10 [mWyj 2005

Mnjlu pv J[ h[v l pi cuk nkwk箳 Fcjl ybOC hl Duk[ mJ&$ m Pu Dn. DM mbi l pi cuk Dhu cuc `Jn@uSMv` cnCp cubkv kv Il DC ci lJv yu[jM JJnj kjl. h<kUJU yu[j jkc pcvǮ lk[ l箳 cukk[v Jkl Il EkJ Y[hfv Il. DM mbin lu l YKb[ Ekcl jJv IJ uil. yBkk[v kp& k{Cm cuc uuJ kjCm, cuc JC kjCm, Dkj EkJ mbhkj YjCm, DM kn cK kjCbm cuc cubkv kv IJ uil.
cubkv cnCp kCln mLJj J pbic cuc cu jJC Ƭ. i cu jJlv Dvk iR Jj kjJ uil. FcjlǮ yyll, FcjlǮ Ku pcv, FcjlǮ J, l箳 ybOkc op&, mhmHkMvm, Dbly& mJO, DpypӮ hjmj, l Yilu YKb[ oj, vij mJO, M#Ck m, ypj, JnlkǮ m Jij iR Jj kjJ uil. cubkv kjC, n Sk ku Dmv l kjlv biu vC&M, Ykl M JhjJ uil DC GhuyO cnlǮ DOj cuc cubkv k{J uil.
cukl祮 cnJ lv kj Dnl-
(1) cuc cubkv kjCj
(2) cMvjǮ cubkv kjCj
(3) mv, pJnj, oiv b cubkv kjCj. l DCKn Kh kj Dnl.
mJlu vco kuu Dvk kjCbm Cj cu JiJiU Dm Mkl. Fcjlhjl yu Pu lj l箳 ybOCm uiuu K&, Jhjuu ybOkc mnl, l Ekcl J op&, ybOkc cpj, Jj l cu DJubyv Dml. Go. HwuDEji F&um Dvk kj Dmv lb kclln Kh lHJl Dml. ojJp, K[kw, HEip, JEji, Dbly& m Jij IkbcU FcjlǮ K&l c Dbljv Hjk h[ Mkl.
cubkv kjlv cKv lv iR Jj kjll-
(1) cubkv ljK, (2) pi, (3) cubkv kjC. hk kn kjCb kj Jj ouu Dnl.
cu n youl kUvmj DC JUvmjn youl jnl. kn JU Mmvv jJv ouu ljK cu kv IJ uil, pm mbh kj YjCm EkJ Yb[Ju vHwJju kj YjCm Mmvv ljK vƽl ku Dnl. ypjcu jJlv kUn Jj kjJ uil. lm kn JU D&pvk iR mcjC JJ uil. pm 30 J<hJa ybOuu Ij l kUlu JM kj mcWcU kc cu oM&Jll. huo mUm l kU Kh mJml nl. (uKkv 1970 mu Ij ybOu lJn huo ip 900 l 1000 h lv nl) L[kwl cnCp ojJ<a J{l pCN cu箳, cpjǮ DC pcvǮ kclvmj Fcjl ybOkc oj J{l pll. MJ mJlm cnucC Jhjuu cu Dkj J op& Fcjlm Jhjuu mhmHkMvm cU cu youl pll. ybOkc mnl YJ mJ&$ youl Dmll. lcU ybOkc K& kc-pml nl.
YKb[箳 kclu lj c&o vn. pcvl c Dbl:mcL& Dn. Go. hC GhuyOl, jmluil箳 pcv pml cni Dmll. Mnj Yih# Ghvijlu pcv mJml Dmll. lcU MpjMpj JYilu ybOkc箳 kcll Hjk h[l. Tv hu@Evi Klv pcvǮ kclm j[jkvj Juu Dml. lJv hjmjlu pcvR cubkv jJl l.
kCln JmlӮ, cMvjǮ DLJ cuc cubkv k{lv `Imj` cnCp ([MSMv) Jjl IJ uil. FcjlǮ yyll mbi Pu lj lk Fcjlu mJl: jJk D< Dml. cCmcC FcjlǮn lyl kn J<&vblj yI[ uil J kU Dhu iC oKJu uil. h KC, Yi h[C, iUl, F&um HC, uk[ ojJp kpC, K[kw J HEip ibpC, EYlRv l[ pC, Jl b$C yI[C Dm Sk v Dvk o< Fcjll om uill. JM<l: FcjlR ybOkc v Pu vmu, mnl biu Jhju vmu EkJ mun kBƬ (Djmm) IkbcO o< jnu Dmlu, lj FcjlǮ D< uJkj Il. DM FcjlǮ cubkv Imj pml DmucU kc nl.
h<kUo Imj n Sk Jo c yv Mkl. FcjlǮ D< kl h# Fcjl Dpv kl kU mj#ll v JhjCpi jnu, n pml cnJ Dn. cU yN JmbmL pv FcjlRv ljC Ov kp& ol vnl. c$ kn FcjlR ybOkc Gc op& Dmv vlkuv oKYu J oml kv l pml J<x kCN Dmll. pm imv, vcl Dnj, Jc Jij kv cCm D< J{Jl l. FcjlR kn C kv lb Muuk jnuu lko DpcJl l.
mJlm cnucC cubkv n Sk ku Dmv l kjlv cukl祮 vC&M DC i Ykl M kcm l. lcU ov cukl祮 cul Hjk T Mkl. pm, ov [@kwm& EkJ ov Jku b kvl DC cll lHJl Dm Mkl; EkJ lbv Jmvdz cnl ([) kl cUJu Dn. Jjn lb cubkv DJubyv Dml.
Dl DhC cubkv k{C箳 pcv J Fcjl hlǮ Jj k. l mJ&l mh hl Dmv hll FcjlǮ ul ojv Ekcl k{C (SmcEi) jnuu D<Jv Imj k{C DC ll FcjlǮ Kuu pcvǮ mO箳 ypjYJv Ekcl k{C, b DblY&J nl, pcvǮ Ekcl k{lv j[jkvj MJ op&, vpk kUl Jku iuu pcvǮ kcl Jjl IJ uill. Kjp DpypӮ hjmj YKb[ Dkj J #$HU, cK jmlhmv Dblj DC mJlm cnucC l Yilu Flj mJO Jij i Jjl IJ uill.
FcjlǮ ybOkc pmll pml Dk Smc kjlv llu mJ& yyR hjcC k{C, DC lk yyR ul ojv Ekcl k{C J ll DJblj K& koj vH Jij yy cUJJ uill. pu kwJb mJnx cnCll. MJ ybOkc箳 #$HUJv l Dbop Ekcl k{ln l. c$ lm Kh DvYJ DmJ uil.
Imj k{ mh hl cnCp Lc FcjlǮ D< mbhuJj Cj Dbop 10 kwk Ybij Ekcl (m@h Jn@u) Jjl IC. mcp 200 . cj #$HU箳 pcvJj 150 . cj #$HU箳 Gc mLllu FcjlǮ D< 100 J<x Oju Dn DC cubkv kjC箳 oJM lu 40 J<x hC& Pu Dnl. FcjlǮ cubkv kjC箳 oJMǮ Ekcl 4,50,000 h Du. llv 10 kwk Ybij Ekcl Jp pl jnuu Ekcl 4,05,000 h Pu.
myy Imj Ekcl
40/100 x 4,05,000 = 1,62,000 h
cnCp FcjlǮ Dp Ekcl
4,50,000 . - 1,62,000 . = 2,88,000 h.
l 200 . cj YKb[ Dp Ekcl cnCp 200 x 2000 = 4,00,000 h cUJu cnCp SkC YKb[mn FcjlǮ cubkv
2,88,000 + 4,00,000 = 6,88,000 h
Flk F&u. DL&l n m Dio Dk cubkv Pu Dm cnCl Cj vn. lcU Dk[箳 pJUhm jkcm FcjlǮ (YKb[mn) JJnj kjCm njkl vn.
c. $b. Yhkj