jJJj, 9 HyJj 2003                                       mbmk=l DC mnlJ<k H#k HjJC

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jk unll


Jmc=l DYcvmLU
Kuu Mv cvM Jv ui Gjb yjb!
1) h=LJ iukj Dmv l mJl:YJl YcC kjl, l YcCk# ubyJl&Ukj Dn. lu kmun DOj vn. n vj#C kC?
2) ilJk<&C MO kC uJu?
3) h=LJmYJlu JlJjC J l Gb, h=LJǮ Jm箳 Sk MbYjbM (1/100) Dml, cnCv 80 cu Dn. mbl pvk kC?
4) mӳ& EkJ b h=LJǮ sl Du k `nC' uil, n JmlmLl mJ&Lc kC m ku?
5) Dp hu mckjC cnCv mcpu pCj mckjC kC m ku?
6) kuiCvm `m#clc kuchv' n kC MO?
lcn llkU cnCu, n k JjCb Pub? mUJ Mlk箳 cOhmv k&jl Dmuu hʳ %vJblbv.
Dhuu Okwk ymu, hC Jju mnn Mvb Gj Dn -`Ymkj&'. Gj cnj^l F.m.1140 mcjm k&jl DmCN cj Kiu-Mm$%v miȳ i mcC m ku Dnl.
Ymkj祮 `mbl MjcC' cnbLcO n mJ& mbMOv uKl mJhl mcC ouu Dn. `mbl MjcC' n cnbL Ymkjv j Kb[bl unu Dmv lk Kb[m JiU vJ ouu Dn. Lc Kb[ vJ `uuJl' Dmv ldz Kb[ vJ `ypiCl', l=ldz Kb[ vJ `niCl', lj lL& Kb[ vJ `iuO' Dm Dn.
F.m.1582 cO Dyou Hp cmuc DYmkv `mbl MjcC' mc cnbL箳 jn Kb[b HjM J Djy Y<l Y<blj ku. lLv n Y<blj Fmlbyucix (k@vmbvhu) cO jh J Djymlvl iu. ypiCl J niCl DUK Djybv J jhv Jvbv lJn Pu. hʳ Jvbv ui ypiCl J niCl n Djyb MO cnCv j ku. Dcnn lbǮ `j' D{ uiu.
Ymkj祮 `mӳ&mbl' KiuMm$dz bLlu n Muk yI-
`o mc ckjoj mVY YiJlOjC ljC: #l:~
Ghj ojilh hjYcC kcd vjjcjjJc#l~~
mc l: mlhjI: MlbM: h=LJǮ h=LJ vljbl vv~
vjm llh=iblm k=lmv mcJ lm lYll: m~~
DL& : h=LJ pj DjMmjK mh Dml, lj mӳ& pj oj iu Dml lj cvJu mll omu Dml. hC lm I[l vn. Jv h=LJ mh vmv l iukj Dn, DM vƽl nl. cCmu l iukj v omv C kjC Flk k, cCm Hj unv DmucU l箳 u h=LJǮ Hj L[ Yi h[l. Jl&U箳 hjI MbYjJ Yim mh oml. lcU h=LJ mh Dn, Dm Ym nl.
ilJk<&C MO Ymkjv vv箳 Dioj 800 J<x uJuu Dn. l cb[C lbv lb `mӳ&mbl' bLl kuu D{Ul. l Muk Dm-
Dk= MM cn l ld mJmb i mJYcK mJMkwl
Dk=<l lld hllJ Ylmc mcvll kwJ hllJoc~~
DL& : h=LJǮ Dk<&CM Dn. Mv l DkMlu p[ Jml Dhuk[ Kl. l h[l Dn Dm Yml. mJ& ypbv mcv DmCN DkMl (Dk<&CMJ) l k pCj?
hʳ Kiu-DYmkbv DjJ Mlkl h=LJmYJlu JlJjC J l Gb h=LJǮ Jm箳 Sk MbYjbM (1/100), cnCp 80 cu Dmu m ku. hC `m#c iClj' Ymkjv lb `niCl' Kb[l 800 J<hJa m kuu Dn. l Muk Dm-
Ycvy&n&oM pvv YJ$byo Jocd~~
DL& : h=LJǮ h=Yihmv on vYpv (Sk vYpv = 8 cu)hl YJ (JlJjC) Dn. YJcO cI, hC, Jld, y<h Fo clkj D{Uv ll.
mJ&l iclǮ i cnCp b J mӳ& nCbyyl Ymkjv Mm$M Kiudz Jj ukbv mbilu Dn. l mbill- `ukn, jn EkJ kl vJ j#m kn vnl. bEyy EkJ mӳ&Eyy nCl h=LJǮ sl pl. cP mbiCJj lc Jm yml vmu DC jn, kl lcnu nJ Dmlu, lj KMu cnC k, l b-mӳ& m kjll.
Ymkj祮 JJvhl, mhkjC oC jl lk &k Dmu, lj l iClb mc-kjCbJj DOjl Dn. kkv, $kC, Jl&U #$HU k{箳 hl, Jcub mbl, Jcub iCl hl pM lbv piu ou; lm ypiClcOn kfk, Ji& kfk, Iv kfk J c kfk m[JC箳 mh hl lbv MOv k{u. `hu mckjC' cnCv Dp ijJu pCj mckjC u hu mckjC v cnCl,`Ymkj祮 mckjC,' Dm cnCJm nJ.
Ymkjv `niCl' `mbl MjcC`lu Kb[l kuchv kk ouu Dn. n kk `cld YiJl' Kb[-3, DO 11 J l mJkju Dn. l kk Dm-
2 hjcC =1 DC 3 DC = 1 $mjC 3 $mjC =1 $ 100 $ = 1 JO 3 JO = 1 uJ 3 uJ =1 vc< 3 vc< = 1 #C 5 #C =1 k 15 k = 1 un 15 un = 1 Ik 4 Ik = 1 cnl& 3 cnl& = 1 nj 8 nj = 1 Dnj$ EkJ 24 lmb hC& oJm 15 Dnj$ = 1 h# 2 h# = 1 cm 2 cm = 1 $l 2 $l 1 Dv 2 Dv = 1 J<&.
Dhu Dp箳 mkbo, cv, lm b Y<l mbiJ cnCp Sk hjcC = mkbo 37967.75 J Yi. hjcC Dlm#c kuiCv vƽl Ymkjv mӳ& ilJv niClblu Mm$M hlv vƽl ku Dn.
Dp箳 cj lCF&u Ymkj& kC nl, knn cnl vn, cnj^lu %v-hjbhjn cnl vn. DM cnl kv oC kCu DJMkln Jl vn.Ymkj-& cj cll pvcu, J{u, l cnv cj iCl% nl,n kuhv vn.cj %vhjbhj cnl Pu, lj cj Dmcl pi jnu.
-kbl m. Jl&k, JmF&.

J=h$ clkj
ukmv pJnhmv `ukc` vJ h#k k{u, lJnhmv %v pC ohJuǮ m ku Dn, Dm cnCC JJi jCj vn. llu mbmk=l-mnl- J<k Skk uK Jvdz Dmll, MJ %vl=< McJC SkcJldz cnlk& lCkv I[l, n v|JJo ml Dn.
lcC Dblc h=Jju `ch` n moj lj %vv DLbyuu, p%mb Jjb Dov-ov I[JC, %vc=l kC JC Sk DJnvlck k& ypJl, l lUc$ Mbk vn.
l.8 [mWyj `ch` mojl Mbkj祮 `YpiJvocd` n Dhvl mbmk=l Ypv GhuyOlL& c DJnv ku nl. lm Dvmv ukbv cu p GlmHl& lmo ou Dn, l hnv c vlcmlk Pu Dn.
l mJ祮 cu JM: DYj cvC ojhml Dn. cnCv clkj I[JCN ukYcK h$j miȳ p, b cv:hJ&k DYj.
hk knRv mboY&hmlk Y ou, knRv Pj@kwm l, lj knRv nmluKl J knRv GhuyOlL& ci&oM&v mJnml, hjnml, hmv hJv cp DOlck l=<l& lnv YiJu.
OvJo.
- [@. . c. pMvh[, C-400 602.

GhJm hoL&
`ukm- ukc`- 22 mhWyj 2002 hjJCl `ch` mojlu GhJm箳 hoLmbybOǮ MvJju cnl- Oc&EmO DC DivhjCcO mbiluu nJ<V hoL& mbilu Dnl. n mJ& cnl iᩮj$cO Dn.
mUǮ lboU, pJ, ci, lU, jU, JC F. Ov; hb{j cU, mjC F. kbo; mQOJ J mclhV uJC; iǮ oO, on, lh; njlk, EhhU, pj, mb, HCm, Dby, vjU, E, kU, jDJU n HU J mKj n mJ& Dpu hkwJ nJ< pCJ. (iǮ lk J cnMǮ lh n nJ< nl, Dmn kC cnCll.)
DivhjCl mbiluu nJ<V pVm-
Jn<kc ku: myub h:~ MckJ pJj c Jl nl: ~~1~~
k<cC[uy Jl& khu plmvkmlpl~ Y# m kC: MkboO I=lb cO ~~2~~
sMck: MuvJj Jkb cu lC[ucd~ nJ< Jlvoivk&okPd ~~3~~
DL&- mUǮ lboU, m oJmbv hkCN Yl lboU, ci,JC, lU, oO, mJ, l=COv J in n JlJ< nlkjk Dnl.
knU, YhU, Jbi, hF&Mk, ImU n Jp& kjJ.
nlM<, Y# civ cUuu DV, h, kC, Mk, on, lh, cO, mJ, mUǮ lboU, l=COv, J, cU, lboUp n hoL& nJ<Jl v FlokbJ< J Divk& FlokJ< nl.
-h. h. hjboj
yjJu, cbyF&- 400103.
Hv vb. 8930886, 8907979.

Dcjk Dvk j^O#b-cC 27 J j^O# Juc n@J[& Hw bvn Jil Dhcv mnv kjJ uiu.
Sko j$ pJl Dmlv lb mJ&l unv cuv lbJ< Ghco&kjk Y< Jhju. Hw Jjciv Pu.
m. Hwv Jju,
``lcn Dl u k M# kjCj?``
Hw cnCu, ``pj lv J[u cnCv cPJ< n Y< Jhju Dmu lj lu M# kjv, hC Dcjk j^O#u GMv n Y< Jhju Dmu lj l l mvoMj nkwk Dn.``

Fbiub[ cp hblOv u@F&[ p@p& n Sko mYl Y<C kjl nl. Sk l cO Dj[u,
``n u@F&[ p@p&. yh i{J p[uu Kj uJl Dm.``
u@F&[ p@p& MblhC cnCu, ``Kjb Dn l. hC Dp cP J[u vnl J l uJl Dmuu Kjn vn, hC l i{J c$ Dhn Dn.``

[@. jOk=<Cvd (1886-1975) n Dhu kUlu Sk DcI J nl. lb kn Jv Dpjcj Pu Dnl :
1) DhC h#bcC DkMl mbj kjCm DC cMbcC hCl hnCm Mku, hC cCmcC h=LJJj pJv kbCm Mku vn.
2) D%v jnC cCm Km nkwk vn, hC DhC D%v Dnl pCJ DmC, n cCm nkwk Dn.
3) sm Flnm I[Cm Dvk Mlk uill,hC kCln hjbhj vc&C nCm Dvk Mlkb Flnm I[J uil.
4) jpkjC cnCp jpkdz m cUJC ku vJn. jpkjC n cvJ kuC mOC ku Dn.