jJJj ,23 c 2004

 
MnC pvl,D[C vl
mbiCk DC Dji
YJvbk km cpJ ?
mLulv m#clk[
ov Hu-Sk nH
JCpi kn
JoM pvc :
vijklJ Mv
cblo
YCYC Ybi
ƮJǮ ljF&
cȳlu v oj

Jkj Hm

 

 

 

mLulv m#clk[

`iu Dvk J<x kjl Dmuu cP kc c hm, m DC cvmvcv hl kjCm kuu vn. l cP Sk Dbljk Tca nl. Flj cCmbh# l cP cvl pj pml GmU cjl nl. mij箳 ubv l箳 kvNu YpJv kJ lM. Dvbl D%l MO Ilv p p cP nl uiu, l l mJ& c kioh$ vco kv Ju Dn. GM Sk Dn- kn p%m mbMOkbv l Ho JnJ.`
12 pv 1716 jp unuu Sk h$cO DBv Jn@v uJnvn@kv n cpkj unv Ju nl. DBv nl lm Flj Mm$%bh# JiU. n@ub[ Sk s Jhj kbyl 24 D@kwyj 1632 cO pvcuu DBv. hj[-kb[ lj kjC J[ub JJm. MUl M#C yl. Sk kh[ okvl kkyjyj GcoJjǮ J<x IuJuvblj DBvv h{ Dvk JJm youu. mJl: kh[ Gi kv hnu. ck& lhmvm, ck& hj#k DC h{ Dio Mmkdz vkjn. M#C Dhj, hM hyU vn, Kvov mc= vn, [ Y<huk[ omN Y< ibO vn, G M#C cnjh vn k JJh箳 hoJb cpm vn. pcm nl l H Ʈk, Skl, km J= DC DlcJm Moj. DC Yb[JuJj DBv uJvn@kv pJMm$cOu cuYl DC Dcu DM GhuyOR KC MOv k{u. m#coM&k b$箳 v|cl DC Jkm uYuu pJMm$%v pJbl hM, mpJ DC vpaJb Dbljbi, jhM, Mpbl, pum pJ-pbl DC Flj Dvk iR pJMm$u hnu DUK kv ou. lv MOuu GhuyORJj hb cUJC箳 ci l uiu vn, lj l lv cnmlv Mm$%bm GOUv ou. pJMm$ m#chl piu DUK kv oCj n cnv Mm$% KN DL&v m#coM&k (microscope) hlcn ju.
Dio Dvo kUhmv cvJu m#cl Ju#C Dk<&C nl. mO [Uu v omCN iR lu YjU h[uu nl. 1200 kuKb[箳 Dmhm FucOu Hwujvm L Lc <c lj nT uiu nl. 1500 Dmhm [ <c-kjij JiJiU kj EYibJj i k hnl nl. 1608 cO n@vm uhhjM v oj i c kv oKJCj Sk vUkb[ lj ku DC L[ cnvbvblj i@uuDv l o|yC yvJu. Dl lu G[CN cM kkjbSJ{ oml nl. l kmU h, koj vK DC l p kbJj ull l kb s mh om uiu nl. 1625 mcjm umkh vJ YJb[ Gom Du- p箳cU m#c i om Mkl nl. l vckjC Pu- `cmkh.` cnCp Flnm ciJ <brIluJj Sk i mh nl, k cmkh MO n DBv uJvn@k DOǮ uiu nl. hC vUkb[ vck Ghi k? Mv Gku c$ Puu vJnl. n@ub[cOu P@k@jm p@vmv DC l hl n@vm bv 1595 Dmhm hnu cmkh lj ku nl. Sk mjUm vUkb[ DC l箳 ku EYi pv- Flk mO l mJh nl. cU i lv l vTh c oml. lvblj k&jl Puu j@y& nkv ll kn mOjC I[Jv DCu. nk n n[ mbMOk nl. MO l#l GljChJa lb jKƮ$ hC&hC kuhvl GljJCN DJu Fbp iCl- jmv DC hoL&J%vMm$%v m#coM&kl mOjC lj ku, hC lyjyj JH Fbpv mbkuhvn cb[u DC yvlj mboMb$C DjK[n jKu. 1665 mu lv `cH` vJ hmlk unu DC ll hM DL&v `cell' n Myo hnubo Jhju iu. Sk Dk J=#箳 K[箳 so vj#C kjlv lu hMǮ Lc oM&v Pu nl. l iCl DYmn i{ nl. n-lNb o#Cb Dk Dbopn lv Jl&Ju. DP@k vv箳 ilJk<&C箳 mvl h j@y& nk mbMOvl nl. KiuMm$, iCl, pJMm$ DM Dvk MK-GhMK Dhu k&v mc= kjCN j@y& nk Dpclm Skn luƮ$m DmllJl vn. l vJn kC箳 KpiCll vn. DC u kn DbM mj DP@k vv pyyoj Dn, n Ju#C Ko i Dn. j@y& nkv Jhjuu m#coM&k M i lmh c kv oKJChl J{u nl. hC lv kuu vj#Cb youl l箳 Ju Du nl H Gh# DC DJnuv.
1668 Dmhm j@y& nk `cH` DBv uJvn@k nl h[u DC lu Dhu k& vck oM mh[u. EYibv JiJiU DbM-kvblv Imv lbv i l Jhkl oC kmy DBvv nmlil ku DC ci lv lj kuu m#coM&k b$ 200 l 300 hRv i c kv oKJ uiu. uJvn@kv Dhu kjkoal mcj 500 m#coM&k lj ku. lhk mcj on Dpclm DmllJl Dnl. nl uiu l lk m#c Jml l b$Ku Jv vnUC l vJ sbo cvJplm Ghkjk ju. l mJl: jKv Hjm jKJ vJnl. cnCv lv Sk Ʈ$kj Dhu hoj vcCk ku. lk vj#C Dk JC&v ku. cOcMb [bK cjCN Yib Dk JC&v lv Sk h$l ku DC 1673 mu vJv mLhv Puu j@u mm D@H ub[vu Dhu vJ MO cnl kUJu. h{ hVm J<x lv n h$JJnj u Ju. puM箳 hCl D{UCN DU, cMb Db[pd DJmL, Flk k lj mJl: olbcO J{uu kC DJjC, lW[cO D{UCj pbl mJ& iR Dk Mm$dz JC&v uJvn@kv j@u mmu kUJu. jhMR JC&v Pu. Cb Mpblb Ʈ$n mh Pu. hC l箳 k&u mvcv hJl cUu 1680 mu Gp[u uiu. mu j@u mm D@H ub[v cvo momlJ [ Mm$%u ynu kjCl Du. mmǮ Skn mYu GhmLl uJC箳 Hbol v h[l uJvn@kv Dhu kc h{ u Ju. 30 D@im 1723 jp uJvn@k c=l Pu. vJv|cl, vj#CM DC vYxU kv $m$R mbic Dmuu DBv uJvn@k KN DL&v m#cpJMm$ pvk yvu. hjbl hM n pJ-MJ cU Ik Dn, n ml KN DL&v mLhl Jnu pJUpJU ov Mlkb kU pJ uiu. 1839 cO MD[j @v DC cMjm Mu[vv ukkL&v `hMR mbl` cb[u.
Sk mO vUkb[v h{ Dvk mLlblj hnu. Sk [Uv hn pi Dl ovn [Ubv Ilu. mbi j vU DC EYib pvcU ov JRv vj#C kjC, JLv M#C oC Mkw Pu. 1873 mu cmkh Hjl ylNJj Jjpcv Pu, lj 1878 muhmv m[j D@F&u FcM&v uvm Jhj nT uiu. 1880 l 90 oMkl uF& hj DC j@y& k@k bv b$ Jhj kv pJ-pblMm$l D#jM: bl I[Ju. 1931 mcjm Fukw^v cmkh v|cl Pu DC n cpu ojcpu Dio 1986 mu D@ck Hm& cmkh箳 v|clhl J Dpn h{ u Dn.
DBv uJvn@k k&u Dp pJUhm lvM J<x nl Dnl. lv lkU yvJuu cmkh Kj mv DC bo Jhv kuu nl. Dp l Dmlbil Pu Dnl. ci Gju Dn l mvmjK mUmUl Mm$dz iuYl DC bomjK ccCj cCkhC. m#cpJMm$箳 pvku Cc.