jJJj, 10 p} 2005
onMlǮb jpkjC

ybiuoM mboY&lu Mvb DYmhC& Gku kjCN uKcu n hJ Yi-
JM Fmuc JjOjvmj pJn SKo J Fmuc mJkj kjl, lJn Fmuc l JǮb mbhC& pJv Jhv kl. Oc& DC mbmk=l pj ov YV i Dmu DC mbmk=l vnc mLvk jbi Il Dmu lj mbmk=l Oc& luvl oᳳc iCJ uiu. phl mLvk mbmk=l Fmuc cubv so ol vn lhl l mJkjn& Dn. hjbl Fmuc Sk hjhC& JjOj Dn, Dmb pcl FmucǮ Sk hoOkNv cu mbilubb. cnCv pJn ybiuoMcO Fmuc mbIvbb hJ Hub, lJn hnu Iu Pu l ybiuoM箳 mbmk=lk DJ<kjbJj. h-mn J<hJa hnu c nuu Pu l `Go` vJ箳 mbmk=lk mbIv k&cbJj. vblj J<&Yjl {kwl hnu JMK箳 GlmJJj y@cynuu Pu DC Fmucu `Dcv` Dmuu mbmk=lk k&cbJj unv-c nuu nl jnu. ov J<hJa kv Ʈ$h cnlmJl ijJu iuu `cnj cv` (clǮ cv) 1971 h&YcJj Ʈ$h箳 KUbJjn DOvcOv nuu nll. c$ 26 c&u cnCp ybiuoM箳 mJlb$ov {kwl hyuk uyjl Ʈ$h c hnuu `M` c$ yvyY hj h[u nl.
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FmuckjC c YJ h[u Dn, l oMlu DuhmbKkbJj. 1947 mu Yjl箳 HUCǮ JU hJ& ybiucOu Enob mbK nl pvmbK 23 kwk. 2001 pviCvvmj l Dn 9 kwk cnCp Sk knv L[M pml. ykǮ y, Ƹv DC Flj Oc&hjbhj hUCj. ybiuoMcOu [J JjmjCǮ hjmklx yv Dcj DC FbpǮ Ohk mjp- Gu- Fmuc Oj oIbv cPM & kjlv pldzJo DC culJJo l Hjk ku. lb cl pldzJo DOj D|Lk Dml DC cnCv pldzJo `cuc`M vi[l Dml, hC culJJo JjOjb mJh OjC kjl. lu hC& jpmbmL kyp kj Dml.
Dcj b cl ybiuoM Fmuc mbIv cul: culJJo Dnl, pldzJo (communal) vnl. lb jK mcJo hjic cmucbJj Dn, Eno EkJ DuhmbKkbJj vn. cu Jlb n Hjk mvlk Dn. kjC Sko k jpJJmLl (Polity) culJJovb cU Ojub k, pldzJo Dhmk l. pldzJo cnCp kJU pldz obi vJnl. l Dvk civ k nl. ybiuoMcO iu kn J<l pldz obi Pu vmlu. ipjlcOu pldz obib Enmk h[mo ybiuoMcO Gcu vmlu, hC Eno DC Flj DuhmbKkbv o[hMnu DC onMlJou JiJiU mJhl lW[ Jb uilb n Kjb. cuc yUkJC, L&vmLUbJj nuu, ucj, cjnC, KvKjy, cu hUJC n kj unv-c cCJj iu kn J<x uӮ Dmub DuhmbKkb kn vlbv cu mbilub. kcb vl jp oJM< j DC ijW vl mbpJ [^Bi (Ƹv) ybiuoM DoJm pclR DOkjj#Cl m Dnl. Dvk Dbljj^dz JmhbJj lbv DuhmbKkb nkwkb hcuuyyl DJp GJu Dn. Jhu uKCn ku Dn. oJM< j bM cP yll kJU HvJj nT Mku. ybiuoM DuhmbKkb mJ&l c mbIv Dn- Eno, y, Ƹv Skw hj<o. mj [@. vcb Yck {k Jhl hoL&J%v Ohk Dnl DC Jh箳 mJ&l c `n@u` cnCp piVL n@u (cub Jmli=n) Jnm Dnl. lb k&ul cP lbM oI& Y Pu. Yck cnCu, ``n oM cmucb Dn, Dm j Fmuc mbIvbk[v mll ku pl. hhmlkln FmucJj Yj Dml. ljoKu c cnCv k ybiuoM hhmlkb hkmlv hhmlkbmjK Eno vnl. kjC ybiuoM hhmlkbcOu mbI<& pldz vmv jpkdz Dn.`` Yckbv mJ&pvk #$lu DuhmbKkb DhN lvOlJyu lj ku. Enob O|ck GlmJbJj nCN nuubyun l yuu. Fmuc culJJo mbIv EnobJj `Yllb$` (intimidation) Jhj kjll. lbv Yjll mLublj kju Yi h[ll. DuhmbKkbv jpkdz iv箳 J y@cymH箳 Djhl iblJC hl cu Jlb Yjldz GhKb[l mJ&$ ul Dn. [@. kcu nmv bM & kjl Dmlv Dvk ov h<, Sk m$ DC 20-22 J箳 Yojuu cuv JM ku. cub vJ myu Mn hLx. Oc&v Eno. iu J<a 21 D@imu MK nmv b mYl p c y@cymH Pu ll ybiuoM Fbupvmv hLxu iblJub DC j-h cnv lbil [byub. [@. nmv DC kn LlM ybiuoMdzbv c mv hLx mk ku. JM kjl#CǮ hLxv nmv b hJj [kb Jub. l箳 DF&-J[ub [Ulub hC KUl vJnlb.
DuhmbKkb Mvu jpkdz yp Dn. l JM<l: Eno, ynmbKv DJc ui hjK Dnl. lcU y.Sv.h. k&klk[v lbJj nuu nl Dmll. 2001 vJ[Ckl EnobJj Dcv< nuu Pu. hjbl uiv c$ lbv knǮ col ku vn, DM Enob lj Dn.
DuhmbKkbv Y[mJCj mJ&l pu mcm Dn l pcv yUkJu pC. kn Fmuc mbIv DC `oo` J DuhmbKkb JM<l: Enob pcv yUkJll. Mv Sk JiU yp Dn ln u#l Iu nJ. ybiuoM n pcvǮ Yku oM Dn. oMl ukmbK DC pcv b cC Jml Dn. kjC pilu mJ&Ok Iv ukJml Dmuu oMbhk n oM Dn. cKv k=<Ov Dmuu oMl pcvu mv cu Dn. hVmnv DOk vbv Jhuu DC J<&iCk mWcjv mcKu pCN unvM oM Pi[ Dn Fb Fb pcv uiJ[Ku DCC. pcvǮ ly n mcpk DC jpkdz YJb cb nlj Dn. pcv cmucbn yUkJu pll. ybiuoMcOu Sk DL&Mm$% Ohk cPHwHj Dnco bv lbn pcv yUkJu iub cu mbilub. n pj Kjb Dmub lj Enobv DC DoJm pclRv c cCJj Dhu pcvRJj hC m[Jb uilb. lcU D|Lk Mvb Dhmk pldzJol hblj nlb. mbpJ [^Bi bv Mv mKu DYm ku Dn. kcbm Dj#l Dmuu ƮiBi nu ^@kwdmcO cmucbv kmb hlMjhC JmJCl Dub Dn yu mJmlj cnl lbv cu ou. Dj#l JYil kn J<hJa kJU 15 kwk Dmuu cmuc Jml 55 kwk Pu Dn. DoJm pclR pcvRJj jljl cMo GYjCl ll DC l cMoRv nl uJv cmuc mcp j< D{Jv ICb O[m kju kCn OpJl vn.
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ybiuoMcOu DuhmbKkbJ< & kjlv DCK Sk mco GuuK kjCb DJMk Dn. mco uk Dnl Oc&v cmuc hjbl Y<k DC mbmk=lk yij ybiu. n Dnl `jpnv` ynj. jpnv DMm k l hkmlv vijklJ cvll. DOk=ljl l ybiuoM vijk vnl. ybiuoM v|clu lbv kmv JjO ku nl. c箳 kUl l hkmlvM Skv jnu DC lbv hkmlv u<kjyjyj ybiuoMRJjn Dlj ku. hjbl hkmlvvb lb kW[ ku Dn. lk hkmlv jpJ ynNbv hkmlvcO ITv pCb Dmv ol, hC l#l Hj L[ ynj hkmlvl pT Mku. hkmlvu pC箳 l#l uK ynj iu 34 J< {kwl vJ&mlb sJCl JmlJ kv Dnl. c$ ynNb lC h{vb DlM ybiuoMu Dhu oM cnCv mJkju mJl ku Dn.
mkwuj cnCv pvcu Duu ybiuoMvb Flkw L[ kUl kl k ku? Sk yNhk GojclJo DC mmbmk=l mcpl O|ck culJJovb cU k OjJb? kjCccbm ibliblǮ DC kwu Dn. lj kn cnJ箳 kjCb L[kwl Jj kjCb DJMk Dn.
vOcakjC箳 (Secularisation) DC ukMnkjC箳 (democratisation) UJU vnc GY j<l Jm kjll Dm Jm iu lv-j oMkb piYj DvYJbv cL jJu Dn. 1980 DC 90 oMkbl vc&C Puu O|ck hvlLv箳 UJU JJhk Dnl. kn kU mcpk DC jpkdz Jl&v箳 mblbv j^dz DC Dbljj^dz jpkjCl Oc& Oc hC mllvb J{l YJk[ ou&# kub nlb. Dl c$ #$lub mbMOv Dmb oM&Jlb k hJ&l, oMcOu j^Jo UJU yij hƽc (non-western) j^dz mbmk=l vc&C kjC箳 kuhl ibluu Dnl. n kuh DOvkl DC DmclJ< p h GlhV Pu Dnl lbv l cnCv vc&C Pu. l DOvklu, pilk mbmk=lvb uouu SkpvmhCu DC Oc&vjh#l `vly` (non-moral) JJkJou vkjCl Dub Dn. Mlmchlvblj hƽcl j^bv Dhu Jk kC DC DOvk mbmk=l mbhC& piJj uoC lv ku lu piYj vjvjU O|ck hjbhjbv JjO ku. Fmuc hjbhjlv Duu JjO mJ&Ok lJ DC u#Cdz Dn. ybiuoM pvc vck kUlu Dn.
MK cpyj jncv b Fmucu kjC箳 vk[Ǯ GuuK lmN uKl Du Dn. P DC F&M&o b vk[ DOk lJ nl. kjC u<kj jpJǮ JOl Mv vij jpJǮ JOlh# inv Dml. P DC FM&o b jpJǮb DCK Sk u#C Ovl Iu nJb. hkmlvl u<kj DC Fmuc b mbybO vncǮ Iv jnu Dn DC oIbvn Ho Pu Dn. P DC FM&o n ybiuoM ovn u<kjcK hkmlv u<kj hjbhjlu Dmuv lbv mvmj Fmuc Jhj jpkjCm kjC n mnpk nl. FjC bl, DHiCmlvcOu I[c[, P-Gu-nk jpJv kuub hkmlvb FmuckjC. h@umFv v mCj h, hƽcl j^b FmucJ<Ǯ vkjlck kC DC lcU onl vc&C Puu kl DM Fmuc pill GuLhuL I[Jv DCCN Ivb P DC FM&o bv mcv kjJ uiu. Fmucu kjC lbv mh ci& mJkju.
ybiuoM箳 FmuckjCu pmb Dbljj^dz JlJjC h<k nlb lMǮ Ekynv lnv DOk h<k nl l ybiuoM jpkdz mbmk=l. cu Jlb p hlvb j^ pvc nl lcU j^ h{u jpkdz Ju DC jpkdz mbmk=l yN DbM jl Dml. ybiuoM ovn pvc- 1947 DC 1971 Enmjlu. ybiuoM Sk m jpkdz Y<kj yv Kv pnbij b cl cu{ ov JM nl. ukvjbpvJo (Populin) DC `yu@vkkwJPc` (Blanquism). yu@vkkwJPc cnCp nljb DC yU Dljk Jhj. oMv|clhmv 10 J<l ov j^O#b nl Pu. 20 J<&l 15 J<祮 u<kj jpJ Pu. ukMn hjluvblj ukMn mbmk=l c$ pu vn. ybiuoMl ukMn cub J hjbhj cvob[ hUu pl vnl. vJ[Ck nll cnCv ukMn cnCb SJ{b.
DJc ui DC y.Sv.h. blu GY oJvb mbhC& jpkdz u hs[ub Dn. ukMnu DJMk DmCj mchj hl J Y<, DOvcOv uiCjb mnclǮb jpkjC ybiuoMl DmllJl vn. jpkdz mckjCb kJU MvOl iCl hlǮ DOj cb[u pll. cnCp Sk mbhC& Jp lj l箳 JjOk mbhC& hjYJ. jpkjCb #$ n kcmJh jCbiC Dmlb. ovn h#b mJx vl=lJl kc Dyu Dml. kun mbi Kuo P DC MK nmv SkckRM ppy mbY<CoKu kjl vnl, Dmb cu Dvk ybiuoMdzbv mbilub. 26 c&u oM箳 mJlb$ovvc kuu Y<Cl hblOv Kuo Pbv JbiybO MK cpyj jncv b mO GuuKn ku vn. GY h#l mJlb$u{箳 FlnmmbybO DC 26 c& 1971 jp mJlb$ I<C Lc kC ku- MK cpyv k P-Gj-jncv bv- Jj DKb[lhC Jo u Dml. n Jo kJU Jmhbhjl J Jl&cvh$bhjl c&ol vn lj l hnu Dn Mu ck hmlkbhl. jpkl& h# youu k c Flnm youl, h&vb ck hmlkbn youll. JLan Jou kbUu Dnl, kjC mJlb$mbc hJl Mkuu Flnm onJl pF&hl youuu Dml.
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