9 vJnWyj 2003

Dblv&o
JM<
S[m& @F&m
Ʈ$-uK
vc
klk
DJC
JM< uK
ch
   

 

 

Ʈ$-uK
ilc jpO#
mbil Dmuub vk- D@ h j
hl pil D@hj nTmmd Dpvn pMǮ lM Dnl. Dhu hjbhj lbv DYcv Dn, lJ< Doj Dn. Joa, Jivj, hƮv bcC Dhuk[n Wy, YmkjyJ, cmj k=<C, DY<k bmjKbb mbil Dpn pJbl Dn. oozJv pJbl vndz l mbil vkb hjbhj. l hjbhj jKCj vJv mbil vkb l vndzl.

mJ& Yjldz mbmk=lǮ Jj ku lj pCJlb, k D@hj箳 mJ&l pJU pCj hjbhj cnj^hM Dn. kjC MJ mbilvk cnCp lj k Dn? D@hj n Myo u@vcOu `Dhm` EkJ pc&vcOu `Dhj` MyobJv Du. ovnR DL& Sk- kc. hC iu klk Mlkb mbil箳 pil mbil Dmuub vk cnCp D@hj Dmb cvub plb. D@hj JK kj, lj mbil Dmuub vk EkJ mbil, iC, v b mn糳v mpJuub v. D@hj cnCp mcHv EkJ k@vj mjK vJJU mbilk vn. c$ lu mbil lko DM, k D@hj hnv Duvblj llu Myobh# u cvl DOk Ij kv jnll DC l mnpkn cnCu nJb. cu mbi, vk hnCN hJa kl #kbv O̳&Oj EkJ kwcCǮ mbJo Dp DJl Dmlu? hC lbv `o nl MjCil` DC `cc Dlc icu` n hob vkwkǮ Dpvn iCiCl l DmCj.
ibcl cnCp, ovnǮb cU yNhk mjKb Dn DC kUn. Dio mbl %vjb kUhmv mbil DC iC SkckbcO ibHu pTv Jvb mbilu p. kl&v, oMJlj nn Sk kj mbil vkmjK cnCu nJ. Dmb cnCll, k Dio 1690 cO ` u#c vjC kuC` v|cl Puu nl. c$ Dp Dhuu cnl Dmuu mbil- vk pvc cvu pl, l 1843 mu J<Com YJ bhmv. lb `ml- mJbJj` i cnj^Yj Pu nl DC vku b[ ukln cUu nl. lvblj h{ Um J< Dvk vkkbhv Dhu iRcO `hob` Iu uiu. hC DL&l DCCmny kuxmkjb `mbil Mkblu` 1880 mu Duu vkv h Ilu DC cj mbmk=lcOub Sk hJ& m Pub. mbil- vkv Glj-{J hnu, hl youu koƮl, hC ljn n vk 100 J< kv jnub l Mbk vn.
hl pil O|ck mbil &cO Dmb. L&v, Jnmhm& (mbOkU L&v), cm H@j iuj, kn mpjb kjCm EkJ jkwJc cnCp c=lvblj L&v, miUl MyobcO mbil ibHuub Dm. D@jj n Sk uk kj nl, pl yyucOu Dvk Iv mu EkJ kjmv iuu mbil箳 mn糳v mbilu pl. Fmj kUl oj J<a ncKm M Ƹml箳 mU {CJj YJk v mbillv mbilub pb. 15 J DC 16 J Mlklu &cOub mbil n Dlbl vhC& DC jbiYcǮ pJU pCjb nlb. c$ Slnmk hnu D@hj unu, l Fuv vkkj jvƮv v 1594 mu. D@hjb vJ nlb- `[@Hwv`. lvblj m[jM J<cO jhl D@hjFlk blkj you omN kCln kuv hnu vmlu. mJlu lu DC Skh DM Dlbl mO k hlv m Puu D@hj vblj vblj Dlbl lkoǮ DC KUyU cpJCj kj yvu. kJU l H@c& vn, lj lb mbiln llkw lJlv youub DC kJU mbil vn, lj llu DM, J<m b[ youu. n you hkv kUJ, cnCv c J<祮 j kUcO Yi h[u Dnl.
1. yj@k kU- 17 Jb Mlk. Dvk ibYj mbilkjbv D@hj lv ku DC ll MmJn Pu. c@CJoa n lb Glk= GonjC Dn. J< k EkJ jcv EkJ O|ck nl. mbil DOk Dubkjk yvub. kUlu mJ&l cnJ nl k@m^ ik. Dlc DJp Dmuu unv unv cubb l Jl CDO DC lb DJp HCDOǮ h<lJ k{v Ilub pF&. n cui c Jn, h<b Mjj, hC DJp c$ unv cu. hJ$, Gb pT MkCj. kHjuu DC Hjvuu n DM ov ikb GonjCb Dnl. lb DJp cnv Flk cnv nl, k jpn lbmcj vlcmlk nl Dm.
2. kwumk kU- 18 Jb Mlk. Dlhl D@hjcO c you omv T uiu nl. nv[u DC iuk b D@hj EkJ llu kn lk[ Dpn uk Dnl. lbv `D@jH S j[Ǯ`, `Djc[` mjK jvbcO (Dhu `Mkblu` EkJ `jcjp Ji` EkJ `mbil mY` mjK hjCk J< nlUu. pc&vǮ iukv Sk i ku. lv mbil DubkjkhC kc ku DC kJU mO, hC YJCN mbilJj u# kWl kub. Dhu DJpm mbil yvJCN EkJ DhC kl Gb lv IT Mkl n oKJCm mbil vc&C kju Yi h[CN ikbv lv Hj cnJ oub vn, hC DOvk D@hj h Ilu l cP&v.mJlu lvn hjClu oblkLb DOj Ilu, hC llkuv vkbJjn Dhu D@hj lv DOjuu nl. `o c@jp D@H Hij`, `[@v pDJnv` DC l MJ D@hj `c@pk Hwu` n Dlc GonjCb Dnl. lv Dhu JjKb cvl [kJC lv ku DC lcU l cvJ yvu, kJU hjClu JjK v jnl Dhulu Pu DC lnv cnJb cnCp, Lj kuJblv Dhu D@hj DJmcjCdz mbilcO vnnv k{u.
3. jc@Ck kU- 19 Jb Mlk. n D@hj mJC&kU cnCu nJ. SJnv D@hj n mbhC& jhYj biu uk kukj yvuu nl. s-s MnjbcOv DC pubcOvn D@hj LSm& ybOu pT uiu nl, hC D@hj KjKj ynju l kUl. D@hj pvc FucOu. Dvk D@hj Fuv Y<l unu iu. kJU FucO vn, lj pc&v DC D@m^v D@hjb Y<n Fuv nl. Dl D@hj vm, Fbiub[, jM, mhv, kmuJnk, nbij bmjK oMbcO nT uiu DC l l mbmk=lǮb lEyy ll h[ uiub. Mlkv cc mnlkn yIlu. MkwmhDj, iSL, Muj, J@uj mk@, Jnkwj i, DukwPb[j [cm bb mnl Dlbl hjCckjkhC D@hjm Jhjub pT uiub. Mlk mJl Pu l j@mv, yuv DC [@vPf bhmv. lb kJcO vpkl nl DC DJpJj lbv Kh u# oub. lb D@kxm^ Flk Yjoml nl k, lcU D@hj Skoc G mljJj hnu. yLJnvvn `H[uD` n Dhub mu kJ unub. iv, cyDj, yP lvblj cmv miUbv Dhhu mJlb$ hl DCu. cm@i&mk, yj[v DC k@Jnmk b D@hjbcO DMF& ukkub Puk nl. c$ MlkJj jp kub, l pilu ov mJ& D@hjkjbv. oIbn pvc Sk J<&lu. 1813, pc&vl Jivj DC FucO Joa, lbv Dhhu mJlb$ hlv kL, Myo, mbil, D@kxm^, DJplu cC, kjm DC JjK b Dm kn mbic mOu k, D@hju Sk hC&lJ cUub. Joav Muj, i@ljP, i, [cm bb mnl Ob[Uub Kjb, hC lb YlJ nlb MkwmhDj jvbJj. cPb lj Dmb cl Dn k, l `Du` n MkwmhDj `D@Luu`h#n DOk mjm nl. Jivjv D@kxm^MvcO Dhu kc oKJu. 150 cCmb D@kxm^ lv Jhju. mp箳 Ku kuu hcO n cCmb yml DC lcU DJp DC Jb n SkckbcO Dm kn cmUv pl, k l mbil pC mJia yv. SK JjKM EkJ mbiM EkJ vmi&lu lJbM (pM Di, c) mbybOl Sk Lc kjCb Jivju u nJb. l Lc Jpu, k #kbv ly[ly n cb mbil Dn k, DCK kMb l mcpb.
4. Jnjmc DC c@[v&- 1890 cO `k@JnujD jmkv` 70 cvb Skbkk D@hjv mbil箳 piu Sk noj ou. Dlbl L DC lkoǮ Dm D@hj DC c J clmj Dm JmlJJo J<. Jnjmc cnCp JmlJJo. vblj D@hj JU kc Pu, DOk L DC DOk pJU yvu. hƮvǮ `u ync, mk` DC `coc yjHwu` n DM GonjCb cnCl lu. lub v Dlbl kcl kc mbilv DC Dlc D@kxm^v vub. m^Tm, m^@Jnvmk, cv, yv bv D@hj pj kwu yvJu, mcvb mcplǮ huk[ vu. c$ l JU JnSVcO mcblj DM mbilvkv pvc Iluu nl. 1880 mu Duu D@hjf EkJ nuk-Huk D@hj i[ nl. hu mh nl. DcjkcO y@[JJju mbilkbv Dvk #kbv Dhuk[ Kub. ub[vcO Jm SC[ L Dvk mbilvkb nT uiu, pbv kwumk hC p[ yvuu D@hju ci ku mJl ku. Dp ukbv `c HDj u[` EkJ `mTb[ D@H cPk` DJC Dn, hC lnh# kl lj DOk biub mbil Dmuu hC hu p[ pCN `h|mHu` EkJ `HP& ou [mv` D@hjbJ< DhC Skuubn vn.
D@hjcOu mJ&l cnJ Yi Dml DJp DC D@kxm^. l mn mljbJj DJp Jhju pll.
1. mhjv : yF& mJ&l Jj hflu DJp. FL l mj ljmhlklu `m`hl pCb DJMk Dmlb. D@hj vƳk n mhjv Dml.
2. cPP mhjv : cOu hflu yF& DJp p mnm KuvƳku, kCu EkJ vkjlck JjKu J DF&u ou pl.
3. k@v^u : mJ&l Ku yF& DJp. Jmk yF&, mbl, DOkjhoJju jC mnm k@v^u Dmll.
4. v@j : mJ&l Jj hflu h< DJp p vnc vk Dml. lu D[Ǯ Dk箳 huucO il u nJb DC ljmhlk- lu `m`hl mnp DC nUJjhC hnl u nJb.
5. y@jv : cOu hflu h< DJp. YT, Kuvk, c$, jp, m bcOu kCun n DJp ui nl.
6. ym : mJ&l Ku箳 hflu h< DJp. cnlj cCmb, jp, J[u EkJ Dpy bm.
Flkb JJO Dmuv mbilkju i kjCm Yjhj pi Dml. MJ b, lnj EkJ Ib DM j J h JiJiU DJpb mjcmU kv OJvM KUl lb. ll Yj h[l l kjm,pl mnn kj DJpb mcJM Dml. lcU vcl J{l, Mkblku Puj cUl. Joa DC Jivj bv Dvko JoU J Dvbob, vn lj o:Kb JlJjC oKJCm kjm Ghi kuu Dn. D@hjcO SJ{ Dj[Dj[ k Dml, Dm Mv vnc Dvkbv h[l. lu Dvk kjCb Dnl. hnub cnCp, Dio Dpn D@hj nTmmdcO cF&k vnl. LSm&cOu OJvǮ JJmL Flk Gc Dml, k Dio kpypu mJjl yuuubn mJs Sku lb. mJ& JjK Dlbl lkoǮ D@kxm^yjyj ill (GonjCL& `S[`) lJn lk DJp Sku Cb DJMk DC cnJb Dmlb. Dhu vmbilcO iCNv Dhu hfl i hl Dn. hC FL lmb vmlb. Dhu DJp Sk pCm DC l JiU pCJCm huu DJMk jl. Dhu kvbv l Gb mj Dvm|ik Jl. hC Sko k l mJ Pu k, cK iCyjyj llu yjkJn pCJ uill. Gb mJjlu iCb kJU #kbhl Hkuub vmlb, lj lln DhC ljbi Mkl, l mjn pC SK {imjK ioa kjll. D@hj iCNbv mjK jP DC M#C DJMkl Dml. hfcO il Cb cnJb Dmlb, cnCp ci mbhC& JU Sk lkov il lb. biu DJp vncǮ miUbv DJ[l, hC D@hjcO nNJj YJ oKJl l vmlu, lj iku EkJ iƳku biub cvub pl vn. b Gc GonjC cnCp cj kum. DJpl mbil Yjuub, nMj, lv Dkb huu, hC DJp mboj vn DC ljn l p DJiv DYv kj, l箳 MyobcO p Hk Dm, DJpl p {-Glj kj lko Dm, lcU kum n 20 J Mlk箳 MJ쮳 DO& kUlu mJ&l vJpuu D@hj iƳk cvu pl.
biub lb$, Kjp D@hj iCNbv DCK kClb kmy DJil Dmu nJb, Dmn Mv knR cvl l Dmu. kjC MJ mbilkjv lk v n unuu Dml DC iCNu l kJU i Dml. Dhu vmbilcO ji jJuu Dml. iCNu Dmuu %vvmj biu ik J iƳk ho箳 y{l EkJ JmljcO Dhub kmy pCJv ol. n Kjb Dn. hC unuu mbilcO vjvjU DL& uJu Kh JJ Dml. GonjCL&- `mk`cO jv yu[v mk iƳk Yck ku nl. i[ hC vlv kuu DIlv Kv iuu vƳk. kumv nǮ Yck SK JICmjK ku. vlM Pi[Cj. l vdm, l mbil, hC oIR yIC kv vjU. D@hjcOu D@kxm^un lJ{b cnJ u nJb. Sk im mcj 80 mbil- Jok j-j ibcO JYiuu Dmll. lblJ cnCp Jnuv, mu, J[ EJ[md (J J) cnCp ymj, Dy, kwu@jv, ym cnCp ^ch DC n@vm& DC L JYi Dml hjkwMv (luJ) cnCp [^cm DC chv. MJ nh&, hv, iBi DC yum mjK Jbn Jhju pll. miU Jbv p[ Dml, l ik DC iƳkb. mJ&pC cUv Sk JlJjCv|cl kjll,D@hju DiCl mJj cUJv oll, jbi oll DC mbil Sk DiU h Dhumcj cb[lv Sk Dldz DvYJ oll. mbilvkbcC D@hjn vnc YJ jnuu Dnl. yuibOJ祮 hIU J cnCv Dmuu Dkj Jj m[ Km JCuu Dm EkJ 30,000 h kclǮ iuǮ. 80 J<hJa kJU yukvcO ymuu #kbv l YJl DvYJl J m l Jhjuu Dml. ibOJ& pcC H@Mvb lk yvu nl, lcC D@hj mm& JMY< ukbcO DhuM nl nl. D@hjb mdm vncǮ YJ Dml DC mpn. 50 Hbnv DOk Ku. jpJ[b Dlu Yi ybOl DC ykwml, hkm, siu, yvJ, Jnmkv DC PHjuumjK Lj [Pvm& DC hWm& DYcvv D@hj mdm kjl DC hmm&n jbiJl. n@uJ[hJa D@hj cnCp iu@cj nlb.
mJ&$ nlb lcC mbil DC v lv Km mm& vc&C nll. yuibOJ&, y[m, kMJjJ Ymu, plmv YU, s ibOJ&, Muoj kby, jc cj, JmbljJ oMhb[, Hp, jcom kcl bcC [@Eci, hJjf n Dp D@hj ik Dbljj^dz mljJj uk Dnl. Joa, Jivj, hƮv bcC Dhuk[n Wy, YmkjyJ, cmj k=<C, DY<k bmjKbb mbil Dpn pJbl Dn. oozJv pJbl vndz l mbil vkb hjbhj. l hjbhj jKCj vJv mbil vkb l vndzl. hl pil D@hj nTmmd Dpvn pMǮ lM Dnl. Dhu hjbhj lbv DYcv Dn, lJ< Doj Dn DC biub mbil pCCj }k Dpn h@h mj nCSJp ukb Doj cUJCj D@hj ik J iƳk nCb hmbl kjll. Dhuu v l Ekcl Dn, v DhC l plv k cil.