MvJj ,14 HyJj 2004

 
Hjmkl& Mbll
uivb cub ...
Ʈbl Hukb
!
pL pl lL...
~~ Jvn l lJJ j...~~
Kml
  p[ pcJlv...
HHv,Hwuu J c
mvj cMblv mv
pJ vmi&箳 iJ...
 
 

 

 

kJU mcpk DC jpkdz #$bl vn, lj J%v-lb$%v箳 #$ln piYj m$-h< J<cl l l, n Dvk DYm hnCblv D{Uv Dub Dn. Dcjk-Fbiub[mjK il DC hjic oMbl pj n mLl D{Ul Dmu lj Yjllu hjmLlyu kn yuCǮ m Gjl vn.
m$-c, m$-mJlb$ DC m$-h< mcvl byyl mO Dhu oMl jpkdz hlUJj iWOU u Dn. cnubv ukv lvOi=nl lvOlJ cUJb m Dj#C DmJb- Dm ko kjCb n kU ijp Dn, Dmb cnCl mJ& jpkdz h# Dj#Cm GI[ EkJ sh JjO kjl Dnl. p h#vb oMu hnu cnu hblOv ou DC p h#箳 vl=lJ Oj Dp Sk m$Ǯ nl Dn, l h#ln yyl clYo Dnl Dmb omlb. m$bv kc uKC n J= kJU jpkjCl D{Ul Dmb vn, lj l Fljn #$bl D{Ul. p J%v-lb$%vvb cvJu Dp箳 ilǮ MKjJj DCv Jub, l #$n yyll cib vn. `m$bv iCl pcl vn`- FLhmv Dvk ijmcp #$l hmjJCl Du Dnl. hC n DpǮ i vn. L[b YlkUl iub lj DM Dvk GonjCb Dhuu hnJm cUlu. llu kn m GonjCbhmv mJl k .
mj Juc nMxu (1738-1822) DC lb mh$ mj p@v nMxu (1792 l 1871) n vJb Mm$% cnCv Dhumcj ll. n hl-h$ KiuMm$% cnCv ipu. lb mbMOv GuuK hoL&J%v, Kiu DC iCl J<b Dvk bLblv D{Ul. hC Juc箳 ynCǮb- k@juvb- vJ c$ DYJvb D{Ulb. DOvk KiuMm$u hYl jCN Mm$%bl k@juv nMxu (1750- 1848) bb vJ DYi Dmu nJb. l hnu m$-KiuMm$% nl, Dmb cnub lj JJib jCj vn. lbv DkMvj#C kv lyu iClb ku. Hwu@cm[vb lj kuu DJkM箳 vkMl oml kv lbv vJ ljkoM&k vkM lj ku. Mn KiuMm$% mnƳk cnCv J<&u 50 hQ[ lvKn lbv oCl l Dm. l kUl n Hj c jkwkc nl. 1828 cO j@u D@m^@v@cku mmv lbv cvo momlJ oub. l kUl j@u mmbcO m$bv mLv vm. Du[ j@u mmvb lbv HuMh ou, lj M箳 jpvb lb J%vk k& mJC&hok oTv ijJ ku nl. Dmb Dmvn 1991 cO Dcjkl m Puu `o Ju[& ^Pj` mboY&bLl k@juv nMxu bb vJ D{Ul vn. n kJU k@juv箳 yyll I[ub Dmb vn. Dvk m$-Mm$%bk[b J%vlnmb Dmb ou&# Puub D{Ulb.
k@juv nMxuvbljb ipuub GonjC cnCp cj kwjǮb. 1903 cO W D@k@[c D@H mvmmvb vyu hjl<kb oCN mclk[- kjClmp&v DC kjClmia hoL祮 mbMOvyu hSj kwj DC nvj ykju bv vyu hjl<k cUJb cnCv MHjm ku. n MHjm kjCN Mm$%bv `j[D D@kwJn` n Myo cj kwjvb lj ku, kuhv nl. lvb `j[c` n cuJ MOv k{ub n lbv cnl nl. hC Sk m$Ǯb vJ vyu hjl<km hJb, n kuhv lbv mnv nl vJnl. cjǮb vJ JiUub Sk lmN Mm$%vb nUӮ hSj kvJj Ilub. lJn hSjvb v<O vWoJu. l箳 kCKj YckcUb cjǮbn vJ vblj MHjmcO oKu Pub.
Dp m$-cǮ pcvl J%v #$lu m$ kc kl&yij Dmll Dmb kCǮ cnCCj vn, n Kjb; hC Dcjklu hjmLl yIlu lj Dpvn m$-h<b kl&yijl Hjk Dml vn, n ml J%vk #$vb hJuub oml vn. 1983 cO J<Ǯ Sk C ICl Du nl. vcJbl iClRv kn MOvybO unu nl. llu vcc MOvybObJj p@v . c@k, lj Gjuu MOvybObJj pDv . c@k Dmb uKkb vJ kCl Dub nlb. n MOvybO iCl #$lu m$-h< DM ovn lp%bk[ hJCl Du. 16 m$ J h< lp%bv p@v MOvybO pml cCl mJkju, lj pDv kc cCl mJkju. DM Sk il JKl箳 hom hJuu kuhvk JR Dp&hk h<bv pml cCl cuKlR yuJC Du nl. Dm DCKn Sk DYm kjCl Du. l m$b ypӮ ju, n JM<. `J<&Yjl J%v vlkukbcOv m nCj MOvybO` n DYm J< nl. ll h< pml cCl vlkukbk[ MOvybO hJll, Dmb omv Dub. kMl nCN MOvybObcO h<b MOvybOb mbKn pml nl. c$, DL& h< pml MO uJll, Dm c$ nl vn. b kjC p MOvybOb mboY& cnCv Jhj nl, l G lǮ jll. yyǮ Jj ku lj cnub MOvybO Flj yN mbMOkbv mboY&oKu Jhjub omv Dub. lcvvb h<b mbMOv llkM oKu Ilu iuu vJnl. omj Sk DL& cnCp `mJ, vnlj vnm Jn` (hyuM D@j hjM) DM p pJIC mhO& Jhdz mbMOv #$l Dn, l m$bv Hjm Omk Iluu vn. DCK Sk DL& Dm k, lb mbMOv G op& kJCyyl m$ Dn Dmuvb lb vJJj MOvybOb mbK J{l vn. lcUb l GhoJj Ph hn Mkl vnl.
J%vk[b yIC m$b kv n h<bh# YV Dml, Dmb cnub plb. D@ublu `p@|p Fvm D@H kwv@u@p` cj Bk H@kwm bv DM kj SkJ cnlJj Jm v Jl, Kjb cnCCl kn lL Dn k, n hnb jJub. lbv JiJiU MKblu 3300 JLa-J|LvRv Mv Jju. lu kn Jmlv nl, kn Jmh# nl. lJn m$ DC h<b Jj kjC箳 hlcO DC JiCln cuYl Hjk Dml, Dmb lb u#l Dub. Dhu ci&oM&k Ohku k@j[@jcO D[Jv SK Mv & cu kOǮ kjl vnl, lj cubv ll knǮ JJib Jl vn. cu Mbkvjmv kv Ib Dmu lj DO ci&oM&kb hjJvi ITv lbv ju JU lb Kul Yll. ci&oM&k- ci l m$ Dm k h<- lbM vncǮ cu Dojvb yull. lj cub `Dlhjl DJ%` k Mkll DC yNo ci&oM&kM l c$lJ箳 vlvb Jilv D{Ull. Dhu mbMOvl Fljbv pmll pml mnk& kjJb, Dmb cuRv Jlb. l#l c$ l mnk& Dh# yuv v oKJl Sk ci&cC kjll. n Dmb k I[l DmJb?
hpxp Lu vӳ@k& jp Jhlu nvj SP&kJP DC l箳 mnObv Mvb Gj MO lv ku. lbv hoJj M#Cm Duu DC mbMOv kjCN Dvk J|LvR cuKl Ilu. cuRv h< JlJjCl ckUhCvb DC DvhjkhC mnkNbM & kjl l vn. ov h< mnO yDj hl hl EkJ vm KU箳 vcvb Yv mnp cnCv lb Dvk Mvb & kjll. ll DYmJ<Ǯ &n Dml. J|Lv c$ h< mnOyjyj DM lNnvb vc mO Mkl vnl. cUb l JYilu mhl clJn, kub Dvov cUJCm k kju nJb, JYicK ku iRv vjp nC Mkwl Dn, kC uJuJ kjlb, DM JYilu yjkJ mh kjCj cnl J|LvRhl hnl vn. L[kwl- JYilu `i@mh`hmv l oj Dmll, Dmb [@. SP&kJPv 1990 mcjm D{Uub. h J<v 1995 cO SP&kJPv hvn mJx#C kub lJn hjmLll yj you Pub lbv D{Uub. ojcv箳 kUl ynlk JYibl M#kblu m$b mbKl DC J|LvR mbKl Yjhj J{ Pu nl. cU J%v JYilu JlJjCln you I[v Dub [@. SP&kJP bv D{Uv Dub.
mJ& IvbcU J%v #$lu m$byyl I[v Cj Dv nUnU kc nlu Dmb Jl Dmlv `vj` pim J%vk vlkukvb `Sm mvm M@kd[ y jJnuMvm D@H mkwMDu [mcvMv` cLUKu vJ cnl Gp[l DCuǮ, hC jhcOn hjmLl JiU vmub Sk mJ[M mbMOv箳 v<k<&lv GI[ Pub. Fbiub[cO #$lu m$bJj Dv nT vl cnCv J%v JYibm Km ko kjCl Du. ScD (c@m@mdm Fvm D@H kwv@u@p) pioddJKl mbmLvb lb J%v MKlu Jj J%vk m$b k&l lbv GhuyO nCN mmJOb hnC kjb jJub. h J<x hnC kv mbybOR DnJu 1999 cO pnj kjCl Du. DnJuvmj, ScDl JKlbhmv Ohkb vcCkbhl m$bv mhlvYJvb JiJCl lb. lbv y{l, y#mb, pyyojǮ kcb, mclbJj vcCk, iMUb GhuyOl, iMU Jhl Do mJul olv oᳳc mLv oub plb. SJ{b vJn lj 1980 vblj mbKvb m$ pml omu lj mbmL J%v MKblu m$-h<b cCl Dpyl Hjk h[uu vn.
n DnJu m nl k@udk, mSuS DC Flj yN Jhbv DM mclb mLhv kv Dhhu Jhl m$-M#k DC mbMOk bv cUCN JiCk DC mmJOb kM m ku Dn. hvmuJv Jhl Jkdz JYilu m#cpJMm$% nuv [Jnm bv lb Jhvb Dmb mJx#C 1970 mu ku DJC Pu; cnCv lbv Jhl hvn Sk C mJx#C kub lJn- 1970 vblj kCl Hjk h[uu vn DC hvmuJv jp Jh hjmLl DC ScDlu m$b hjmLl Dn lMǮ Dn, Dmb lbv D{Uv Dub. Nn[ Dub[ Jhlu hjmLl lj nv JF& Dn. lLb DYb$k MKl Mkwl m$bv vcCk ouǮ pl vn. v Fbiub[ pv&u D@H c[mv箳 DnJuvmj, Jkdz #$l m$bv y{l Hj cboilvb cUl, lj h< Phvb h{b pll. Dcjkv Hpku mmǮ p[ bP b cl, DYb$k DC hoL&J%v J<bl h<bb vk Flkb J&mJ Dn. lcvvb pJMm$箳 MKbl m$bv L[ DOk JJ cUl. ScDu DnJu oCN mclǮ cK v@vm n@hkvm lmb kuk D@vu mpb b cl, DM mJx#Cl yN cnu ihllb Jv oTvn ckUhCvb yuu lj vmll.
Dcjkl pmb n mJx#C ipub lmb jhl 1997 mu m Puu jhlu m$-Mm$%bJ<Ǯ mbKMm$dz DYmn ipu nl. lln m$bv vkN DC y{l oCyyl jhdz J%vk mbmL DC Jhb cvYck Dpvn DkjJ Mlklu Dn, Dmb cnub nlb. DM lNn DYm Yjll Pu lj k M omu, n mbiu pl< ijp Dn Dmb Jl vn.
vjbpv I