jJJj ,23 c 2004
MnC pvl,D[C vl
mbiCk DC Dji
YJvbk km cpJ ?
mLulv m#clk[
ov Hu-Sk nH
JCpi kn
JoM pvc :
vijklJ Mv
cblo
YCYC Ybi
ƮJǮ ljF&
cȳlu v oj

Jkj Hm

 

 

 

JoM pvc :
vijklJ Mv

mv ibO b JoM pvccU lbv Yjllu jpkdz vJ[Ck u{Jl Cj vn, Dm D#h 1999 mu lbv Dclv ukmY vJ[Ck pbkuvblj ICl Du nl. lJU lbJ GY Dmuu lmhOa njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu bv lb vJ[u vul DJnv ou nl. lm Yjldz vijklJmbybOǮ klu ljloR km lbv Ʈkbj k{u nl. hjbl l D#hb hL& DJMk l hjJ DC koMj lL l vumcj J Mku vJnl. lcU G vuhmv l mJx vuhl lbv kuu Dhu HUCl Du. SJ{ nTvn Yphv vkl Puu vJ[Ckl DC lDOn mv ibO bJj JoM pvc箳 cJv pnj mYblv DMuI k ku. vJ[Ck vkuvblj l hblOv nCj, n mh nl oMYj Djpk cpJC lb [J nl. MDjypjlu DL&k nnkjn lbv I[Jv DCu. c$, mv ibO bv DhC hblOvho mJkjCj vmu mbiv lb JoM cU箳 clu nJ k{v Ilu DC Yphu lW[ oKJu pi Ju vn.
Kj lj mv ibO b Yjldz vijklJmbybO Ilu iuu D#h mJx vuv kOǮ vkul k{u Dnl. vuv u{F& Jml=l hjc<& ICj `Yjldz vijklJ` n hmlk
. o. H[k bv unu Dmv, D#j kMvv l m ku Dn. llu mv ibO bmbybOǮ kjClu mbhol Yi-

njMbkj pv J mv ibO Kulu Dhu vC& 12 mhWyj 2001 jp mJx vu cK vOM S. Sm. Dvbo, v. Dj. m. un DC v. ojmJc jp bv Skclv ou DC kBm h#箳 DO# cl ibO pvcv Fuv Dmu lj jpJ ibO Yjldz vijkM JJn Puvblj 1955 Yjldz vijklJyu箳 klu JYi 5(1) (m) vmj lb vijk cnCv vWoC Pu Dmu箳 cCh$ m J vC&k hjJ mJx vuv cv ku. Dhu kjCj njMbkj pv b Ʈkln 30 Su 1983 jp GjJo (jmhB[b) cl mv ibO bv Yjldz vijklJ mbhov ku Dmu JmlmLl cv kjCl Du Dn. mv ibORv Yjldz vijklJ ov kjC Dvk kjCbcU kǮ Dmu njMbkj pv b cnCC nl. l mJx vuv cvu vn. 30 Su 1983 hmv l Dplil cnCp 2004 mun mv ibOR vijklJ cCh$ Skon j kjCl Duu vn EkJ lb vijklJ mchln (|cv) Pu pnj Puu vn.
mv ibORJ vJ[Ck Ʈk : 7 D@kwyj 1999 jp Dc clojmbIl cl mv ibO Jp Pu clcpCvblj I<l kjCl Du. lb vJ[Cku DJnv oCN ov Ʈk lb lmhOa, hC hjYl GcoJj njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu bv Dunyo G vul moj ku. DccOv 27 GcoJjbv 13 J ukmY vJ[Ck u{Ju nl. Dclu Sk cloj cuu hu bv mv ibOR vJ[u njkl ICj Ʈk oKu ku nl. lvn Ʈkblu D#hb Kb[v kjCj uK vJov moj v kjl mv ibORJlv Sk l%uKmn (D@H[Jn) vcvmj Dp& kjCl Du. lb DM KuucC nl : 1) lIn Ʈkklv G vuv p mvJC kjJ Dm Skn Mv GhmLl ku vJnl. 2) Ʈkkl祮 JobcO vckhC vJnl, lj mboiOl nl. l Dmll nl. SJ{ vJn lj kn DbM DhJokj (mkB[umd) nl. hjCcl: lcU vuv Ƭ ohi ku pCj nl. lvn Ʈkklv D#hbv uK Gj ou. Dunyo G vuv v kuu Skmomdz vhv Ʈkkl祮 Djh J Jo mboiO, Dmll, DhJo Dmu mh cl J kv Ʈk HUu. lIbhk cuu hu bv G vu箳 vC&J Dhu ku vn. c, njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu bv mJx vul Dhu ku.
Ʈkkl祮 D#h : jpJ ibO bM 25 HyJj 1968 jp JJn PuJj DBv cv (uivvblj vJ mv ibO) Fuv Jlv 15 J<v 1955 Yjldz vijklJmbybOǮ k箳 5 (1) (m) JYivJ jlmj Dp& J vWoC kv Ilu. mv ibORv Yjldz vijklJ mbhov ku Dmu cCh$ 30 Su 1983 jp cUJu. n JmlmLl Ʈkklv cv ku. c$, cCh$箳 JOlyu Jo vc&C kjCl Du nl. mv ibO Fuv vijk Dmv Yjldz vijk cnCv vWoC ku pChJa p DJMk yyR hl&l kjC DJMk Dml, l lbv mcOvkjkjl hN kuu vnl, Dm Ʈkkl祮 cnCC nl. lcU l Yjldz vijk nT Mkl vnl, Dm Ʈkklv D#h Ilu nl. njMbkj pv b cl, vijklJ箳 klu cCh$yu 5 (1) (m) n ljlo DOkjly (Du^ Jnm&) nl.
Dunyo G vu vC& : vJ[CkJ<k Ʈk vC& olv GcoJj箳 vijklJu ouu DJnvyyl G vum DYvC& (D@[p[kMv) ol l vn, Dm Dunyo G vu箳 Skmomdz hv cl J ku. GjJo mv ibO b vJ clojocO vWoJC kǮ Dmu Ʈkkl& cnCC nl. n Mv vJ[Ck Dimcj GhmLl kjl Du Dml. lm v kjl Jp GcoJju DJnv oCm G vuu moj kjCl Duu Ʈkl n Mv GhmLl kjC DvJMk nl. mv ibORv 1955 klu 5 (1) (m) JYivJ oCl Duu cCh$ Dblc Dmv l ybOvkjk Dn. phl kW mjkj l j kjl vn, lhl vJ[CkJ<k Ʈkl lyu Mv GhmLl kjl Cj vn. 1951 uklvOlJmbybOǮ kv vJ[Ck Ʈk mvJCm c&ol DOkjl#$ (pjmd[kwMv) ov ku Dn. lcU kCln ko l DOkj#$l l k vn, n Mv kCun GhmLl kjl Cj vn. ljn Dm Mv GhmLl ku iu lj Skmomdz hu l Tnhn kjl Cj vn. lvn ƮkbcO Ku mvJC kjCm i Dm Skn Mv GhmLl kjCl Du vJnl. lcU 1951 uklvOlJmbybOǮ klu 86 J JYivJ Ʈk kCmjK vJnl. GjJo mv ibORv Iluu jbYk D#h (ucvj D@ypkwMvm) G vuv cv ku DC lvn Ʈk LcjbYǮ (Fv ucv) HUu.
mJx vulu Dhu : mJx vulu Dhub mvJCǮ JU njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu oI Dhuklv Dhu yp JkucH&l v cb[l mJl: cb[u. mv ibOR Jkuh$ cuv y@vpa p Jkuv Ilu nl DC ijJ y@vpa lb vulu colvm nl. Dhu箳 vC&m Kuu j Mv GhmLl kjCl Du nl. 1) G vuv vJ[Ck Ʈkb vku oCm v kuu vOMm kCln k箳 JOlyyl kjCl Duu lj oKu kv ITv l箳yu vC& ol l k? 2) G vuv oKu kv Iluu vJ[Ck Ʈkl Jp GcoJj Yjldz vijk vmuyu lj kjl l k? 3) Jp GcoJjk[ vijklJ箳 klu 5 (1) (m) JYivmj oCl Duu cCh$ Dmu lj vJ[Ck Ʈk mvJC kjCN G vumcj l箳 vijklJyyl Mv lj Dp&j GhmLl kjl l k? 4) Dhu kjCN oI Ʈkklv pyyl Ku h{ uJJ Dm Mv GhmLl ku Dnl k? GjJov yyl uK vJov J, Dm lu DoM oCFlk l cnJ Dnl k?
mJx vu vkuh$ : 12 mhWyj 2001 jp mJx vuv Skclv ouu vC& 31 hv vkuh$ v. Dj. m. un bv pnj ku. hnu Mv Gj olv vcl\v mbJOvlu 329 cbk kuc GodO=l ku DC vJ[CkJ<k kjCbcO vuv nml#hJj Ivv Iluu c&o vco ku. clojmbIb hjmcvmbybOǮ ([ucMv) kCln k箳 lm Ivlu 327 EkJ 328 cbk箳 kucvJ hjmcl clojmbIbcO kjCl Duu piJh箳 JOlyyl vul Mv GhmLl kjl l vn. vJ[CkJ<k Ʈkb vC& oCm JOvcb[Uv kuu kl OkjC (D@L@j) v kjC ljlo kuu Dml. mbmo EkJ jp JOvcb[U箳 kCln movlu mom箳 vJ[Ckm njkl ITv G vul Ʈk oKu kjl l. mcvl: G vulu Sk vclamcj Ʈk mvJC JnJ, DM 1951 uklvOlJmbybOǮ kl ljlo ku Dn. Kuu kjCmlJ vJ[Ck j kjl l, Dm JYi cbk 100 hnu GhJYil vco kjCl Du Dn. 1) vJ[Ckvblj clcpC nTv GcoJj Jp Pu pnj nl l oJMn l GcoJjk[ kcv Dn&l vmu m Pu lj l vJ[ j nl. 2) Jp GcoJjv, l箳 Spbv EkJ GcoJj箳 mbclv lmN kC Fmcv Yj ku m Pum vJ[ j nl. 3) DvƮl hlv GcoJj vcbkvh$ vJ&v DOkNv HUu Dmum EkJ Di hlv l mJkju Dmum Jp GcoJj箳 vJ[m Ʈkj DJnv ol l. 28 cbk箳 JYivJ Ku mvJC hC& PuJj G vuu Sk lj Ʈk HUl l EkJ Jp GcoJj vJ[ ykoMj jJv l箳SJp hjYl vklc lmhOa Jp Pu pnj kjl l. vJ[Ckl Yj Pu Myl Pum 99 cbk箳 JYivJ G vum Dv DoM pj kjl ll. . Sv. oU J DbO oM G vu 1997 Ku箳 vkuh$vmj, vJ[Ck Ʈk mvJC kjlv G vu n kJU OkjC (D@L@j) vml. jcOv J YbJjuu 1981 Ku vku olv vJ[Ck Ʈkb vC&yyl G vuu Ivv JM< DOkjl#$ ov ku vmv, l H G vu箳 mcv DOkjl#$ Jhl cnCl l, Dm cl jpmLv G vuv J ku nl. mJx vuvn n cl cvv mJkju. vJ[Ck Ʈk vC& olv kCln k JOl lhmC G vu DOkjl#$ 1951 uklvOlJmbybOǮ kv njJv Ilu vmucU DyOl Dn. cl Fboj ibO J . jpvjC 1975 vJ[Ck Ku vC& olv mJx vuv 39 J Ivoml JOk JOl lhmv hnu nl, n Jm v. vJ[Ck Ʈk vku olv k箳 JOl Mv Tnhn kjl l vn, n Dunyo G vuv Iluu Yck mJx vuv mJkju vn.
YiJlmo o#l I[Ju J jpJ ibO (1986) : Kulu GjJo jpJ ibO bv JoM vijkyjyj JJn kucU lbv Dhu Yjldz vijklJ icJu Dmv, vijklJmbybOǮ klu vJJ JYivJ GjJo jpJ ibOR Yjldz vijklJ mchl Pu Dn, Dm Dp&oj cnCC nl. SK Yjldz vijkv hjoM vijklJ Ilu hjJvM m Pum vJ[Ck Ʈk mvJC kjCN G vum l箳pJU vJ[Ck u{JCm DlJMk DM kcv Dn&l (kwJuHkMv) vmucU l Dh$ Dmu pnj kjl l. c$, lm GcoJj Yjldz vijklJ mchl Pu kW Mmvv uK pnj kjC pj Dml. phl kW mjkj Dm I<Ch$ vumcj moj ku pl vn, lhl GcoJj Yjldz vijk Dn, Dm i=nl Ov G vu mvJCǮ kc m Jl. mJx vuv ov kj JRcO Hjk ku Dn. 1) Yjldz vijklJ kOn mbhov v kuu J Yjldz vijk DmCj vn. 2) SK Jv Yjldz vijklJ cUJuJj mJKMv hjoM vijklJ mJkju Dmum l J Yjldz vijklJm ckl.
ovn kj Kul DO JJO G vubv lm mJx vu箳 Ivhv ouu vC& oKu mJx vuv vkuh$l vco ku Dnl. kOn Yjl vijklJ v Iluu JǮ kjC vku oJC vum ol l, Dm vC& DkyjKv DucKv J vv D@H Fb[ 1962 mu箳 Kul Ivyu箳 hC&hv ou Dn. Dm kv DbO oM jp J Dyou koj 1962 Ku箳 vkuh$l Ivhv Iluu oml. mpu JcYF& hu J ipjl jp 1993 Ku Dm vC& oCl Du Dn. Du Dnco J vJ[Ck vWoC DOkj 1965 Ku kuk G vuv ouu vku Jju clM mncl oM&JCj nl.
mJx vuv njMbkj pv J mv ibO Ku vku olv 1955 vijklJ ko Dcul Duvblj JUJU llu ljloRmbybO vuv J kuu cl u#l ITv Kuu cl v:mboiO Myol vWoJu. ``1955 vijklJ箳 5 (1) (m) JYivJ SK Jm vWoC cCh$ ou DC l JǮ vJ clojb ol mcJ ku lj l J Yjldz vijk Dn k vn, DC GcoJj cnCv vJ[Ck u{JCm l箳k[ Dn&l Dn k vn, yyl Mv vJ[Ck Ʈk mvJC kjCN G vumcj GhmLl kjl ll. c$, Ʈkkl&v kuu D#h mboiO Dm vl. lbv JmlmLlǮ Ykwkc DOv DmC DlJMk Dn.
cnJhC& lL : 1951 uklvO kvJ p cnJhC& lLbJj (cju H@kwmd) Dp&oj Yml Dml, lyyl mb#hl vJov vJ[Ck Ʈkl kjC ybOvkjk Dn. Dp&ojv kuu Djhbv h oCj cnJhC& lL vco kuu DmJl, Dm mJx vuv JUJU ouu vkuh$bl mh kjCl Du Dn.
Ʈkkl祮 vjOj kLv (DJncXmd) : njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu ovn Dp&ojbv Fulu kmbybO kn kLv ku Dnl. GjJo mv ibO bv vijklJmbybOǮ klu 5 (1) (m) JYivmj pJn vijklJm Dp& ku DC lbv vijk Dmuyu cCh$ oCl Du, lJn lbv lb Fuv vijklJ m[v ou vJnl, Dm Ʈkkl祮 cnCC nl. n Djh vjOj Dmv lbv cnJhC& lL cnCl l vn DC lyyl kM kjC kjC vn, Dm mJx vuv mh cl ou.
oIn Ʈkklv DhC vco kuu JmlmLlǮ mll h[lUv hnu Dmv, Dhuu GjJo mv ibO bJ< JM: cnl Dmu oJ ku nl. lb n oJ vuv Oju vn. mv ibO byu Dk Jil cnl Dp&ojbv Dmu vulu Mvjvbljn mJx vuu D{Uu vn. Fulu kmbybO Dp&ojbv kuu ys JOvbv kCl hmlkb EkJ cCbLb DOj Dn, Dm vuv Jju Dml, Dhuu JM: Dmuu cnl- SJ{ Sk Gj Dp&oj ol nl! mv ibO bv Yjldz vijklJ cUJ m pJn Dp& ku DC lvblj pJn lbv Yjldz vijklJmbybOǮ klu 5 (1) (m) ljlovmj cCh$ oCl Du, lJn mv ibORv FuǮ vijklJ m[uu vJnl, Dm Dp&ojbv Djh ku nl. kmun hjJ v ol Dp&ojbv kuu n Djh yvy[ Dmu mJx vuv vkuh$l cnu Dn.
Yjllu vu DC hjoMlu ko : Yjldz vub v FuǮ ko n hjoM ko DmucU l vƳk oKu (p[Mu vm) Ilu pl vn. Yjllu 1872 hjJ箳 klu 57 (1) JYivJ Yjl箳 YoMl Dcul Duu mJ& kb Lu vubv oKu IJ uil. lcO DL&l hjoMb kb mcJM nl vn. kjC l L Dcul Duu vmll. hjJ箳 klu 45 DC 84 cbk箳 JYivmj hjoMlu kyyl Mv GhmLl ku ium lp%b cl hjJ cnCv Jj kjl l. hJ&oKu oTv Yjl箳 mJx vuv vkuh$l cnu k, ``Yjllu vub v hjoM kyu lL hjJ cnCv Jjl Il l. ovn Ʈkb mvJC u Dmlv Dcn oI Dp&ojbv Jju, Fulu kmbybO LcoM&v hjJ cnCv SKo hmlk, kMl cCbL Dm knlj Dcnu lcn oKJl k? oKJul lj mk=ldoM&v k nF&v, Dcnu cl yvJCm col nF&u. Dp&lu kLvbv h oCj Dm Skn hmlkhl m Puu hjJ moj kjCm DhC DmcL& Dmu ovn Dp&ojbv KohJ&k cv ku.``
njMbkj pv bv kuu Djh : njMbkj pv bv 1999 mu Lc vJ[Ck Ʈk moj ku. lb cl, GjJo mv ibO b j^dzl Fuv Dmv, l FuǮ vijk Dnl. njMbkj pv b n kJU Dvcv Dmv, lu h oCj kmun hjJ lbv ol Duu vn. lb cnlvmj, mv ibO b pvc 9 [mWyj 1946 mu Fulu umDv K[l Pu. lb cU vJ- Dblv cv. jpJ ibO Yjldz vijkyjyj lbv 25 HyJj 1968 jp JJn ku. hC njMbkj pv b cnCCvmj, n JJn jylu jJCmjK nl. DhC Yjldz vijkyjyj JJn ku Dn, Dm kjC oTv mv ibO bv 30 Su 1983 jp Yjldz vijklJ DC lyyl DJMk l cCh$ cUJu. l cUJCDO lbv FuǮ vijklJ li kjJm nJ nl. hC lm lbv kn ku vmucU DC lb JJn cUl jylu jCmjK DmucU vijk cnCv lb vJ vWoC nC n ykoMj Dmu njMbkj pv b cnCC nl. lbv Dp&cO kuu kLvbv opj oCj kmun hjJ lbv moj ku vmucU mJx vuv lb Ʈk HUu.
Yjl vijk (mPv D@H Fb[) DC Yjldz vijk DmC (yFbi D@v Fb[v mPv) cO Hjk kjC DJMk Dn, Dm Jo njMbkj pv bv mJx vuu moj kuu Ʈkl ku nl. mvJCǮ JU lbv Dhu n c Jmljv cb[u. mbJOv箳 omN Yil vijklJmbybOǮ kuc Dnl. lhk 5 l 10 cbkb kucbcO `mPv D@H Fb[` DM Myopv kuu D{Ul. DkjJ kucvJ vijklJ mbhov kjC DC l mchl kjC mbybO ko kjC DOkj mbmou oCl Du Dn. DkjJ kuc Y< kJU `mPvMh`yu Dmv l Yjldz vijklJmbybO vn, cnCv Yjl vijk n op& kCun ynu kjC mbmou DOkj vn DC ljn mbmov Dm ko ku lj l DOkjly (Du^ Jnm&) ju. njMbkj pv b cnCCcC, Yjldz mbJOv cCmb lv Ji& kjl. 1) J 2) vijk 3) Yjl vijk. Yjl箳 vijkm p DOkj J JM<Okj Ivv ynu ku Dnl, l Yjldz vijkbv lm JRv GhuyO vnl. pvcv EkJ JbMv Yjldz Dmuu cCmm vijklJ nkwkv cUl. Ivlu 84 DC 102 cbk箳 kuccO `mPv D@H Fb[` n Myo Jhjuu Dmv kJU `Fb[v mPv` Dm cnuu vn. vJ[Ck u{JC DOkj H Yjl箳 vijkm oCl Duu Dn. Yjldz vijkm vn. njMbkj pv b cnCCvmj GjJo mv ibO Yjl箳 vijk vnl. vijklJmbybOǮ klu 5 J JYivJ kJU vJvWoC kv Yjl vijk n op& EkJ iC mbhov kjl l vn. cloj cnCv lbv vJ vWoJC EkJ GcoJj cnCv mbmo vJ[Ck u{JC ykoMj Dn, Dm njMbkj pv b cnCC nl.
lb Jo mJx vuv vWo Ilu, lj l mJkju vn. Sk lj cU Ʈkl Jmljl hjcCu Dp&ojv Lj ou vJnl. mJ& cnJhC& lLb DOjMJ DM ojic hjCc I[Jv DCCN Jo MnvM kjC Mkw vml. omj Sk D[LU nl, l cnCp vijklJ箳 klu ljloR Ivlck JOlu njMbkj pv bv DJnv ou DmucU kjCl kW mjkju Jo kjC mbO oC DJMk nl. mboiO DC Dvƽl kLvv Yjuu vJ[Ck Ʈkyyl vC& olv vijklJ箳 klu ljloR JOlmbybO Dp&ojv GhmLl kuu Mvb vC& oC i jCj vn, Dm mJx vuv vkuh$l cnu Dn.
cuv y@vp\ Jo : mv ibOR Jkuh$ vcJbl JO% cuv y@vpa bv Ilu nl. 30 Su 1983 jp mv ibORv Yjldz vijklJ oCl Du, n JmlmLl Ʈkkl&vn cv ku nl. Dunyo G vum moj kuu l%uKl (D@H[Jn) DhC Yjl箳 vijk Dmv vijklJ mbhov kjlv lm clojol vJ vWoJlv DhC ykoMj cnCl F&u Dm knn ku vmu mv ibORv cnu nl.
GjJo mv ibORv vijklJ ou iuvblj pJUpJU ov oMkb kU GuuJj Dp&ojbv Ʈk moj ku nl. lDO Dp&ojbv kOn clojol mv ibOR vJ mcJ kjCm DJnv ou vJnl. vJ[Ckl hjYl Puvblj Ʈk moj kjChJa cnJhC& lL iU kv l cb[CSJp Dp&ojbv mboiO J yvy[ Djh ku nl. jpJ ibO DC mv ibO b JJn箳 JOlyyl njMbkj pv bv kuu Jo kckJl lj nl, MJ l kUkǮ vcv nl. omj Dp&oj njk=<C uu bv c$ 1999 Ʈkl mv ibO jpJ ibOR hlv Dmv, l DoM& Yjldz cnumjK Dnl DC lb j$ Gc Dmv lb GonjC ukbmcj JCmjK Dmu cnu Dn.
njk=<C uu b 1999 mu Ʈk : njk=<C uu b cl, mv ibO FuǮ vijk Dmv lbv coM vijklJ m[u vJnl. lb v Fu hjoMM Ʈkuu Dn. 7 Su 1983 jp vijk cnCv vJvWoC JnJ, Dm Dp& kjChJa Sk J<&Yjn lb JmlJ Yjll vJnl. ljn lbv 30 Su 1983 jp Yjl vijklJ oCl Du. Dp&oj箳 cnCCvmj, mv ibO 1971 vblj Yjll jnJm Du. 1977, 1980 DC 1983 mu l Yjll jnl nl, n Dp&ojv cv ku nl. Yjllv l Ful kJn iu DC kl kU lb JmlJ Ful nl, yu JmlmLlJj DOjuu kLv Dp&ojv ƮkbcO kuu vJnl. mv ibORv Yjldz vijklJ mbhov kuJj lb YjlJju vJ< Mbk IJ Dm knn I[u vJnl. 30 Su 1983 jp lbv oCl Duu Yjldz vijklJ cCh$ lvblj kUl j Pu EkJ j ku, Dm kn I[u vJnl. L[kwl mbiJ Pum- njMbkj pv DC njk=<C uu b Ʈk Dunyo G vuv pM HUu lM l mJx vuvn Skclv HUu.