jJJj, 14 vJnWyj 2004
mJ# ubi

ojƮ$JCǮ pnjlRcOv nCj unv cub Jhj DC oM&v n Sk x J< Dn, hjbl unv cubmǮ Jhj箳 SK JmlӮ JC&vm pJn n nmj-j[k- jbil- OJl pJ Dhu Yu ll lJn @vu youC cn DhC Ul Ul. nmcKuu DC jWocu Dm Dhuu Yll DC `nmcK kj Bk cW kc, jWo iu v@h m hjMv` Dm mbiv jWoӮ Db jnmn lbv SkJu pl. @vu youJ lj Dp DC cl Puu l箳 ukǮ cU DC KU mbJo kv h[l- `l l Flv jl L~... Dij `nipd` nl l cQ Y v jl.` . Jn. ybo kv SH. Sc. uJJ, lj Sk hbpyv Dhu EӮ mcpl k{lv cnCl- `...oK v klv kw ui jn n, y i@[, v hj, v, kju plv mB; mB kjv n Glv kj u! nipdJu lj uSn l y n v~` `h@chm&`, `nipd`, `uJnpd` DM cU M<&kbv Dhu u[kwb pJv mm kjCj n Glhov Dn- `[mhpyu [hm&` (Jhv Hkv mJ# ubib.).
Ijl vJ yU Du k Dhu Dvbo iivl cJvm nl. l箳 M-MӮ mJslm MJJ ubi n D#jM: Mk[箳 Ijl MJJ uill. Sk vJpl yU oJmlv mOjCl: Jm l lm JU `M` kjl. nMy kj Pu lj mOjCl: J箳 m[lv l m[j J<hl l yUu uIJǮ i vb$C F&hl DhC mcj 4700 JU l ubi youl. FuPyL jCǮ kU Dm vJnl. ubi Sko k ybOu k mcj L oJmvblj youu pF&. mM箳 cTMj kl[Ǯ EkJ mu cM箳 kl[Ǯ Jhj kv ll cT iJl DlcO DbLv `[hj` lj ku pF&. yU M nǮ pC kn pbl-lybOk Dn, Dm mcp ul nl. lcU `[hj` hvn JhjChJa kO hCv mJs Olu pl vml lj l Ijlu DivpJU (Fire-place) L JUJu pl. yUb cT-cT kuun hCv Olu pl vml lj JUJv Kuuu uk[ Ym hJ[j cnCv lJj hmju pF&. jp jp vJ [hj n Hj c v nl DC l H jpIjClu jpkcjb vMy unuu nl. 1940 oMklu DF&-J[u Dhu vJpl MMbv mbiv `M` kjC mJ (toilet training) pvc箳 hnu cnvhmv uJu uil, J箳 hJ cnvl cu Sk Km lj kuu M̮-Kal ym ui DC J<&Kjhl l mbhC&hC M-MǮ mJ-vb$l lb$ Mkl Dm. 1950 oMkl kh[v [hj pi Ilu. I[ kuu kh[ yU箳 h-kcjYJl pCN Sk oju ukJu pF&. mljJ Mlklu `[hj`h# n kl lj mml nl. `M` nC箳 kC kh[箳 Sknv DOk I[ Juu Dml, pCkv mbhC& DuhC M<u pJ. Jj Jj DlM mO JCj n J< Sk Hj c mcm yvu nl. JM<l: DF& n pj kJU i=nC v jnl ynj kc kjl Dmu lj l D[CRcO Yj h[l Dm. omN cnl DC lodvblj kUl m$Ǯ u mu hC cu L[ mCj nl. h<b Kbu Kbo uJv Jcv DC jCi[ mbOCN jCjiCR yUbm ^k Yv `[hm&` Ju pT uiu. Fvd cvd j Fbb i nl, hC vk< c$ ojJj hmjCj nl. [hj unv, mml, I[Ǯ Dmu nJ nl. l vC, mJs JC DC Jhv PuJj v kjC mh DC mj#l DmC DJMk nl. l JM<k lj nJ nl hC l y Yi Du jnv uCj vJnl. l piJj ybOC mnp Mkw Jnu nJ nl. lm kCl `^Evi` pj Dmv uCj vJnl. Sko ybOuJj l nuun vk. l mJmln nJ DC mnp GhuyOn Jnu nJ. jp箳 JCmcv箳 ol l mcJM JnJ DC l DCCm JiU YijL lv vkl. n mj vk< hC& kjCN Dp箳 DOvk [hj pvc Pu 1946 mu.
15 D@kwyj 1917 mu Dyv kbyl cjv pvc Pu nl. kbyl mbMOv yp hjhC& puu nl. J[u cF&um DC kk p@v oIbv cUv ybokb vU lj kjCm Sk uL cMv v|cl ku nl. J箳 mlJ J<a cjv DF& Jju, lJnhmv cjv miU JU Dhu kjKv箳 M[cO Jll kjl Dm. cOck MUl Dmlv lv `oblcbpv` lj ku nl. h{ 1939 cO jPcB k@upcOv y. S. hm PuJj Jni cmk l Ghmbhok yvu. 1942 cO l pcm [vJn@vM uiv Pu DC ov cu PuJj cjv hC&hC i=nC yvu. cub `M-M` kjv l njC Pu. l kUl GhuyO Dmuu [hjcO mhbp M<k iCOc& Hj kc nl. pcv hm箳 hlNmjK l [hj Du i箮 Jn. yLccO Jhju pCj hu@mk h[o ITv l i Dkj lk[ kv lv `[hj` lj ku. hu@mk l DJjCKu lv puM<k mƮs kh[b Lj ou nl. Dl nJ KUl jnCj nl DC DulhC GjCj vJnl. OlӮ hvb Jhj lv k#v Uu. [hjv lv mch&k vJ ou. `yj`. J M<v ITv yUbv pC ljbil JCj Dm n yj. JJmƳk mljJj pJn Glhov kjJ JU Du lJn cjvv h@j@M vu@v kh[ DC hu@mk Ʈc Jhju. vӳ@k&cO okvblv l Jku pT uiu. kCln c kbhv c$ JJmƳk lJJj c cCl Glhov kju h{ l vJnl. 1951 cO cjv箳 vJ [hj hW cUu. Dl lv Sko Jhv Hkv oCpi [hjJj (Disposable diaper) Dhu u# kWl ku nl. hC M<v ICN DC ljn hrmjK kio Jhj kv [hj lj kjCm l O[h[l nl. l箳 iu h<kU DbM Mn Du. Dhu kuhv JJmƳk kbhvb iU GljJCl c$ lu M Du vn. cu c Pu nl. u vJn|mlv [vJnvv D|kkwjcO hoJ mbhov ku. l箳lu mbMOk DLk pi=l nl. v Lu Dhu Ij lv mJl: [PFv ku. 30 kh[ ukJCm Sk c nBij (Big Hangup); EmkcOv hC M<u pCj myC [M DC Flj Dvk s-c i=nhi Jml lv MOu DC l hb cUJu.
`[hj` Flnml Sk vJ hv p[u iu, l Jnkwj cum @kwj D@C[ i@cyu kbhvǮ Sk kcku FbpvDj lvbcU. cjvcC Jnkwjn DlM njnVj DC mbMOk J=Ǯ nl. l箳 vJJj lyyu 25 hb vWou iu nl hC 35 J<祮 l箳 Flnmlu mJ&l blkjk #C nl `h@chm&` [hj lv kuu v|cl. @kwj D@C[ i@cyu kbhv 35 oMu# [@uj h{ Gu{u kjCj H@&v 500 kbhvbhk Sk yvu l Jnkwj cumcU. Sk h@chm& Gi ojJ<a on oMu# [@uj SJ{ J{u. Sko . Jn.Jj cuKll Jnkwju ijJMu ilyu Jju, lJn l nmv SJ{b cnCu, `n Flk mO yy SJ{ c Jhju uv oF&u, Dm kCu DO Ju vJnl. cu H Sk biu, M<k, v iUCj [hj lj kjJ nl. pCkv M-MӮ k&clu iUhC kc nF&u. cP iMUl lj Puu hnu [hj c cP vlJj Jhju. Dcn cjv cFvdk[ vIu nl. c mjU Dc箳 mMv J@iv箳 [kJj lu Gh[ Ilu DC l [hj youu.` iMUlu Glhov Dvko C Ilu iu DC vck vJ k J Jj yj Ku Pu. `@[md`, `mupd`, `uk&md` DM kllj vJ |u iu hC MJ u[-k[ hjJCj cnCv `h@chm&` n vJ vkwk Pu. J箳 101 J J<a Jnkwj cumu oJ% Pu hC Dhu kjkoal DhC uJuu FJuM jh cnJ=# Pu hnC Yi lu uYu.
[hj n Dcjkv yUb kh[h DJYp Dbi Pu. cU, Dhu yU kUp JnCj huk cnCp [hj JhjCj huk Dm mckjC lj Pu. @kwj D@C[ i@cyuv Dhu mbMOv DC Jkm JYil [hj Jkmm Dch OvjM Dlu. `[mhpyu [hj` Sk Glhov MbYjnv DOk hb l kbhvǮ vJJj pc Pu. lv JiJiU hojb mbiv [hj lj nT uiu. ynj ypu Dlluc Dm hu@mk hh; DlcO yU箳 lJhmv DuJ M<v ICj IkhoL& DC lJu mhM& kjCj Sk mƮs cuc. vml [hj lj kv kbhv Lbyu vn lj kHlMj ci&v, L[ kUl c mbKv l v|cl kjCN b$mcǮn Jkm nT uiu. 1970 oMkl hv pi ƮkCN hfv Ilu lj h{ oMkl Ju hf DJlju kcj hf; s Ǯ Dkj [hj, DuJ M<v ICj pumjK Ik, Gc lǮ hv:hvn ƮkJl CN Ju hf, yU箳 Dkjcvvmj m^ nCj [hj, nJ KUl jnJ cnCv mƮsl pv kuu [hj DM Dvk mOjCb ccv hhjJ ku iu. unv yUb vpk lJJj `[hj j@M` l cnCv l j@M lybOk D<Ob cuc Dmuu Dmljn p[u iu. @kwj D@C[ i@cyuM mhO& kjCm 1978 mu Ekyux-kwuk& kbhvv `nipd` v|cl ku. nipd Dpclm `h@chm&` hh Jku pCj omN cbk [hj yvu Dn. [hm& okvl- mhjckx mJ&$ DJlju. mJlu n vJ Glhov mhjckxcO k J vkwk vC& nF&v. D<Ob MuHJj JJ k JCmcv箳 JYil, Dm mbYc vc&C Pu. hC [hm& J DC Jhl Flk l[Kybo nl k MJ [hm&m JiU MuH pv kjJ uiu. Dik vk<b Jj ku lj SK Glhovm kbhv mbMOv DC Jkm bJj kl hm K& kjl; ypjhl l cuu kl GJ Dml DC kl hb vWou pll $m$RJj l l Glhov MmJl jl. [hj lvn kmbJj Kj lj ju hC MJ `h@chm&` DC `nipd`v ckxEi c@vpcWcO- JljC JJmL, J-hl, pnjl, mhO& DC yB[ c@vpcW lk #$cO cu vJ oi[ ju. [hjv JiJv pJv DOk muY yvJu. DJ[iCk Oyk[ hJJ箳 kh[b mbKl u#Cdz I Pu. Jm mml Pu. kui DC p@vmv ov oiip kbhvbvn hbmd mbKl Yj Iuv 2000 muhl lb mbK 633 hl vu. 1986 mu mhj D@ym@y D@Ƭuk D@m[ ym[ h@ucj (SAP) b DblY&J kv @kwjv `Du^-h@chm&` v|cl ku. SAP Ik Dhu mJl: Jpvh# lmh DOk hC M<Cj nl. Dp SWMnv DOk oMl l nlnl Khll.
`Jhj- Hkv ` mbmk=lǮ lk Puu [hmv JlJjCl o<C nl, cJj c Jo Pu. Dvk bll k&-kN Pu. kbhvbv lp% Jkub Hp GY ku. oJ-loJ Pu. hC 70 l 80% [hj JjIUv KN DL&v h&JjCc JnJ m mbMOvJjn Yj oCl Du. [hj 1991 mu DM jlv `y-[[yu [hj` Pu. `[hj` Sk mO mǮ JmlӮ ilǮ Jm n Dm Jmcpvk Dn. Jkdz, DYb$k, jmvMm$, mbMOv, ckxEi, D@[Jn&EPi, h@kEpi, yB[ Jkmv, D|Lk, koMj, mhO&lck DM JJO #$bcO Dhu Dc m GcJCj Dm n Glhov. cjv [vJn@vv Dhu u[kw pcmm [hj v|cl ku. DF&v jbil Jl kuu n mbmkj pcmcO biu KuJj pu; kjC Dp pcm [vJn@v Dcjklu Sk vcbkl j@u@pm mp&v Dn.