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piCJj 'nl' kuc Pu DC...

DukwPb[ju pippl k JnJm Ju ? ...
Sv lmbi u vubo L k Jm Ju?...
DP@k vvu ilJk<&C i{ Gui[Jm k Ju?...
jF& ybObv Jcv yvJJm k Ju?...
kh|vkmu J DF&vmFvu Jlu i{bv k Phu nl?...
yLJvu mbilk Ʈp k jJM Ju?...
mybO piYj Sk kj DmJmLl Dn. lk kC DmJmLl kjC JiU Dn. Dcjkl Flk mc= Dmvn onMl nuub sl l oM Dn. FjkcO Djpk, DHiCmlvcO luyv DJnv, vhUcO cDJb h[uu J{, ybiu oMcO vv&k, h@umF&vcO mJlb$u{, FSucO mj#ll Y, uyv@vcO oJ, mo Djyl k-kjmLv, jMl cHb mcp, phvcO D|Lk Dj, ubkl lcU JIb JOJbmk DC JIvJo UJU, cvcjcO nkcMn DC ukMn mcL&kbcOu mbI<&, hkmlvcO u<kjMn DC culJJbcOu Oc... DM Dvk GonjC Dnl. JM< cnCp Sk ypu biUJo pJvMuǮ DC YiJo JjmjCǮ YJ J{l Dmlv piYj DmJmLl J{lv oml Dn. lm hnu lj n hjmhjJjO Ʈ$ Dn. hjbl `h@j@[@kwmku` cnCp hjmhjJjO DC DmJmL `mJnuPMvu` mLlln x Sk mj Dn l pJv箳 `nl`mbybOlu!
h@umF&v mJlb$u{ Cl mj DjHl b vOvvblj, lb pi vJ[v Duu DO# cnco Dyym bv cnu nl k, lb pJv Om Sk Dn- h@umF&v mJlb$! DjHl b lk ml l Om nl. lb pJv nlӮ l nl.
piCu Dm `nl` DmC n lm yj Duk[u, cnCp kn npj J<hJa Dn. pcC Dhuu `cv` Dn n MO cCmu kO, k J kJn uiu n mbiC DMkw Dn, lcC piCu `nl` Dmu hnp, pJvl knlj `mO` ku hnp, pi J pJv `Dckw mJh` Dmu hnp DC `lckw mJh` Dml kc v DM kj Jjn vkwk kJn, k, kO Lc pu n mbiC kC Dn.
hjbl pJvJj `nl`, `O`, G n kuc kuvblj KN DL&v Flnmu mJl Pu. lhl箳 UmM J vblj MlOv mcpu lm G vJnl, nl vJnl, k Ov jl nC hl { Puu vJnl DC `Oc&` mbkuhv Go Jn nl.
lk `nl`YJl {, hjbhj, mbIv, JjmjCR Sk pU GYjCl Du. llv i, h#, mbmL DC h{ mMm$ ou vc&C Pu. mOMu `OjC` nJ DC l `OjC`ci nl nJ. n `nl` n DoM&Jo mcL&v jJu iu DC lk k=lci `nl` k Dmu MO m Pu.
FlnmkjbcO Dvk JU p clYo nll l Flnmlu JR `nl` k nl J Dmlu yu lbl SkJkwl nl vn, lJn nll. n `nl` MOC Sk ci& omlSJp-yKjR cOclv pl DC omj lk&-cOclv. `nlb` MO cvmMm$dzn Dml.
DukwPb[ju pippl k JnJm Ju ? yj, lu %l Dmuu pi lm unv nl. kjC l kU Dn ƸmlhJ& 356 l 323 n. DukwPb[j n D@jm@u M< nl. cnCp l lJ%, J%vk, JjJbl Jijn kn nT Mku Dml. cO jhlv lv l箳 pilk m cnJkb#u Dkj u mJl ku. npjW mv lv GY ku. hoU, I[oU DC TboUn. l Djymlvl Imu. `DukwPb[^` n Mnj lv JmJu nl (Dpn l Mnj lǮ DUK Dn). Fjk, FjC, DHiCmlvln lv l pjy DC m mLhl ku. DHiCmlvcOu kbonj, njl blbcO Dpvn DukwPb[jv mLhv kuu kn JmnlRv l Jjm Dn.
DukwPb[ju (knR cl l Kj vJn mkboj n Dn.) pippl k JnJm Ju DC l箳 Dioj mcj lvM J<x (ƸmlhJ& 630-644 ojcv) Sv lmbi Ʈv lJ% hb[lu Yjll (ln ynju- DL&l Dp箳 ynj luv kjC i vJn!) vubo L Jm k Ju n mcpC lm i{ cvJ uiu.
DukwPb[j TH& mkboju cO jhlv Yuc mv J uJpc ITv Yjl箳 mcJj C plk kC J pkjǮ, llk kC J ojhml nl Sv lmbi Yjll C. Sv lmbi DC l Dv %v箳 MO$Jj vIu nl, lj mkboj vIu nl mc nCm. Sv lmbi bcC Hnv DC FElmi Ʈv Jvbvn ncu hj kv vubou Y ou DC l Jmyu lm vubolu M#Chlyu mJmlj uKv ku. Sv lmbi b pJvJj vcO Sk kobyj m Pu Dn DC Dpn l b[ cCJj Khl J Ju pl. l箳 DOj `pva Jm` n Fbpl m Puu hmlkn Dvk DJ=ʳbcO Khu Dn.
vubo %vJYJ oI&kU kv nl. h{ l k J km uu iu Jjn Flnmkjbv unu Dn. hjbl L c Flk Dn k vubo箳 mbmLhkb `nl` kMcU jl Pu DC Flk oI&kU (mcj npj J<x) km kv jnu ?
DJ&v Flnml Fbiub[cOu D@kwmH[&-kWyp Jhbv J Dcjklu nJ&[&-m@vH[& Jhbv pilk %vhjbhjl p mLv Dn lm vubo-l#Mu k kJ Mku vnl ? Dmn cnCl F&u k l %vJYJ J %vm kv jnu Dml lj h{ YjlYcJj DcC nT Mku vml. hjbl Yjlv n Jjm vml icJu vn lj D#jM: i[v ku. h{ yM JnFmj@ kEvin@c bv 1871 mu vubo `MO` uiu! lvblj GlKvv m Pu DC ll ccu mYi=n (DYm J ElvJi&), Jnj, mlh, kjJ kc kuu EYl, y Oc& Jj mbiCN c, JL祮 Jmli=n Flo i mh[u. n J Dm Jjm kJU DcCbcU v nl vn. lm Dml lj pi yjm Flnm kc uhl Pu Dml, Flk DcC pil Pu Dnl.
Dcjk kubymhJ& kUlu (cnCp j[ Fb[vm TH& `vJn Dcjkvm`) Flnmn v Puu vn. Dl lj l K Dcjkv DlM ijJv o|Ml ku Dn. c n k, Dhu Flnm DhC Dhu hjbhjb col ITv i[l Dml. Dvko `nl`hjmmjhC! cnCv Flnm箳 DYmkbv nl cnCp `cJnpd D@C[ FvvMvm` Jjl IJ uill. Yjll pvcu Duu y Oc& DMYj hmju. phv, v, JnSlvc, kj, Lub[ Flo, hC Dhu oMl c$ [@. yymny Dby[kjbv l Jjbv hvppJl kjhl l uhuu mLll nl. Dlm `vJy` mcpu cKl: DYl Dn l jpkjC- mkjC. l DL&v l vubo Jjm mbi MkCj vnl. Svlmbi DC Flj Ʈv lJ%bv D{ nl %v cnCp lJ%v. Svlmbiu m, hm, kla Flo uY vJnl. l kUl kla kuhvn c&ol DmCj.
Dp箳 kUl Jcvv, mJ& mKm-mJObv mbhV Dm Jm kuvbljn mJ& ojƮ$JnvbJj l `mnm` JmJC&vbyu cuKl nll, cu uK m nll DC DM DYmkb JKv nll. Svlmbiu DM `c[-Hc` TH& kla cUC Mv vJnl. p JLyjyj J y M#kbyjyj lv & ku l `cyou`n lu cUCj vJnl. vcOv vubou Cyu lu `S` J Dv Y cUCj vJnl. l箳 Jm, pJv cnCp SkC piC nl `%v` Flk nl.
Dl `%v` n Sk Jml Pu Dn. cnCv `FbukwDu @ha jF&` TH& %vmbhombybOlu nkwkbyu Sk mbnl DC ko ku iu Dn. `%v` n Jml J cuhblj Yb[JuMnǮ Govblj nT uiu n Kj, hC iu 50 J<l (JM<l: iu 20 J<l) l mJ&Jh Pu Dn. lcU %v `i` l Ekcl Dp cpJ uil, `mbMOv`u i l `YJ` J uil, lm i l cCl iblJCk kjJ uil.
ilJk<&C mbl mbiCN DP@k vv J ilJk<&C c&o Yov pT Mku Dm hnu Jcv yvJCN jF& ybOb `nl` hm, l J kla n vJnl. vvu J jF& ybObv, kh|vkmu J DF&vmFvu Phu nl l Jlu i{bv.
Dio JiU #$lu GonjCbvn `nl` DC piClu Om J Dvbo b ciJ Il F&u. yLJv ynj nl (hjbl pvchmv vJn) c$ ynjhC JO p[uvbljn mcj 25 J<x lv p mbilk `p` ju lJj Dpv hƽcl mbil J JJ=bo lv Dnl. ynjhCv lu nly ku vn kjC mbil n l箳 piC nl J Om nl. hjbl yLJv J DM JoM GonjCbFlkǮ lvc GonjC Yjldz mbill Dnl. Dio humkj-kcj ibOJ&- kMj DcCkjbhl!
l mbilv|clu Dp `k@hxjF&` J `hb` cnCp %vmbho kJ Dn. lvmvu J jmmbnl vc&C kjCN v mbilkjbv lb %v k@hjF& J Ekcl cUCj vJnl. lb lM Dh#n vJnl. lb piC nl DC piClu Dvbo Sk nl.
oJmWoJm lM JM `nlb` uh nlv DhC hnl Dnl. Dl SKo hWEi J mbillu p, ul-DMb DJp J SKo u n cubkvcU c J unv jll. Jj cnucC n cubkv Yb[JuMnǮ Jkmyjyj nl iu. %v cubkv nT Mkl vn, Dm cvC SkkU hjiclJ u#C cvu pl Dm. lcC `yk kc` DC `Mjjk kc` lu Hjkn `Dvlhok c` (M#k, kjkv, JJmLhk) DC `Glhok c` (kcij, Mlkj) mbkuhvb DOj ku pl Dm. Dvlhok (hb{jhM) kc&Nbv yvm ol kc v Dm mlJ Dm. yvm n H (Glhok) kcijb DOkj nl!
hjbl iu 20-25 J<l `%v` n DL&JJmLhvl cnJ Ik uiu Dn. Dp mbhv|clǮ cK Ik cnCv `%v` n vk< Dml. cnCp JjkjC `nl` k lj `%v` Dm Ju, hC l#l c$ mbhv|cl n nl Dml. mnpk p %vcU uY nCj vn l %v箳 Hbol Hjm kC h[Cj vn. GhlJo n JJnjJo lJ%v Sk Dbi Dn DC DOvk JJnjJo n Yb[JuMnǮ ypjhdz lJ%v Yi Dn. hjbl lyjyj nn u#l JJm nJ k iu kn J<lu `mJnuPMvu` Flnm n Yb[JuMnǮ Flnmyjyj J{u Dn. lcU `JM %v` km J nl uh hJu lj lcU %vJmlj J mbMOv Lbyu vn.
pJv nl `JM %v` n Dmu hnp, Dm Dn mcpJb DC kcvmb Dm. lb kvlv %v Jmlh J cubkv nC n cCm箳 mbmk=lu kchC DCCj Dn. lcC %v n kC箳 cukǮ J cojǮ Dml kc v, Dm lb cl nl. %v箳 GhlJou J JJnjJoun kcvmb JjO Dm. `kcvm c@vHm`cO (1848) %v, M#C, M#k-JLa vl km Yb[Ju Jmlh nl Dn Jj vhC ku Dn. hjbl h{ mJnSl vv J Dp vcOn %vk[ GhlJo kvlv hnu pl Dn. Flnm箳 Dp箳 hhJj lm nC Dhjn& oml.
hjbl Jil hlUJj mbill DC iCll, Jkdz #$l DC m@HwJDjcO lm Flj kn #$bl Dpn %v n pJv Om J nl cvCj uk kc kjl Dnl. koƮl h{ lb %vn cubkv J JmlhkjC nF&u, hC I[u l JM %vhlǮ MO$l Dnl.
DOvk cvJ Flnm pm DukwPb[j, vhuv, uvv J cD bv I[Ju Dn lm l `%vOm` JRv mc= ku Dn. oIb pJvu DC SkC piCu `nl` nl. l nl Dukk nl. pj l Dukkllv n ukk `mJnuPMv` vc&C Pu!
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