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Dcjk n kJU Sk oM vn- l Sk mbmk=lk i{ Dn.l kJUSkcnm vn,ljSkmJhv Dn.kJU Sk DjjJ mcp-Jo M vn, lj Dvkb mH|lmLv Dn. hjmhjJjO cuJJmL, hjmhjJjO DL&Jj DC hjmhjJjO jpvl Dmuu oM i{ GkuC kC nl kjCn Dbl|JjOl Dn.

ub[vnv m nCj `o Fk@v@cm` n mhlnk cnCp pilu Sk J̮jk-jpkdz mkW Dn. yjyj 160 J<hJa `o Fk@v@cm` m Pu lJn yM Jmnl piYj hmjuu nl. k@v[hmv D@m^uhl DC Yjlhmv l nBikBihl yv vv p@k mcpJo cpMl H[kl Dm.
ub[v `Fk@v@cm` mJl: J̮jk mcp hmju l c$ omj cn mbhuvblj- cnCp yM mcpJj mӳ& cJUuvblj. mcp uu iu, hC mcpJo J=Ǯ hU lm kv jnu. `o Fk@v@cm` cnCp l J=Ǯ hU!
hjbl pilk mkW yvuu mhlnk Flk JC&v kjC n c$ mJ&L&v Dv糳 ju. DL&Mm$dz k-hhChmv l J%v-lb$%v #$lu cnJ箳 mJ& I[c[Rhl DC jpkjChmv mcp- mbmk=lkjChl mJ& J<bJj DOkjJCv cnl oCj J Y< kjCj Dm n mhlnk Dn. `o Fk@v@cm` Jkb Sk pilk mljJj `h#` Dn. Kj cnCp lu `hbL` cnCvn mbyOl F&u. hjbl Dm `h#dz` J `hbLdz` h Dmvn `o Fk@v@cm` Jk mJ& #$bcO, JJO JjmjC ibcO hmjuu Dnl. mhlnk箳 mbhokdz YckM lJ clYo DmCNbvn `o Fk@v@cm` ibYdz&v oKu IJ uil.
`o Fk@v@cm`u Sk Ju#C Mu Dn. Jku DJnv oCj, yk hlUJj Jj J= kjCj, cuYl cnl olv c Yck ICj, yvOml DC yO[k. cP cnll Dm yj pC Dnl, k pbv `o Fk@v@cm` Dbk jl k{C cvmk DMkw Dml. (cPk[n iu 25 J<lu ynlk Dbk irbcO phv Juu Dnl. jl Jkln l vnl DC Ju pi vn, DM DJmL Dvk Jkb Dml!)
`o Fk@v@cm`Jju chǮ c lb ub[vcOu kju mcj 15 J<hJa Y ou nl. l Yl c ml-D mnmbhokb cuKln Ilu nl. (`o Fk@v@cm` mbhokbv YC mh vn. lh# yM hblOvb cuKl cUJC mh Dn!) mhlnk Dvk JM Dnl. lhk Sk cnCp kCln Jl&nj, mnmbhok, mbhok, bLmc#k J DL&lp% vJ `yuF&v` oTv m ku pl vn. lcU p mnmbhokbv c Yu, lbhk kCn `Klvc` vJnl. `o Fk@v@cm` mbhokbv `mj mmd` vml. mbhok vJ= nlv mJl: vJv Sk vjh uK unl, lJ{. DM mhj*dcK h$kjbv mhlnku c$ pyjoml J̮jk oyoy hl kv ou Dn. `o Fk@v@cm`MJ Dhu J̮jk pJv Dhj DC JjC jnu Dml, n YJv mhlnkb Jkb Dml.
`o Fk@v@cm` oj kn DJ[bvblj `JM< hjJC` m kjl. `mJnx D@H iuyu Fk@v@c` DM J<hmv l `mJnx D@H
y-kwv@u@p`hl EkJ `mJnx D@H D@m^@v@c`hmv l `mJnx D@H vm` EkJ `mJnx D@H Dcjk` DM JJO oMbyu箳 hjJCbhl, Dlbl cnlhC& J JMu<Clck!
hjJCb uKk c$ lb vJv unll. l l J<lu p lp%bv, DvYJ h$kjbv J Km uKkbv JM< vcb$C kv lbk[v l hjJC unv Iluu Dmll. hjJCb uKk `o Fk@v@cm` mbhokdz klu Dmll Dm vn. lm J<&DKjm m nCN JM< J|<kb uKkn l kynj Dmll.
`o Fk@v@cm` mbhokdz Yck Dmmu Yb[JuMnJo, kfj ypjhdz, Dck DC GpJ JjmjCǮ Dml; hjbl Jl&njbv unuu J=bll Dvk mhl Jn Dmll. ln Dck- GpJ mbhokdz YckM cUl-pUl Dmll Dm vn. c pJn `o Fk@v@cm` Jj mnmbhokbv Yu lJn lj Lkwk Pu nl. lbhk ynlkpC GojclJo, [J J kn JU lj kfj [Jn nl. Dm Dmvn l `o Fk@v@cm` vJ Sk `h#` J `hbL` J `mkW` c njjv J pv uJll. l mJv p[Cj Oi Dn Jmbi DC J̮jk KuhC. DM Jmbi- Ku J̮jkl cu Hj L[ J=h$- vlkukbcO D{Uu Dn. (ub[vnv m nCj `B` n cmk, ub[v jJ D@H ykwm n h#k, vӳ@k&nv m nCj `o vӳ@k&j`, `vӳ@k& jJ D@H ykwm` n vlkuk lMǮ Jmbi J Ku cv Dnl; hjbl `o Fk@v@cm`u p mkW mLv Dn, l lbv vn.)
`o Fk@v@cm` vJnWyj 8 l 14 Dbk Dm mb DC DlM GodyOk Dn. n Dbk DcjkJj JM< Dbk Dn. n Dcjk hjJC p@v hk&j uKkv unu Dn. H 16 hvb hjJCl Dcjk mJ& cnJ JM, l oMu Y[mJCj Mv, l oMv pimcj GY kuu mcm, Dcjk lv jnm DC cnm mcL& DUK uKkv kv ou Dn. mUM hvb bL pC Dk& k{v `o Fk@v@cm`v Jkbmcj Ju Dn.
Dcjk n kJU Sk oM vn- l Sk mbmk=lk i{ Dn. l kJU Sk cnm vn, lj Sk mJhv Dn. kJU Sk DjjJ, mcp-Jo M vn, lj Dvkb mH|lmLv Dn.
Dcjkyu Dvkbv lJ < Dn, lm Ju#C cn Dn. nJ Dn, lm klkn. Yl Dn, lm klnun. mbmk=lk Dp箳 Dcjk J H hM J<祮 Dmhm Dn. Yjl箳 MOl vIuu kubymu p YYi mh[u l cnCp Dp Dcjk vmu, lj Dcjkv mbmk=lkl l lJn m Pu.
kubymu 1492 mu `mh[uu` YYiJj jhv vJ&mlbv Dhu kyp kju mJl ku DC kn J<v yMbv Dhu PW[ H[kJu. Dcjku Duu jhvbv mLvk- cU Dcjkvb ku kv Dhu m mLhl ku; hjbl h{ Dcjkvbv yM mONbv DJnv ou. llv vc&C Pu- Dcjk mJlb$. 1776 mu Dcjk `mJlb$` Pu.
lvblj Dcjk mbmLhkbv p Iv unu l h{ ovM J<x Dvkbv mHla ol jnu. mJlb$, ukMn DC lk Ju mK箳 MO nkwk ynu kjCj n jpIv n Dpn Dcjkv mkjC J mbmk=lkjC h Dn. (Dvukcj Y cP Dcjklu Jmbi c$箳 cl lj L@cm pHm&v ibOpRh#n Lj cCm Dn! pHm&v b lJ%v DC Dcjk mbmk=lk- jpkdz- D|Lk Flnm n Y cP c$ Dpn mH|lmLv Dnl.)
`o Fk@v@cm` mhlnk箳 hjJCl Dcjk Flnm D{J Ilv D@ukwm kJu W jpvlp%v SkCmJ Mlkl kuu Y< cK mboY& p@v hk&j bv ou Dn. Dcjkv mcL& J lv l mcpv I Dmu, lj `Dcjkv SkwmhMv@uPcd` cnCp Dcjk Dcu JiUhC GciJm nJ, Dm uKku Jl. n JiUhC Dcjk Yiulv DC Flnmlv lj Pu Dn, Dm lbv Jl. v DC oI& Flnm vmC, nn l Sk kjC Dn. hjmhjJjO cuJJmL, hjmhjJjO DL&Jj DC hjmhjJjO jpvl Dmuu oM i{ GkuC kC nl kjCn l Dbl|JjOl Dn, Dm hk&j bv Jl.
Dcjk DlM DH mc= Dmuu oM Dn. (pilu ov l=ldzbM DypOM J kOM oMl jnll.) hjbl mc= oMlu mcj 10 kwk uk DlM Jojk ojl jnll. mcj 70 kwk cOcJia uk mcpl Dmu, lj lhk 25 kwk uk kc DmLjl DOblj ojJv ul Dmll.
ku Dlvl cnJ oCN oMl mJ&l pml ivnij Dn. jhdzv oMl Yb[JuMn nl. hC Dcjkv Dik Yb[JuMnǮ h Dklu iucbv Ilu Dn. mJlb$ I<C oCN oMl mKUob[ ybOuu k=<CJCa Dio iu Mlkhl nl.
Dcjk DO#k[ pJUpJU DvyO m Dmu J l pC pi DvY< mc Dmu Ym nl, hjbl Dcjklu ukMnǮ Ju#C JkWkjC Pu Dn, n ml mnp u#l l vn. oMlu vOM, MjH, cnhj J kn DOkjn ukbv vJ[v ouu Dmll, nn ynlkbv cnl vml. ukMnǮ Flk JkWkjC J Jmlj Puu oMlu cloj c$ DlM Gomv Dmll. kn DO#dz vJ[Ckln 40 kwkwb Dl clov Puu Dn. Dp DO# p@p& yM b vJ[Jj lj mJx vuv Mkwkcl&y ku- mJ DM vJ[Ck Div vJn. kjC lm vJ[Ck Di Dcjkl vn. yM b DO#ho v kjCj vOM lb jpkdz h#v J kn lb J[ubv v kuu nl!
Dcjkl mcpJo J kcvm h# J{ Mku vn; hjbl DL& l Jj JjJbl J jpkdz h{j vJnl Dm c$ vn. 1950 vblj cnCp mnJ oMkl DlM pnj DM kcvmJjO cnc oMl jyJu iu- kcvm ml C Ok Dpyl vmlv. Dcjkv pvlu Yb[JuMn Jj cv Dn. lb cl mJlb$ mbkuhv Yb[JuMn JJmLl Hu Mkl. mJlb$ j#C kjCm Yu c u<kj b$C, nj b$C J hum Kl GY kjJ uil. n Dbl|JjO lbv llk ibYj Jl vn. JnSlvc Dm J DHiCmlv, kj Dm J Fjk, l ojJj oMbl Dcjkv mjkjv nml#h kju ynmbKb JjO vml. mJl: mJlb$ k#v phCN Dcjkvbv Flj oMblu mJlb$YJvyu llk Doj vml. lcU pilu Dvk nkcMnbv Dcjkv mjkj yvokwkl hEy oT Mkl. Dcjkv mjkju lb c[cOv JjO nl n Kj. (j[& vkwmv bv DO#ho jpvc J uiu nl.) hC n c[ Dhu v:h#hlhC Jmv mjkj cOcn km yv Mkl n DHiCmlv J FjkJju DcC箳 JUm piv hnu Dn.
D@ync Eukv bv cnu nl, `Dcjk n pilu lcc pvl SkcJ DMmLv Dn.` n pi DMmLv 1929 D|Lk cbol, 1969 DmLjll DC 1989 MDj ypj箳 GuLhuLl mJ&$k vjM kW Pu nl. hjbl lk vjMlv Dcjk GHUv ynj Du. JM< cnCp mJ&Ok ivnij, DH J<cl, Dmj#ll, DmLjl Dmvn pilu mJ& oMblu ijybhmv cblbhl ynlkbv oM, Dcjkv pJvMuǮ Ju#C Dk<&C Jl Du Dn.
`o Dcjkv [^c` n Lu ukb mJ&l pJnU J<. l mJhv Dpv mO Puu vmu, lj omN kCln oMu Dm mJhv vn, J lM mbkuhv ul vn, n JmlmLl Dn, n Kj. kCn W [^c J Yjldz mJhv DM mb%bcO yul vn. Flj oMblu ukbv Dhu vMy k{u mbO oCj DcjkmjK omj oM vn.
L Yjllu m@HwJDj FbpvDm&, pc&v Mm$%, phv Gihl, W kukj, Fuv vkkj, jMv y@u [vmm&,k=<CJCa [-h, yM uKk mJ&pC ll. lm ll k@jyv @kwm [^Jnm&, mmudzv cH, ckwmkv kcij, ipjl okvoj, Djy vJ&ml, p yBkm&. kCn v< vn.knpC jlmj Jnm ITv J vijk nTv ll, lj kn ykoMjhC. oj h-ml J<v `ykoMj` jnJMbv koMj vijk ku pl. Dcjk n pilu DMJo, kU, Phuu, p, mJhvU vJ&mlb oM Dn.
Dcjk lc DM Dn k, oM mJjj n JJsok u#C JJ. hjbl oMl ynmbK U (DbOUoKu), Oc&Jo, kj vlklJo uk Dnl. `mJjj` oMlu ynmbK jpbcO iY&hlu ybo Dn! hjbl DMuu (yYlmm) mnlu J=h$mJlb$箳 vJKu c JJ Dn. Dcjkv j^OJp yvv J Db[jJDjn yvJCN oMl l OJp Dljk mlcn Dn. uK uk Dhu IjbJj, cjRJj, okvbJj j^OJp H[kJv Dhu j^c pnj kjl Dmll.
j^Jo Dljk ppkj kjCN oMl lb mbmLhk vlb, mLhl h{Nb Ls Eiu G[Ju pl Dml. DlM U J Oc&U uk Dmvn Lu ovbov jpkdz JJnj hC&hC mkwuj Dn. DlM JJo cvu pCN oMl mcpk kc (kcv Jk&) kjCN mbmL J J b[ cCJj Dnl. ivnij b[ cCJj Dmuu oMlu ynlk uk DlM cCk, YU J hhYǪ Dmll, nn ynlkb u#l l vn.
oMl p@v kv[, lb YT j@y& kv[, c|v uLj Eki b j nl Pu. MUcOu cun Dvko hmlu-ybok uJll. `ivjEvi`yu kc El J ku pl Dml, hC ybok-hmlu JkC-Jkl IC箳 `mJlb$`Jj ybo DCC O[m kCln h# oKJl vn.
Dcjk cvmkl oYbiuu Dn. 箳 ypv- 箳 JjOl, iY&hl箳 ypv- iY&hl箳 JjOl, kbymbmL ijJ kjlv kby箳 `plv` c nC箳 lvl, mK MO Il Dmlv j J<cl Dhjn&l mJkjCl, mJl: mJlb$ phlv yvokwklhC Fljb mJlb$ mbk kjCl, DM Dbl|JjOl Dcjkv mJhv Hul iu.
`o Fk@v@cm` mhlnkv Dcjk Iluu n MO GodyOk Dn, llk k[l kCj Dn. hjbl l MO IC n Sk yk mnm Dn. `o Fk@v@cm` mhlnkv l mnm lb hjbhju mpM Jmbi J=v ku Dn!