mcJj, 13 c& 2006

Yjldz DL&JJmL p lv #$bJj DOjl Dn l #$bcOu mJ #$箳 J{l YJcU Dvk #$blu lp% cb[U D&kl Pu Dmv lhk kn pC mJ #$箳 J{l YJk[ klnuv hnl Dnl. DL&Mm$箳 pJUhm DmCN JJmLhvMm$, h&JjCMm$, mcpMm$ mjK JMKbcOu lp%bn D|Lk youbk[ u# pCFlk n YJ u#Cdz Dn. Yjl箳 SkC j^dz GlhVl mJ #$ J pJUpJU 52 kwk Dn. cnCp DL&JJmL mJ& Dbilv hl nCN GlhVhk vcch# DOk Yi mJ#$ DmucU Yjldz DL&JJmLcO mJ#$ yU Pu pCJl.
Ml#$, Gi#$ DC mJ#$ b j^dz GlhVlub cC kCln DL&JJmLl youl pl, u DL&JJmL mbjv youC Dm cnCll. Ml#$ cC kc nl pTv, SkC j^dz GlhVl Gi J mJ#$ cC J{l Dmu lj j^dz GlhV Phv J{l. kCln oM箳 DL&JJmL ilǮ kn hh Dmll. pc&v, vm, Dcjk mjK il DC cuM, v, Lub[ mjK ilǮ ci&Jj DmCN DL&JJmLb DvYJ u#l Il, Lc DL&JJmLl Ml#$ YJ pCJl vblj nUnU Gi#$ yU nl DC j^dz GlhVl DCK J{ Puvblj DL&JJmLl mJ#$ yU nl pl. mJ&mOjChC DL&JJmL hC&hC il Pu k l DL&JJmLlu SkC j^dz GlhVl Gi DC mJ#$b YJ pCJl. Yjll iu kn J<l mJ#$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J J{u Dmv DL&Mm$% hjmLlk[ klnuv hnl Dnl. hjbl `mJ#$ YJ n v kCj il` DLJ `mJ#$ YJ cnCp DL&JJmL hjhC& Jkm` DM k箳 Yck v Il Yjldz DL&JJmLl mJ #$ YJ vkwk kMcU DC km vc&C Pu l u#l IC ijp Dn.
Yjlv hbJ|<k pvb DbcuypJC 1951 hmv m ku DC lJnhmv mvpl D|Lk k&c jyJu pT uiu. D|Lk vpv k&c yj-JF& hjCc DL&JJmLJj I[v T uiu. omN hbJ|<k pvcO Gi#$Jj Yj oCl Du. mjkjv cuYl DC DJp[ Gib #$l c iblJCk ku. hjCc cnCv h{u Dik il Jiv I[v Du. mJlu Yjldz DL&JJmL vb$l mJh nl. DL&JJmL mJ& #$bJj mjkj vb$C nl. mjkj #$ YJ J{l iucU lb o<hjCc pCJ uiu. mjkj #$lu Gi JJmcO Dk&#cl J{u. mjkj Gi JJm ll u uiu. mjkj vb$C ijHo u#l Duvblj nUnU mjkj vb$C kc kjCm lv m Pu. ojcv mbhC& pil c DL&JJmL hjmkj ku pl nl. 1991 cO Yjll Ku DL&JJmL OjCJj Mkwkcl&y Pu DC Yjlv mJOhC DC hhhhv KuhC OjC mJkju mJl ku. phl DL&JJmL yboml DC vb$l mJh nl lhl D|Lk Jkm oj kc nl. hnu hbJ|<k pv kUl Jkmoj 3.6 kwk Flk nl. D|Lk GojkjChJa Jkmojl nCj J{ Duh nl. 1991 vblj D|Lk Jkm oj Phv J{uu oml. D|Lk Jkm oj Dl pJUpJU D kwk Flk Pu Dmv DL&JJmLlu mJ& #$bcO il Puu oml. hjbl D|Lk Jkm箳 J{l ojyjyj DL&JJmL mbjv youl uu Dn. Yjl箳 SkC j^dz GlhVlu vjvjU #$b SkC j^dz GlhVlu J youl Dn. n you DvkhC Puu vmv nUnU nl iuu Dn. ci Dl DvkhC mJ#$箳 J{l YJyu & nC kjC cnCp l hjCc Dl mJv pCJ uiu Dnl. vpv箳 mJlǮ kUl SkC j^dz GlhVl Ml #$ J 59 kwk nl Dl l 21.2 kwk Flk Dn. 1951 cO Gi #$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J 13 kwk nl l Dl 27 kwk Flk Dn. lj mJ #$ J 28 kwk Flk nl. Dl l 52 kwk Flk Pu Dn.
Yjl箳 Ml #$l 1) Ml J MlJj DOjl Gi 2) Jv Gi 3) cmcj b mcJM nl. mJ& Ikb SkC j^dz GlhVlu J kc Puu omv l lcU Ml #$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J oJmWoJm kc nl Dn. DL& Ml #$ il nl vn Dm vmv Flj #$b il, JM<l: mJ #$ il Phv nlv oml. D|Lk GojkjC Ml#$un Ho Pu Dmv Ml #$l Dvk mOjC I[v Du Dnl. Ml #$l Yb[Ju iblJCk J{u Dn. mJ #$箳 ilcU Ml #$ il Kbu DM Yl yUiCn kjC vn. hjbl lyjyj Ml #$lu Glhokl J{JCm c$ lv ku iu hnpl.
Gi #$l 1) kjKvoj 2) KCkc 3) i@m, hC, Jp 4) Fcjl ybOC Ikb mcJM nl. mJ& Ikb j^dz GlhVlu J hnum KCkc DC i@m, hC, Jp b j^dz GlhVlu J cC Iuu oml. Gi #$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J 1991 hmv 26 l 27 kwkwb ojcv mLj Dn. Dm Dmlv kjKvojǮ J{Ǯ oj D kwk Flk Dn. Skbojl Gi #$ kcij vjMpvk vn.
Dvk DYmkbv Dm Jl k Ml #$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J kc nl Dmlv DC lyjyj Gi #$ J mLj Dmlv Jiv JmljCN mJ #$cU nCj il kl oJm ku? Phv youCN mbjv Flj oMbM luv kum Dm u#l l k il j^bcO Ml#$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J Dluh Dn. Go. Fbiub[cO SkC GlhVl Ml #$ J ov kwk, Dcjkl l lv kwk lj k@v[l j kwk Flk Dn. cnCp Ml #$ j^dz GlhVl kc nl pCj J n ilǮ KC mcpu pl. hjbl Gi #$ J J{l pC Ʈvn Yjll v D{Ul Skoc mJ #$ Jiv JmljucU DvkpC Dbyl Pu Dnl.
Yjl箳 mJ #$l 1) Jhj J n@u JJm 2) Jnlk, oUCJUC DC mJCk 3) JhjJ, cuc JJm mJ DC Jc mJ 4) J̳k mJ b mcJM nl. 1991 vblj cnCp Yjlv Ku D|Lk OjC mJkjuvblj mJ #$ SkC j^dz GlhVlu J Phv J{l iu. v@Mvu m@mku D@i&vPMv箳 DnJuvmj mJ #$lu Ikbhk Jhj, n@u JJm DC oUCJUC Ikb j^dz GlhVlu J 11.6 kwk ojv J{u lj J JJm, Jc, cucJJnj Ikb J 9.5 kwk Flkw ojv J{C Dh# Dn. J̳k mJbcOvn hl nCj GlhV lJ<a 7.9 kwk Flkw ojv J{C Dh# Dn. JM<l: Jnlk DC oUCJUC lm JJJm DC Jc Ikb GlhVl J{ Dh#l Dn.
Yjl箳 j^dz GlhVlu J{yjyj Jnlk DC oUCJUC箳 mOvb ciC J{l iu. lyjyj J JJmn il k uiu. J JJm箳 ilu Jdz #$lu mOjC kjCYl ju Dnl. Jdz mOjCbcU Yjllu yBEki JJm il Pu lm Ku D|Lk OjCbcU, DOk Jpoj箳 DMv DvJm Yjldzb iblJCk J{u. Jp oj Dbljj^dz Jpoj箳 hlUvmj jJu pT uiu. Ku D|Lk OjCbcU Yjldz MDj ypjl hjkdz mbmLlck iblJCkǮ cC J{u. cnl DC lb$%v #$ Phv Jmlj nT uiu. #$lu JJmƳkbv hjoMl ciC vc&C Pu. cnl DC lb$%v #$lu mJbv hjoMlv ciC vc&C PucU #$ Phv Jmlj Pu hjbl n you Dvk Puu vmv lb$%vlu il, Ku DL&JJmL DC j^dz GlhVlu J{cU vc&C Puu ciC mJcU I[v Duu you Dn. DL&JJmL Ku PucU J̳k mJbvn Dbljj^dz ypjhl ciC vc&C Pu lcU y.h.D. DLJ k@u mWj mbK J{u. Flj oMbv lb oMb luvl kc kcll DM mJ Jkl IC hjJ[ uiu lcU Yjllu J̳k mJb ciC J{u. #$lu DuhJOl hl nCN GlhVk[ cnCv Dvkb vpj JUu. hjbl mJ #$cOu Jnlk, oUCJUC DC J DC Jc Ikbv hjoM ciCh# oMl DOk c cCl ciC vc&C PucU Ikb il oI& kuJOhl kCj Dmu. J JJm DC Jc #$l nCj il Flj cnCp Ml #$ DC Gi #$ u yUk oCj Mku. J #$ kcij hnum Dm u#l l k, Ml DC Gi #$u nCN JhjJl J{ Pu Dmv ovn #$lu Yb[Ju iblJCk J{u Dn. DL& YJ<kUl mJ #$lu ilcU Ml J Gi #$l il nTv j^dz GlhV箳 J{Ǯ oj kcmJh jnv DL&JJmL ilhLJj jnu.
Yjldz Dik #$lu Yb[Ju iblJCk DC #$lu jpijv|clǮ hjmLl u#l Ilu lj Gi #$箳 ilm JJ Dn Dm oml. Gi #$lu kjKvoj Ikk[ hjm u# oum YJ<kUl #$ j^dz GlhVlu J J{ Mku.
Yjldz Ml #$l nCN youb Ml #$lu j^dz GlhVlu JJj hjCc oml vn. biu hTm, Gc hk, DulKuu pcvǮ J{l cC, biu Jhj Mla DM hjmLl vc&C nTvn Ml #$ j^dz GlhVlu J kc nl Dn. DL& Yjldz DL&JJmL Dl Ml #$Jj DJubyv DmCj DL&JJmL jnu vn. oI& kU Jj kum mJ #$ il DL&JJmL Jkmu Gh ju. J%v DC lb$%v箳 ilǮn mJ #$箳 DC h&v DL&JJmL Jkml c mnYi Dn. cnl, lb$%v #$l Phv Puu ilcU Ml, Gi DC mJ #$bcOu JJnjb mbKcO Phv J{ Pu. MDj ypjlu JJnjn DOk JiJv Pu. S..Sc.mjK mJObcU kJnn DC kn hm GhuyO nT uiu. lcU hM CC mbhu. moJv j^dz GlhV DC oj[F& GlhVln J{ Pu lcU J̳k kjCbm DC Jhj, Gim kJnn hm GhuyO nT uiucU D|Lk JJnjb mbK J{u. D|Lk Gu{uR Ji J{u DC DL&JJmL JiJv Pu.
D|Lk mOjCb mvpl k&c, Jdz mOjC, Ml, Gi #$lu mOjC, Yb[Ju ypjlu mOjC, kj jvcOu mOjC DC pilkkjCcU DL&JJmLl Duu KuhC b p[u J%v lb$%vl Puu il cU Yjldz DL&JJmLu Ji hl Puu Dmv DL&JJmLl JiJv you I[l Dnl. Ji Ho mJ #$u Pu Dmv lcU mJ #$ il nl Dn. n il i oMv Pum mJ #$箳 ilcU j^dz GlhVlu J{Ǯ oj kc jnu. hjbl DL&JJmL KN DL&v il cnCv DUKu pCm mJ& yyllu J<cl DC M#C, Dji mcpk #$bcOu cimuhC kc kjJ uiu. `mJ #$ yu cnCp Jkml DL&JJmL` n mcp Yjldz DL&JJmL yyll Kj jl vn. kjC Dpvn ijy, D|Lk, #$dz J<cl n Mv hC&hC mu vnl. ukmbK J{Ǯ oj Dh#l cCl kc Pu vn. Dpvn Ml #$Jj DJubyv DmCNb mbK 62 Flk Dn. DL&JJmL mbcCJmLl Dmlv mJ #$ J{l YJ cnCv Dvkbv D&kl kjl. mJ #$箳 J{l YJcU DL&JJmL ilJj k hjCc nF&u, n jJCm kn kuJO pJ uiu. lhJa youk[ mblulhC hnC pjǮ Dn.
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