j J J j , 2 9 c 2 0 0 5
oKu

hjK[ uKv
`pm cuk cW ku Dj kukjWk Doj vn nl, Gm cuk k kY Yu vn n mkl!` Mm$dz mbilc, ik, kukj DC mJ&mcv l Dpn pb vJ SkuJj Dojv vlcmlk nll, Dhu kv hU hk[ll, l LjkJBmnybv 1952 cO n Godij k{u Dnl. p mcjbYl lbv n cl cb[u, lL Kl mjbiJok hb. jcvjC GhmLl nl. LjkJBmnyb cl lJn hbJMl Dmuu jcvjC bJj Hj ibYj hjCc Pu DC lb Godij jcvjC b oJj pC kc kju iu!
Dp Dhuk[ kn mckjC hkwk Puu D{Ull. pm MnvF& DC ymcuuKB, ymj DC hb. njmo jm, lyu DC Pkj nmv, mlj DC hb. jJMbkj, mblj DC MJmo Mc& ll mjbi DC hb. jcvjC! Dm n jcvjC Dp 78 J<祮 Dmv lb mbil-JuǮ mju DuK `Sk mj cP, Sk mjbiǮ` hmlkj cb[Cl Du Dn.
jcvjC n jpmLv. Ijlu JlJjC Dlbl mJk, O|ck. Mu M#Cl Hjm jm vmuu jcvjC bv hb. GouupRmjK i cUu. vblj cOJmo bn lucl l mbil O[ IT uiu. vblj lbv unj L pC mbO cUu. lLv HUCcU hvn ouu J cbyF& DC vblj kc cbyF&. DM oI& Jml hb. jcvjC mjbiJovl SJ{ vhC nll k Sko hb. cvbo lbv DMJ&o olv cnCll, `Sk Kul mjbi J DC omN Kul hb. jcvjCbv. mjbi DhDh Jp uiu!` jcvjC b vhC h# mch&k hjJ MOvn mh[Cj vn.
hb. jcvjC cbyF&u Duvblj l DL&p&vmǮ Eno Ʈ$hm=ln pll. lcc DI[Ǯ mbilkjbmcJl lbv kc ku Dmv Dvkb Dvk lNnn lbv pJUv hnu cUu Dnl. lcU Dvk vcbkl mbilkjbv Mm$dz mbil %vn vJnl, Dm vj#C jcvjC mnphC k Mkll. DL&l mbilkjbv GI[ v h[l u ybOv oC kcn jcvjC kjll, lJn n mbiC lb DOkj mh nl.
DM jcvjC bv Dvk pumn ku. cc kukjbv mLmbil ku. l kjlv mJl: Mm$dz mbil h lbv Ykwkc ku. oM-hjoMln lb k&c ipu. Dhu oI& Julv, lbv Duu DvYJlv jcvjC b cl Dlbl hjK[ DC mh Pu Dnl. lbv l hmlkl Y[cJ&l v Jl cb[un Dnl. hb. jJMbkj, Gmlo ymcuu Kv DC ul cbiMkj byu, lbv cUuu `Yjljlv` mJx klyyu jcvjC b hjK[ Jj cUlv JCpi! DJI 132 hv hmlkl jcvjC b Ju DC lb DvYJ Jlv Jv mj kJn mju nl, l Jku kUl vn!
`Sk mj cP, Sk mjbiǮ`: hb. jcvjC, c@pmk kMv, hv 132, Ekcl 125 h.

Mm$dz mbilcRm DvK Y
mbil, ci l kCln Dm, Ʈ$hmbil, YJmbil, vmbil J Mm$dz mbil. lk mbil kj Dhuk[ nlJi& c Dn. Mm$dz mbil n lj DYpl mbil kj. l箳k[ hvn Sko l=Ji& c cCJj JUl Dn, n Dp箳 `jckwm` pcvl oum oCj yy. DjbY Dic, JiU JCj Mm$dz mbil vblj Sk Sk p Gui[v oKJl DC l Dvbojml y[v pll. DM Mm$dz mbilc, l DC mJ&mcv Jkbvn Gh jlu DM `jioj mbillu mQo&mLU` DC `mbil $ : yboM JYi` n ov hmlk unv jv Y[kckj bv cnJ kc ku Dn. Y[kckj mbil JMjo Dmv DOn lb J<Jj `mbil $` n hmlk m Pu Dn.
jioj mbil DmJo Ilv lcOu mQo&mLU kM MOJl, yu Y[kckj bv mll hmlkl 26 kjCbj Jkbv mcpu, DM mh Y<l JJv ku Dn. lv, Kuiv, mbil IjC, ji DC mc b mbybO, Kuiv hjY<k Myo, jijv vc DoR mJlb$hC cnl olv Y[kckj bv jbYǮ lmN kjClv v Yjldz mbil箳 FlnmJj OJl #h ku Dn. lk kjCl Mm$dz mbil hjY< Jhk cCJj Dmu lj l yp[ Jl vn, n cnJ Dn.
`mbil $ : yboM JYi` hmlkl Y[kckj bv SkC 43 Mm$dz jib hj vMvmmn ku Dn. lj Jubyl Ku箳 yboMRmn cO J l ulu Ʈpbn mcJM kjCl Du Dn. MJ $lu, ooj, Jubyl Sklu, Pcj, luJ[ Do lubcO yboM ybOCl Du Dnl. Kjp mJjƮvn J luƮvn bn Kum Mm$dz mbilcRm oCl Du Dn. Mm$dz mbilc n mbil Mk FƮsCj DC pb mbilM Hjm mbybO Du vn lbvn #$k[ JUJCl G k Mku DM ov hmlkb pCkj vƽl mJil kjlu.
1) jioj mbillu mQo&mLU :
hv 133, Ekcl 130 h.
2) mbil$ - yboM JYi :
hv 184, Ekcl 250 h,
uKk- jv Y[kckj, lc kMv.

mbilmӳ& hj
`mbilmӳ&` n Myo mcj Du k kMJjJ Ymu n vJ [Umcj l, SJ{ Joll kl=&lJ kukj箳 vJ Dn. vm=Ǯ mJC&kUl kMJjJ Ymu n mbilmӳ& pC lpv lUhl nl. 9 D@im 1890 l 4 D@kwyj 1921 Dm DJI 31 J<祮 D<; hjbl Jul Ymu bv cj vm=u ouu iov Dpn k=l%lv GuuK nl. DM mbilmӳ& OJl hj [@. mlM hJ[ bv `mbilmӳ&` sKv hmlkj kv ou Dn. yuibOJ& DC kMJjJ Sk kUl vm= ipJl nl. `Sk hu`cOu EmO pM yuibOJv Dcj ku, lcC kMJjJbvn `Mjo` vklu Yck Dcj ku. `Mjo` vk ymJCN mJoM nlElk vk cb[Uu c D|Lk Ho Pu; hjbl kMJjJ c$ kj[ jnu. lcU vblj lLv ynj h[v uul kuoM& cb[U mLhv ku. lLn lbv Dvk D[CR mcv kjJ uiu. `jbiYcJju lUhl luJj` Dm yo cjJCN kMJjJbv vlb$l Dvk i ku. vhL pv chob[ lbv hC&hC youu. DM kMJjJb JuǮ JO hmlklv Ju cUl. mll hmlkl kMJjJb pJvhyjyj lb ipuu Yck, OJvck n cnl oCl Du Dn.
mbilmӳ& : [@. mlM hJ[, mnu c[ hyukMvm, hv 14, Ekcl 20 h.
DY pM