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kkwub mJhv

MlJv Yl hj# kjll lmb kCln hoL& iCOc& n l hoL& kCl DCbv yvuu Dn Jj DJubyv Dmll. DCӮ kuhv Kh hjlv kUhmv ul Du Dn. `DCjCdz Lk[` Gl Jb jnm o[ub Dn, DC n jCh# unv Dml n GcOv mbilub Dn. kun cuJ DC JM mbKv Sk$ Tv Skckb ybOvl D[ku k l cuJ Sk jC yvl. GonjCL&, n[^pv ov DC Sk$ Du k, n[^pv Sk jC yvl. D@kwmpv lv DC Sk$ Tv Skckbv pK[u k DPv JӮ Sk jC lj nl. JcO I[CN JJO kj jmvk Ƭ cnCp DCbb Sk$ Cb DC Dui nCb, Dmb cl p@v [uv (1776-1844) mm Mm$%v cb[ub. ov JiJiU cuJbcO pJn jmvk Ƭ nl, lJU l cuJb DC JM mbKv Sk$ ll DC llv Sk JiU jmvk hoL& lj nl. n[^pv ov DC DC D@kwmpv Sk DC blu jmvk ƬcU hC Sk jC lj nl. v^pv Sk DC J n[^pv lv DC b cuvlv Dcv JӮ Sk jC lj nl. Dhu jp箳 hnCl DM kl lj GonjCb D{Ull. mJ& jmvk Ƭ Sk JM JlJjCl I[v ll.
kJU Sk DCӮ HjkcU hoL& iCOc&l kJ{ b[ Hjk h[l b Gc GonjC cnCp D@kwmpv J DPv. D@kwmpv箳 Sk jCl D@kwmpv ov DC Dmll lj DPv箳 Sk jCcO D@kwmpv lv DC Dmll. D@kwmpv n piCm DlJMk J Dn cnCv lu CJ cnCll. Gu DPv n J CIlk Dn. kJU Sk DCӮ HjkcU Jb iCOc&l DmCj pcv- Dmcv Hjk h[l n kJ{b D& Dn. nj DC HF& n ov hoL& cul: ky&v Dnl hC ov hoL祮 kn iCOc& hjmhjJjO Dnl. nj kC Dml lj HF& Skoc c=o.
ky&v Sk cuJhmv picO Flk DmbK jmvk hoL& yvu Dnl k, hoL祮 DYm kjCm `D@ji@vk kcm^` n jmvMm$ JiU MK pvcu Du. ky&vb JM cnCp l箳 DCb mKU Hj lJjl lj nll. ky&v J Flj kn cuJb DCb k[ Skckbl ibHucU lj Puu DCb ubyuk mKU DmCj kllj jmvk hoL& DmllJl Dnl. ky&v DC n[^pv bl jmvk Ƭ nTv DiCl kj jmvk hoL& lj nll. mJ& hoLv jmvMm$l `n[^ky&vm` cnCv mbyOub plb. F&Lv, cLv, h^uc, yvPv, @uJv DM n[^ky&v kl lj GonjCb ol lu.
cku H@j@[ mm Mm$%v 1825 mu yvPvJj yj i kv l iCOc& lhmu. lu Dmb D{Uub k, yvPv n Sk jbinv JhoL& Dmv l DlM pJun Dml. mcv oyKu yvPv hkv JH nTv l nJl cmUl. JM kj hu@mkwm, vu@v, jPvm, jyj, kkvMkb, jbi, [p hJ[j Dm Dvk hoL& yvJCm p jmvk hoL& Jhju pll ll yvPv Dmlb. [- D@F&u, i@muv DC mij쮳 Ojl yvPvb cC b[ Dmlb. yvPv箳 Sk jCl ky&v mn J n[^pv mn DC Dmll. yvPv iCOc& DlM JMhC& Dmv l Flj n[^ky&vmh# mJ&mJ JiU Dmu hnv Mm$% ykUl h[u. `Dcvc mv` J `j` ov hoLcO ky&v, n[^pv, v^pv J D@kwmpv j cuJb DC Dmll, SJ{b vJn lj DCbb ovn hoLcOub cCoKu l Dmv oKu lb iCOc& c$ JiU Dmll. n [k Jnuj jmvMm$%v 1828 mu oKJv oub. Dmb k nlb b mhkjC c$ lu ol Dub vn.
[jk D@im kkwu (1829-1896) pc&v jmvMm$%v Dmb MOv k{ub k, kun jmvk hoL& iCOc祮 Jj kjlv l hoL&l kJU kCl cuJb DC Dnl, SJ{b u#l ITv Yil vn, lj l hoL&lu DCb jv kM Dn n mcpCb DJMk Dn. DL&l n kuhv kkwuu h[uu Sk mJhvcU lu mu. lJ<Ǯ kL DM-
1855 mcjm kkwu ub[vu nl. lb Ij ub[vcOu `kwu@hn@c j[`Jj nlb. jp mbOkU l `ni cuj` l箳 c$k[ ihh cju pl Dm. lb ihhb J< yNo `D@jdi@vi kcm^` n Dm. Sk oJm lb ihh j$ yN GMjhl uu nl. c$k[v Ij Cm kkwuv MJ ym hk[u. Lb[ JN PUk DuJj lu ymcO ymu piJj [uk uiu DC mJhv h[ub. mJhvl ky&v DC l箳 cv:#bh{ v kjl nl J l Skckb J Flj DCb ybOvl JJO lNnv D[kv DCb DmbK mKU lj nl nl. lJ{l `kwu@hn@c j[` Du hkj kb[kwjv ku DC kkwu mJhvlv pi Pu. Ij DuJj lv mJhvl hnuu ky&v箳 DCӮ JJO kj mKUb Ʈ$b kioJj jKu. mKUb Jj kjlv l箳 [kwl uKK kM h[u k, jmvk Ƭl Yi ICN hoL祮 DC Skck箳 ybOvl JM lNnv D[kv lb JMhC& mKU lj nl Dmu hnpl. lu Dmbn Jub k, hoL祮 iCOc& n l hoL&cOu DCӮ mKUlu jvJj DJubyv Dmu hnpl. `Dcvc mv` J `j` ovn hoLlu DC pj Sk kj Dmu lj lb iCOc& JiU k Dmll, n [jk Jnuj (1800-1882) Mm$%u h[uub k[b kkwu mblcU mub. hoL祮 DC kc Jv lb Skcklu H jv youu k, hoL& iCOc& youll. kkwu mblcU D@ji@vk kcm^ Mm$k[ yIC Mm$%b kC hC&hC youu. hoL& iCOc&Jv l箳 DCb jv kM Dm Mku, b Ykl kjl T uiub, lmb DCb jvJv SK hoL& iCOc& k Dm Mklu, DbopoKu lJnhmv ybOl T uiu. kkwuv cb[uu mblcU lk jmvk hoL& DCbcOu jv (m^kwju H@c&u) unC hl { Pu. SKo hoL& kl lhcvu JjIUu, kl lhcvu GkUu, l hoL& jbi k Dmu, l Ivl kl Dmu, l kCl jmvk Ƭl Yi IF&u, Dm l hoL& Dvk iCOc& kJU l hoL& m^kwju H@c&u箳 DOj mbil ll.
yvPv iCOc& Flj n[^ky&vmh# JiU k Dnl, yj kUhl h[uu k[ GkuoKu kkwuu mJhvl Pu. 1865 mu Sk oJM ck hmlkb kc kjl l yuhM ymu nl. k kCm Tk, hC l oJM lb kccO u# uil vJnlb. Jj mJ& oMbv Yjkl nl. kkwuv kc ypu mjub DC L[ JU Jbl I Dmb jJub. l箳 Ijlu `Hj hum`h{ DjcKal l vJbl ymu. l ocu DmucU lu #CO&l [ukoKu uiu DC cv:#bmcj ky&v箳 DCb v u Pu. DCb ubyuk mKU lu oml nl. pC kn l mhcC uJuJl nl. l k D&! Sk mhv kwk mJl:b Mh lW[l Ojub DC l iuiu H uiu. mJhvlv pi DuJj kkwuu mJhv DL& kUu. yvPvcOu ky&v DC Jukj hlv Skckbl ibHu DmCj, n lv DUKu. yvPvcO ky&v J n[^pv lk mn DC DmucU kkwuv kioJj Sk <kv k{u. <kv箳 lk khNJj ky&v DC ymu Dmub lv oKJub. ky&v箳 DCb SkckbcOu ybO lm ky&v箳 DCӮ n[^pv箳 DCbM Dmuu ybO km Dmlu n lv jKub DC yvPv `m^kwju H@c&u` lj Pu. yvPv箳 Juv jmvMm$l Dlbl cnJ Yck ypJu Dn. kn jmvk hoLcO n Jub Skcku Ʈkv J{ Mkll DC lbhmv cpMj Ycldz Dk=l lj nll.
kkwuv jmvMm$l kuu cuYl kcijcu lu `D@jdi@vk kcm^` J%v MK hl cvll. kkwu mJhv Jj kjlv Dmb u#l lb k, Dvk lYJblbv lbv h[uu mcm Gku mJhvl Pu Dn. mJhv hnCN lYJblbv cu hjl<k Jmb Jlb, Dmb Du[ vyu cnClb Dm. kkwuun vyu hjl<k cUub Dmlb, hC 1896 muǮ lb vOv Pub. vyu hjl<k oC mJl c$ 1901 hmv Pu.

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