯ k p[uu lH humblHx hjmk=l Puu oml. ci&Jju ho-hLJj h{ucC DO&J hjuu lH D{Ull- Jcu Mcynju Sk c, hum Cynj ov, h{ c^ Mp箳 ypu mHo jbi ouu Sk, Hu cb[F&mcj movbo n@u箳 hjKu Sk,lh{ Sk c lH DC cnbcoDu ci& h^u hbhmcj Sk c, DM SkC D lH Sk ci&Jj Dnl.

14) cnhuk cKuci `yjyboj SkwmF&p mMv' DJjl ml Hb ov, h Hb lv J j Hb Sk DM SkC mn lH uu-kU jbib-mnl LNJj Jjpcv omll.

15) mW PJm& cnJu箳 biCl mn Hb ov lHbv oozJv kjkb[Ǯ mJh cUuu oml.

Jju Skwknj lHbJlj kn `yh' lHm mh[u. ppcl Gvynju covl hnu cnlu on H ubyǮ ov lH i[mnl nl. lHb Guybi[ hukv kMm ku Gj Dvjl Dn. jPJ& yBk vJv iivby FcjlǮ h KolJU Sk c lH mh[u,hC l DvY%DYblbv lu ynj v k{l lL l oHvJO ku. Tv n@uciu vmv Db lU箳 JMj vlvkjC kjlJU ynju j H ubyǮ j lH lLv GK[v k{u. kuumM omCN vJv lyboynj l j lH lHi[mnl vƽl MYv omu Dml.

cbyF&cOu lHbmboY&l cvjbpk cnl h{ucC. 1857 cO FbpbJjO p mJlb$mcj m Pu, l mHEuui cbyF&cOm hu nl. hjCc, ov SlMdz mvkbv Fbpbv @m covl kwk lH lW[ ou.cbiu hb[ Jjm mbiCN l D blkjkbhk Sk nl, cjv yuvcOu [^u nJuoj m糳o nmv DC omj nl, onJ lk[lu mvk cbiu i. yOJj hk&, kuy L Fbpbv 1823 cO ivkwjp yboj ybOu nl. lLu ivH@kwjcO lH, lHiU, lHb i[ yvJl. DymvD, ci[u, Svd.yjy n lLu kn cK lHb vJ nl. cbyF&u ijJmho yy cnCp 1826 cO Fbpbv GYjuu `y@cy D|uj' n YjlcOu D lHKv. 175 J<hJa mLhuu lHKv mc=l cnCv 28 mhWyj n oJm ojJ<a u<kjlHx `ivm& [' cnCv kuy箳 u<kj lUJj mbhV nl. mO jiu mvc pi n l kU m@u ivj cnCv m nl.

cbyF&lu mJ& lHb lH-i[mnl mMYkjC kv, cK kbl,Jnlk ybcO, GvbcO, njp FcjlR biCl hv-mL&hv kv `k@vv m' n vJv Dk<&k vJ hl JnJ, kjl Flnmc cbyF&kjbv DJnv Dn k, l# Sk k=l cb mLhv mbmk=lk J mbJO&v kjC DJMk Dn.mO箳 Kpi-kjC箳 b[ JJUǮ Ho, Kpi GihlRv pj IJ, kjC h{ mJuu mlJj iblJCk Jmu nTv Jj kc-mJh GlhV lbv cUl jnu.

n@|vcv mk&umjK Gvl hVm JiJiU lH, lHi[Jj, llkuv JMY<lu Hyj mvk yvJv, mƮ$ cnlmn Sk vJv k@vv i[&v mLhv kjl F&u. vou J u<kj箳 vJ-pv lHm kjl cUJl lu. n JiU Dk<&k h&vmLU vc&C PucU Dbop jp lv-j npj, lj mfǮ oJM on npj h&k Y olu.JMcu-cU jp K$v GlhV Ho nl jnu.k@vv i[&vcOpnjl- Duycd-mju-Ʈ$h箳 Ʈ$- kjC Dlj GlhV ojcn cUu. MJ hmk[&- cnl hmlk- sƮ$- lHb unv c M-hm FloR JcOv JiU Yjhj GlhV cUl jnu. ojJ<a `k@vv i[&v HmJu' Dpl kv hjmk=l Gi cyuk pnjl nF&u. lv cUCN Dlj GlhVcOv Muuk lHb cK kbl- GvbcO- njp FcjlR biCl hvmL&hv kjC DvJ& jnu.

mO箳 D|Lk cboǮ kUl, iblJCkǮ MbYjh vH oCN DYvJ mlJu cl& mJh oCj kC mbmk=lc Gpk- Gimcn h{ F&u k, pCkv cbyF&u `k@vv m' n Dk<&k vJ cUv n cnvij lb $C jnu!
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