jJJj, 1 8 mhWyj 2005

Ylv箳 vjMbv `@m v@Mvu n@hvm` cnCp `mbhC& j^dz mcOv (mbjm)` n Jkm vJ mbkuhv cb[u Dn. `mbjm` DL&vlvmj mbhC& mcp mcOv n j^箳 GlhV箳 Dk[h# cnJ Dn. Jkm n c@[u mcp箳 Skboj ilǮ Jj cb[l. D|Lk Jkm, mbmk=lk GVv, mcOv pvpJv, h&JjC mbJO&v mJ& vk<bv cnJ oCj n mbkuhv, cnCp Ylv箳 DL&vlǮ iY yvu Dn.
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n hhC Jmljv GodO=l kjC kjC Dm k, vck n Jj Ylv箳 `@m v@Mvu n@hvm` (p. Sv. S.) J `mbhC& j^dz mcOv` (mbjm) mbkuhv cuYl jk Dn. Ylv n Yjl箳 F&Mvm Jmuu unvm oM. pilu SkcJ cnvhbL y j^. hC l DhC lM HjM oKun Il vn. Yjl-Ylv mbybO Gc Dnl DC Dio 1949 hmv Dphl Ylvv Yjl y Ov Jkm ci& KUu Dn. c$ ljn cOcJia cnj^dzbm, Ylv箳 Mpj vhU n DJ[l DC hjJ[Cj h&vmLU yvu, Ylv YJvk oj jnu.
mOjC o[-Sk J<&hJa `mWj H@j Ylv m[p` mbmL JymF& yIlv `@m v@Mvu n@hvm` J<Jj Dbljj^dz hj<o cnl Ju cUu nl. Jl#CǮ cu n mbkuhv Dk<&k Ju, hC l JU l hhjJ ku vn. J<a D@im cnvl o#C DM mbybOǮ @pkwm Ylvu p juJj mbkuhv ciJ ICm mJl ku. ci Dm u#l Du k, `mbhC& j^dz mcOv` kbJ `mbjm` n mbkuhv Ylv箳 JkmvlǮ iY yvu Dn. `mbjm` mbkuhvyu Yjldzbv HjM cnl vn, hC jh DC k@v[cO c$ n yNhk j Pu Dn.
iu kn oMkbl `Jkm` DC `Jkm OjC` n piYj DYm mJlb$ J< yvu Dn. J<Jj Jhu uKC Pu Dn. Jkm箳 JiJiU JK DC DjK[ m=l Pu Dnl. Jkm箳 Yb[JuMn hu EkJ `L Hm&, [m^yMv uj`- `J{ Lc, JljC vblj` lJu Dvkbv so ou Dn. `Pjh mbl`Jj DOjl `@h [Tv` (Top- Down) c@[un c[l vIu Dn. mllMu (sustainable) Jkm箳 hv xl pc Oju Dn. lyjyj `mcpk v` DC `h&JjC j#C` mbkuhvn c cCl |u pl Dnl.
Jcv Ylv vjM pic Emi Jbik bv 1980 oMk箳 DjbYm JkmvlǮ JiU cb[C kjCm mJl ku. mlJ lbv 1972 muǮ ku nl. Ylv Jkm ci& km DmJ, ci&l Ylv mcpk DC mbmk=lk cub mLv kCl, Jkm箳 hjbhjk mbkuhvlu cu Ylv箳 mbmk=lM, DOlck cubM klhl cU Kll, v Jj kv lbv mbhC& j^dz mcOv kuhv j^h{ Ju. `mbjm`v Ylv箳 Jkm OjCu J̮jk/ mblk k GhuyO kv ou. JkmvlǮ mj Ylv vjMbv Sk Jkwl cb[u- `p.Svd.Sd. n p.Svd.h. (@m v@Mvu @[kw)h#n DOk cnJ Dn.` DL& D|Lk Jkmu viC uKC vJn, lj D|Lk Jkmu cvJ nj cUJv oC- n DYl nl.
Ylv Dn Sk unvm j^. DJI 38,394 k.c. #$HU DC H m[ml uK ukmbK. jp 72 kwk Yi pbiuJhl Dn, lj uiJ[Ku pcv kJU ml kwkwb Dmhm, hjbl j^dz Glhovl MlǮ J Dn 32 kwk. pJUpJU 80 kwk pvl Ml n GojvJ&n mOv Dn. Ylv Dik #$ Dlbl mcl Dn. MlJj DC pbiu mbhJj DOjl Gi, ybOkc Gi, puJl v|cl, jmvk DC mcW kuh iCv cK Gibl kjl F&u. Kvp mbh yNhk, hjbl Gi cnCv Dpvn DJkml. Ylvu hjkdz uv cUJv oCl h&v Gi J c Dn, hjbl Ylv mjkjv h&kb mbKJj kkjhC vb$C Ju Dn. Ju[& yBk 2004 DnJuvmj Ylv `u Fvkc` j^ Dn. hjbl oj[F& GlhV 660 [@um&, lj Yjl 530 [@um& Dn. n kc DL&l Ylv箳 Dluh ukmbK Dn.
mbhC& j^dz mcOv mbkuhv Dn lj kM? lM l DhC Yjldzbv vJK vn. kjC l cU m$ `mJx YC hMvl` Dm Dn. hjbl `mbjm` kJU `JMHu ELEki` h[lu vn. mbkuhvlu lhMu vJv vmu, lj cb[C vƽl vJv Dn. `mbjm` mbkuhv mbmk=l, h&JjC DC mK-mcOv lu hjmhjmbybOb Gku kjl, pilkkjC DC llv vc&C nCN mbmk=lk SkmjhC oKu Il, JJkm DC mcpJkm lu Hjku cnJ ol, ukMn cub [Um hj#C kjl DC mcp J mbmk=lu vJlv hl kv oC O Jl.
`mbjm` kuhv Ylv vjMbv cb[uvblj YlvcO Dvk J< l JJO Dbibv mvlk & Pu. xl cKv j c GhmLl ku iu. Lcl: `mbjm` lJk iY hC&hC y vlMm$Jj DOjl Dn k? Flj lJ%v hlRcOn `mcOv` cb[C ku iu Dn k? omj c nl `mbjm` mbkuhv j^箳 D|Lk, mcpk, mbmk=lk DC DOlck pJvl l#l DCC. `mbjm` Dv<biv pJv箳 JJO Dbib hvc[C kM nT Mku? `mbjm`Cl D|Lk hl (economic system) Flj hlRh# kl JiU Dmu?
lmj Mv nl `mbjm` l# DbcuypJCǮ. mbkuhv mboY&l Mmkdz OjCb Ovc km uJl F&u DC n OjC jyJlv c&ol mOvmbhǮ Jhj km kjl F&u? DC L c nl M#C, h&JjC, vijjv, pcv DC hC yyllu OjCb cK Gb cb[C kM kjl F&u?
1999 cO Ylv vjMb jpjnC箳 jhcnlmJvcv Ylv箳 hu@Evi kcMvv `Ylv 2020- D Jnpv H@j hm, @mhj DB[ n@hvm` vJ DnJu m=l ku. llu `hjJl&v DC Jkm DoM& DuK` kjCl `mbjm`u Ylv箳 JkmvlcO cOJla mLv ov ku iu Dn. JkmvlǮ mJ&Jh G Dnl- mJlb$, mJ&YclJ DC j^dz mj# b nc. Ghlam DJMk Dn- Ylv Dmcl, Skw, mmbil, mL̳&, mJJubylJ DC uJƮkl b phmv DC cK G Dnl- cvJ Jkm, mbmk=l DC Jjm plv, mblul Jkm, Gc Mmv DC h&JjC mbihv.
YlvcO Dmlv `mbjm` mbkuhv Jml=lhC mcpv ICkjl Ylv i=n DC mbmk=lk Kl cb$ pic Lvu b Y IC Dvkbv mJu. `mbjm` cU kuhv pj Ylv vjMb Dmu, lj lu v h cUJv oCl i=ncb$b c J Dn. lbyjyj Puu o[-Sk lm箳 Yl Lvu bv `mbjm` Jhk vhC ku. Ylv hjj^cb$, M#Ccb$, v@Mvu DmcyuǮ mj, `j@u vJn|m D@H Ylv` kui, `kwSvmu` Jl&cvh$ mbhok, hnu Ylv cnu kobyjkj Dc [v mJyjyj mbY<Clv `mbjm` mbkuhv DOk mmh Pu.
y mbmk=lǮ hi[ Dmuu Ylv hjbhjk jpJJmL mJYJkhC `mbjm`k[ Pkuu nl. 1675 mu jhcOu mcpk kjj mblcC YlvcO ym mcpk lJ%v I<C Pu nl. l I<CcO y MkJC DC cvJ mcOv lu hjmhj mbybO Gku kjCl Du nl. 1729 v hlvmj k cK G nl, pvl mK-mcOv J=Eil kjC. y Oc& lJ%vvmj cvJ YJvbJj vb$C Jv pJvu mkjlck JUC ol l. cnCv Ylv箳 hjbhjk mcpJJmLl mbmk=lu Kh cnJ Dn. lJ%vvmj, mJlb$ DL& nl mcOvhmv ukbv JbƮl kjCN cvJhjbhmv c. y piu J vmi&u vcJC lv kjCh# Di ci&v pCN cvJ J=Rv mi ci& oKJC DOk cnJ cvu pl Dm.
FL cc vco kjC DJMk Dn k `mbjm` vl Ylk DC D|Lk ilu J Jkmu viC cvl vn. y Oc&l Ylk mbhu OkwkjCl Duu vn. lj Ylk mbh cvJu ijyhmv c kjl DC ovOc&m (cnCp h&v hCmbvm) Ghkjk jl. y箳 MkJCl mi ci&v cUJuu mbh DC l GƮl Jvi Jj Yj ou Dn. iu kn J<l `mc@u Fp yHu` klx F&. SH. Mckj, h. S. hf, muk mJjkwm, [Jn[ yyv uk, [Jn[ u@ Do mcpMm$%bv y vlcubJj DOjl `y DL&Mm$` kuhv cb[u Dn.
`mbjm`u D|Lk Jkm JJ[ vn. kjC D|Lk JkmMJ `mbjm` mO nT Mkl vn. mcplu ijy Ji& v D|Lk cUkl DC mcOv l Hjm Hjk vml. cnCv `mbjm`Cl DL&JJmLl Lck mljJj pvlu mcOv cUJv oCm GlhV Mv ibYjhC IJ uiu, n vco ku Dn. hjbl ul DL&JJmL Dvk c&o Dnl. ul DL&JJmLcOu vk< vMl kjC箳 DC cpch kjC箳 hlbyyl `mbjm`u D#h Dn. cpch hlb Yj Dn, `ijp DC GhYi` Jj. mcpk, vmi&k DC cvJ Yb[Ju箳 GhYi chv nl, hC plv kjC箳 hlR & nl vn. Hj lj l Dio Duk[ m Pu Dn, Dm cnCl F&u.
`mbjm` DL&vlvmj kJU p. [. h. (@m [cmk @[kw) cpC Ghi vn. mcp mcOv cp Dmu lj kbyv mcpm GhuyO kv ouu mcpk J D|Lk mJ, lbv Dmuu mcOvkjk ckU JU DC `Djc` (leisure) bn cpC nC DJMk Dn.
`mbjm` G mcpk Dn, Jv vn. lk JǮ mcOvhla Pu k mbhC& mcp mcOv yvu, Dm cvC lk&Mm$u Ov vn. (Fallacy of composition).
DOvk mcpMm$dz mbl Jv Dnl. hC `mbjm` cl cvJ DOkjb (human rights) mbl, `mJ J` kuhvJj DOjl Dn. `mbjm` Yj mbmk=lk DOkjbJj Dn. mbmk=lk DOkj mcoƳk Dmll. mcpk mJmL DC mcplu mJ祮 mcOv n O Sk$lhC mO Dml. cvJ Jkm mbkuhv kJU JmJlb$箳 EYilv hnC Hjm mk jCj vn. mcpk mcOv mbkuhvl vijkbcOu hjmhjJubylJ DYl Dn, cnCv lk J n mJlb$/ mJ Ik, DM kuhv kv uCj vn. lj J SkckbM mbybO Dmuu mcpk Ik Dnl, n u#l IJ uil. cCm o:K DC JL kJU pJvlu Snk mKbhmv JbƮl jnucU vc&C nll, Dm vn, lj cCm-cCmbcOu DL&hC& mbybO mLhl kjCl D[LU J DhM DucUn nll.
`mbjm`cO h&JjC箳 j#Cu J mbihvu DvvmOjC cnJ Dn DC l vml lj vJu! Ylv vmi&mbh DC mQo& Dluvdz Dn, cnCv Ylvu pilu `um Mbu (mJi&)` cnCll. Ylv pvlu DYcv Dn DC l箳 mbihv pCJn Dn. `mbjm` cl mj#l h&JjC n jp箳 pJvm DJMk Dn, hC Jil DC mcpk mcOv cK ln Dn. kjC Dhu Dji DC mQo& Dhu DpypӮ JM vm|ik S&Jj DJubyv Dml, n lbv pCu Dn. Dp箳 Dhu mboY&l cnJ cnCp, YlvcO hu@mk hMJbJj ybo MmJ Pu Dn.
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