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Dhuk[ pm Duh, p[, Pu Dm kj Dmll, lmb hƽcl mbill `cJncWmd` Dmll. cO pj mbil Skvb JpJub lj lu `mu` cnCll. DC ll yjǮ cb[U Dmlu, lj lu `D@kxm^` cnCll. pn@v m@cdP vb l uk ku. Sk EkJ ov Jb (cKlJ hv) Jhj kv lv-j cJncWmdcO JpJuu jvu `mv` cnCll. 18 J Mlkl n[v DC cP& bv n kj uk ku, lj yLJvvb ll yj vJvJ kjn DCu. vblj MhB, Mcv DC umPd bv ll DCKv Yj Ilu. vLJv箳 32 hv mvbhk `h@Ljk`, `cvuF&`, `Dh@Mv` m Dnl.
Sk EkJ Dvk Jbv Sk `Lc` J jv JpJ DC lvblj D@kxm^vb lu `k@v^m` EkJ (kTbj h@Fb) cnCv omj jv JpJ u `kBx` cnCll. JnJ@u[vb n kj uk ku. cP&, umP, y@ncm b hv kBxp lj yLJv, @k@Jnmk b Jnuv `kBxp` Kh m Dnl. `EmHv` cnCp Dvk (klko 50 l 100) Jb D@kxm^vb lv-j cJncWmdcO JpJuu jv. EmHv n mvJj DOjuu Sk h{ kj cnCun njkl vn. hJa kU Sk `Fb^@[kwMv` vblj hnu cJncW u nF&. l mvmjKǮ Dm. lu `D@u` cnCl. omj cJncW mbL Dm. lmju `cvS` cnCl lj Lu `Hvu` (inal) cnCl. n cnCp Dhu PumjK MJu- Dlᮮ Yi. yLJvvb ll vJvJ YJv oKJu. y@ncmvb DlM mboj DM j `EmHvp` unu. @k@JnmkǮ DlM mjK DM mn EmHvp Dnl. lhk L, hJ DC mnJ cnCp Dlc Dnl.
hJa mbil k&c &cO nl. `k@vm& n@u`cO l 17 J Mlkl u Pu. hC lL l MJ쮳 jbiln Sk pJl cnCv ci Dvk Jb IJ ui, Dmb DuJv @Hwujvb cnCv Jub. Gu `Wyj cPk` n unv pil Dmuvb lu Jbn kc uil. l Jb kl DC ku Jj lb vJbn jl. GonjCL& `hv ^P` (hv, Jnuv, mu), `Jnuv mv (Jnuv-hv) EkJ `Em^i kwJx` (ov Jnuv, Jnu DC mu), Flo.
D@hj kjl v=l, v, mbil n miUb Dm. Hwu@jvm FL 16J Mlkl `k@cj` vJ Sk i ku, mbil, Jj & kj. lb DM kǮ mcpl Pu k, hJa k Mkvb n miU iTv oKJu p. lbv b hvppJv kjCm `D@hj` n hl u ku. ijmcpllv k nF&v, hC Sk Pkm kj c$ pvcu Du. DC ci l Kh ipu. D@hj箳 mJlu p `vbo`mjK jv JpJl lu `DJn&j` cnCl. cP&vb `[@v iJnv` n m D@hj moj ku. lJn lb DJn&j H Dou oJM unub nlb!
hʳ mbil箳 Flnml mn kuKb[ cvu pll. l cnCp `c[ud Spm`, `jvmBm`, `yjk Sp`, `kwumku hj[`, `jcBk Sj` DC JmJb Mlk.
F. m. 500 hJa kU `[k& Spm` DC lvblj 1000 J<x cOi (c[u Spm) cnCv DUKu pll. Dhuk[u JohCmjKb hƽcl oMbl &cO p hC (Bmd) ul l Lc hh ijvb Sk$ kv Juvb lbv `ijv Bmd` cnCll. Dhuu cnl Dmuu mbil Flnm FLhmv u nl. cOi箳 mJlu mbilJj, & hi[ Kh nl. h{h{ JiJiUb `mkwuj` mbil lj Jnu uiub.
F. m. 1420 l 1600 hl kU cnCp `jvmBm` cnCu njkl vn. kUl Dvk kub YjYj Pu. mbil pml `mkwuj` yvub. & Lc Jmbilu JjO nl. hC kUl v=lmbil, mcnil DC Jmbil Kh J{ub. F. m. 1600 l 1750 kU cnCp `yjk` kU. l kU p hlv Fcjl, xmd ybOu pl, l JmlMm$箳 kjJv n vJ h[ub nlb. kUl D@hj DC `kBx` n kj uk Pu. kUlu `yK` n Sk mbilkj nTv iu. lu `D@i&v` Jvb SJ{b YjJv kub nlb k `[^Ǯ ykwm[` m kukjb D@i&v Sku l 200 cu uyk FL ul iu DC lL ci yj cnv jnu. lvb yN O|ck DC kn `mkwuj` jv ku. h{ `D@i&v` J Oc&M SJ{ mbybO p[u iu k, c|v uLj Eki, p@v k@uJnv Jij mb Oc&mjkbv D@i&vJj kwk ybo DCu nl!
F. m. 1750 l 1820 kU cnCp `kwumku` kuKb[. JnSV n mbil jpOvǮ yvu. My&, n[v n kUlu. My& Flkw puo DC GlmHl& jv kjl Dm k, vblj mJl: jv lu DUK l vml. hC Kj pj kUlu `oo` Dmlu lj l cnCp cP& DC yLJv. oIbv Dpvhl mbil箳 ovJj jp kjb m[ub vnS! n ovn cnCp mbil箳 ovlu Dx cnCJ uilu. cP&vb hnu jv J箳 mnJ J<a ku! DC k l jv! mbhC& jhYj hobl kv yuJl lvb ukbv kwk J[ uJub. hC hM箳 uYh k=lk[ ou&# kv, JJnj J[ub mbiCJv cP& JCJC Hju DC MJ J箳 hmlmJ J<a Kh ijyl cjC hJu. l箳 cjCDioj lvb `c@pk Hwu` D@hj mbiljv ku. l Hj c cvu pl. cP& jv YJKu muu OjRv `Flv v cPm l hj y{` n jv ku nl.
yLJv n lj Sk D cCm nl. W jpblǮ l kU nl. l mcpk blǮ kUl yLJvn mh[u. Lc lvb l lmj EmHv vhuvu Dh&C ku nl. hC ci l nkcMn hnv yLJv Ʈ[u DC lvb lb `yvh&` n vJ youv `Fj@k` Dmb Jub. oJo|Jum yI! mjb ovJj jp kjCj n mbilmc mJl: J箳 lMcO kwk ynj Pu. (cHv MO uJCj S[mvn lm ynj Pu nl.) yLJvvb l vJJ EmHv unu lJn l j ynj nl. l l mJxlk= jv mcpu pl. cvlu cvl mJjb jv hC& kjCb, cvl SkCb DC vblj unCb- miUb kuhv huk[ub! l Sk `Hwj SuP` vJ Sk mboj jv Dn. llu hv Sklv DbiJv hm HjJJb Dm Ym nl. hC ibcl yI! lǮ jv Dhuk[u i[b jJnm& n@v&m yNo JpJll. ci箳 cCmbv nuJb cnCv l Flk kk&M JpJll k yLJvn l箳 L[il ijij Hju! 1820 l 1900 kU `jcBk kuKb[` cvu pl. MhB, umPd, J@ivj, y@ncm DC @k@Jnmk n kuKb[lu. J@ivj kfj p Dmuv nuju Kh DJ[. @k@Jnmk mcEui Dmuv D@mkj JF&u[cC lu yN Evou lW[ kmb Jb uiub nlb, nn Kh Dpy! JmJ Mlkln kn biu jvkj nTv iu. SkC jh箳 Flnm箳 h&YcJj iu h- Sk Mlkl ynjuub mbil, l oMl Jm kjlv mll Sklv lLu jpJ, mjbpcMn, lLu bl DC Flj miUb [Umcv ljUb DC cv l Flnml Ehi Iul ymb- Dpvn ymlb.
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