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19J Mlk箳 DKj oMkl p ojic hjCc nlu Dm Dvk cnJhC& MO uiu. 1895 mu Junc jWpv mm Mm$%u `#` kjCb MO DkmckhC uiu. jhcOu mJ& Jl&cvh$bl MO ylc UkhC shv Du nl. Dk jivov kjCm `#` kjCb hv Sk YJ mOv cUucU Jkdz #$l bl Pu. `#` kjCb MO n #$箳 ilcOu Sk cu oi[ ju.

nvj ykwJju n W hoL&J%v Mm$% `#` kjCb MOcU YJl Pu nl. 1896 mu箳 HyJj cnv箳 MJ쮳 DJ[l h@jmcOu Sk iMUcO l `H@mHjmb` hoLJj i kjl nl. kn hoL& Dm Dmll, k lbJj h[uu mӳ&kM l M<v Ill J M<uu kM kubljv DbOjl ynj Hkll. iCOc&u `H@mHjmvm` cnCll. jvccO `H@mHjmvm` iCOc& Dmu cnl Dmuv ykwJjuv im jvc箳 #j vJ[ ku nl. lv sƮ$C k p[ kU kio箳 ohoj DJjCl ib[Uv lj Ju nl. im nJ DmCj lmj cnJ Ik cnCp mӳ&kM. h@jmcOub nJcv mll {iU DmucU DJ[Yj mӳ&b oM&v Pub vn. kUl ykwJjuv kU kiol ib[Uuu k J lJj Juu jvc #j DM ovn i yu箳 KCl Jv ou. Sk c& oJm Gp[u. l oJM DkM vjY nlb. lcU mӳ&kM h[C Ʈvnb om uiu nl. ykwJjuu Jub k, Dp oJm i kju i Dn. i kjChJa HkJj kn hjCc Puu vn v, K$ kv ICm lv `[k& c`cO pTv kU kiol yboml kuu Hk ynj k{u. HkJj kmu lj lc Gcu Dmub lu omub. ykwJju #CYj Ju. Hk yu箳 KCl Juu DmvoKu n lc kM k Gcu, n lu kUv. Hk jmvcO OTv JUJuJj ykwJjuv kJj mhhC Gcuu lcb yjkF&vb vj#C kub. lJn lu omub k, HkJj Juu jvc箳 #jǮ n lc Dn. kJj mӳ&kM h[u DmC mljc Mkwl vmucU jvc箳 #jcOv `#` kjCbmjK DM J MMu kjC ynj h[l DmJl, Dm lk& ykwJjuv ku. cvl Duu kuhv K$ kv ICm ykwJjuv jvc箳 JiJiU #jbJj i ku. lk il HkJj DM kjCb hjCc Pub ykwJjuu omub. mJ& ibvblj M jvc DC jvc箳 #jbcOv vm|ikhC DM kjC ynj h[ll, DM lk&l ykwJju hnu. DhC kuu ibJ<Ǯ cnl DC lJv muu v<k<& coc cj kwj l箳 mnOu ykwJjuv mbilu. jvcKjp Flj %l Dmuu cuJbcO DM kjC ynj kC iCOc& DmC Mkwl Dn, Dmb cj kwju Jub. cnCv J<l mbMOv kjb lv jJub. jvc p Kvplv GhuyO nlb, l `hyuW[` Kvpl DM kjC HkCj DCK SKo Ol DmC Mkwl ykwJjucC cj kwjuoKu Jl nl. cnCv n Kvp km cUJl F&u, Jj l k uiu. `ync`lu KCl hyuW[ cyuk cCl GhuyO Dn, n mcpuJj cjv h$JJnj kv hyuW[ cU Mku k, kM ku. jvc n Ol cuJv J o|cU DmucU hyuW[ Hj cni nlb. lcU cju l hjJ[CmjKb vJnlb. DKj H Jnlk K& yuJj jvc k{uub D v `hyuW[` cUJCl cj MmJ Pu. cj kwjǮ hl hj kwj 箳 hoL&J%v箳 MUlu Sk Ku mbMOvk&m cju cUu. n Ku D[iUǮ DC kWo nl. lb sln iUkb nlb. DM mJ&mJ lku pil cjǮb mbMOv u Pub. Sk JU D v KvpJj Ƭ kjCb Mkw vmucU lk JU L[b L[b Kvp ITv lJj i kjCb cjv u kub. cjǮ kc Jhl kl b[ Dn, n u#l DuJj hjv lb mbMOv ypu mjub DC l cjǮ mbMOvl mnYi Pu. 1898 hmv 1903 hl h J< DJbl kc kuvblj DC D v hyuW[ kj GhmuJj DM kjC ynj HkCj ov Ol lbv mh[u. vJ Olbv vJ k b, Dm Mv vc&C Pu. cj kwj cU hub[ DmucU Sk Olu lv `huvc` Dmb vJ oub, lj omNu `j[c.`

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vm|ik kjClmj kjCN cuJb Dlbl cnJhC& MO uJuyu 1903 mub hoL&J%vb vyu hjl<k ykwJju J kwj obhl bv cUub. vm|ik kjClmj Gic vkwk k nl, Tpxb mJh k Dn, n kUu DOk mbMOv kjJb uiub. ojH[&mjK cnv Mm$%v kuu vm|ik kjClmjJju mbMOvlv Dmb u#l Dub k, Tpx Gic DCӮ kWlv nl J llv lv JiJiU MR DC iCOc祮 Tp& ynj h[l. llu `DuH` kC n mJ&l kc MMu Dmll. lb M hlU kiou Yov pCFlhl Dml. `y` kC cnCp Fukw^@vm Dmll J l `DuH` kCbh# DOk MMu Dmll. OlӮ hlU h$ Yov pCFlk M lb Dbi Dml. `ic` kjC c$ ljbi箳 mJhl Dmll. lb Ji kM箳 JiFlk Dml J l DlM Kj J onk Dmll. p[ OlӮ Jmlun l mnp Yo Mkll.

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jvc DC j[cmjK kjClmj cuJb MOcU npj J<x DbOjl Dmuu DCJ<Ǯ klnuu uv cUu. DCӮ kuhv Hj v kU `kCo` (Ƹ. h. 600) Yjldz cvv Lc cb[u. kCob cl, kun hoL& s s lk[ kjl iub lj Sk DJmL DM l, k lvblj l hoL& kCb DOk JIv kjl l vn. hoL祮 Dm DJYp kC cnCp DC. vmi&lu lk hoL& DCb yvuu Dml, Dmb lbb cl nlb. umhm DC [c@Ƭm (Ƹ. h. 460-370) k lJJʳbvoKu kCobmjKǮ DCӮ kuhv cb[u nl. lvblj hu J D@jm@u箳 kUl c$ DCӮ kuhvu pjoj JjO Pu. lvblj klk Mlkb DCӮ kuhv Jkm Pu vn. Dio Duk[ cnCp 19 J Mlk箳 pJUpJU DKjhl DCӮ DmllJyu cc Mm$% mMbk nl. DC lcU DCӮ mbMOvyyl Gomv nl.

DC cnCp hoL& DJYp J YjJ kC- kuhvu hnu l[ iu l ykwJju箳 kjClmi& MOcU. lvblj cj kwjv uJuu j[c箳 MOcU. MObcU ojH[& DCJ<Ǯ kuhvbv uv cUu DC DCӮ Dbljbil k Dmu, J< l箳 kuhvJv lv DCӮ c@[u (lk=l) yvJu. DCӮ kWmLv `@v` kC Dmll J kWYJl Fukw^@vm Hjl Dmll, DM mӳ&cumjK jv lv kuhu nl. l kuhv yjyj Dmub h{ m Pub. h{ p. p. L@cmv vcJbl Mm$%v `v^@v` kCb 1932 mu MO uJu J DCӮ kWmLv @v DC v^@v kC Dmll, n mbilu.

kun hoL& DCcOu @v箳 kCb mbK youl Du lj l hoL& iCOc& youl lu, Dmb ojH[&u Jub. j[c箳 MOcU llv mll ynj h[Cj DuH kjC DCӮ kWJj cj kv @v mbK youu Ghi h[lu, Dm Dbop ojH[&v ku. lcC 1919 mu v^pv箳 DCJj j[ccOu DuH kCb ybokǮ iUbmjK Jhj kv DCӮb JYpv kjCl M cUJub. Duy& DF&vmFvv 1905 mu Jmlcv DC Tp& blu mbybO oKJCjb m$ cb[ub. l箳 cl, DCӮ yjk kCl b[ M mhlJmLl Dml. JmlӮb TpxcO J Tpxb JmlcO hblj kjCb Mkw Dn, n cnJhC& mvl lv cb[u. JmJ Mlkl DCӮ mbnjk Mvb I[Juu kwuMok Flnm mJv hjƮl Dn. omN cn箳 kUl jvc Jhj kv nuj DCy@cy yvJu DC pi GodOJml kju, DM mL& Yl cc Mm$%bv Ju. Duy& DF&vmFvv Dcjk llkuv j^O# PJu bv h$ hJv lM Yl J ku DC pc&vv DCy@cy lj kjCDO Dcjkv l lj kjC ijp lhov ku. DF&vmFvmjK oiip Mm$%k[v Duu mӮv oKu PJu bv Ilu DC DCy@cy箳 v|clm ll[v Sk mcl mLhv ku. lvblj Dcjkv DCy@cy yvJu J njMc J vimk phvcOu MnjbJj l ku. llv G[uu nnkj hjCc lLu pvl Dpvn Yil Dn, n mJ&l Dn. mbnjcU DF&vmFv nov iu nl. DhC k kju iu DC l k Pu, DM mJh DhjO YJv l箳 cvu mll l jnu. MJ DCMǮ Jhj JOk k&m kj k JOJbmm kj, n jpkjCǮ jJll. Sko MO uiuvblj l箳 JhjJj J%vkb knǮ vb$C jnl vn. `Mbllm DCM` Dm Myoi kl HmJ Dmll, n JnSvc箳 hmv vkl Puu Fjk vn m ku Dn. mOMbv Dhu mkb#m, mcpJo箳 Jmljm J onMlm JOJbmk Dm$b Jhj mll ku, n ml Dn. DCcO DmCN b[ mbnjk MǮ Jojk l kJU nlyu nTv ICJv Dhuu knn kjl l vn, n DvYJ iu kn oMkb pilu mpC J mcbpm vijkbv l jnu Dn DC lb DM c$ JHu ju Dn. pradeepr_kulkarni@yahoo.co.in

 
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