yOJj, 29 c& 2006

Juc iuy& bv nkb$箳 colv h=LJJju kn JJ#l kC vj#C kv h=LJǮ bykdz #$J<Ǯ cuYl mbkuhv F. m. 1600 cO cb[u nl. Lck vj#C箳 mv lbv h=LJǮ h=YiJj D{UCj bykdz #$ J h=LJǮ cOJj Jmuu kuhvk bykhfǮ bykdz #$ mjK Dmu mh ku.
n mbkuhv 1838 cO i@m bv iCldz mckjC箳 mn糳v cb[u. lbvǮ h=LJǮ byk OJdz (dipolar) Dmu mbilu DC YӮbykdz D# J h=LJǮ YcC D# n YV Dmv l hjmhjbM 11.5 Hjkv kv kjll Dm Dvcv k{u. i@m bvǮ vj#Cl vWou iuu SkC YӮbykdz #$hk 99 % h# pml #$ Gic n h=LJǮ DbljYil Dmv Gjuu 1% h#n kc #$ n y Giclu Dml n mcC m ku.
h=LJǮ cK bykdz #$ v|cl n h=LJǮ DbljYilu JnC J箳 nuuRcU vc&C nCN mJbhC& YJl pv$bcU nl (Dk=l . 1). n Dbljk bykdz #$ mYJlu hmjJv h=LJǮ DbljYil vc&C nCj cK #$ h=LJYJl DJkMl Sk Dmk DJjC lj kjl. DJjCm c@ivmHj cnCll. c$ h=LJYJlu箳 JlJjCl p bykdz #$ D{Ul, l YӮbykdz DJjCl J Dv cb[Ul vc&C nCN Jl OjcU lj nl. SK kC vWoCl Cj YӮbykdz #$lu you n h=LJǮ DbljYil vc&C nCN bykdz #$l lm h=LJynju YӮbykdz #$ J Dv cb[Ulu Jl OjcOu mbybOlv vc&C nCN bykdz #$Jj DJubyv Dml.
YӮbykdz #$ n mLj vml. l mll youl Dml. n you kn mkbo箳 kuJOl I[v l lj kn you I[v Cm uK J<祮 kU Ka h[l. p you Dio mJkMhC I[v ll J p you kuJO 100 J<祮 hl Dml DM youbv mkwuj you cnCll. JiJiU kC箳 YӮbykdz JOMUbcOv oI&kU vWo kuu YӮbykdz #$箳 vWoDOj, YӮbykdz #$lu oI&kuv you lm mӳ& J h=LJ cOu Ƭ-Ƭb mbybO mh kjCm col nl.
kuy YӮbykdz JOMU (Yiuk D#bM 18 53` 36`` Gj, jKbM 72 48` 54`` hJ&) kuy bykdz JOMU Flnm Hj jcCdz lm DlM vc Dn. 1830-40 ojcv cbyF& Fuk io& njJij JvjF&v vuu Dvk yb mcn nl. lkU YjlJj F&m Fb[ kbhvǮ Dbcu nl J lb Sk Kiu J%vk, p@v k\vi, b MHjmvmj kuy箳 vmi&mc= kC nJcv J Kiudz JOMU mLhv kjC vƽl Pu. l Dv<biv 1823 mu pcv nmlbljCb k& hj kjCl Du. 1826 mu voxMk J GhkjC JCm YJv vc&C kjC k& GjkCl Du. c$ bykdz vWo IC k& 1841 muvblj m Pu. ojcv箳 kUl L kCl kj kckp ul nl 箳 vWo Dphl mh[uu vnl.
1840 mu S[v D@m^u L bykdz JOMU mLhv kjC vƽl Pu nl. n mLv uu mchmv Djy mcl pCN JMjJj mLl Dn. hC pJn S[v L bykdz GhkjC vCl Du lJn pCkjb u#l Du k, DhN ybOkccU lL bykdz GhkjC JC MnChC jCj vn. cnCv j@u mm D@H ub[v箳 voxMvvmj n GhkjC S[vSJp kuy (cbyF&) L nuJC J lL mLhl kjC ju. kjC kuy L DOǮ nJcv J Kiudz JOMU k&jl nl.
um& [kvm箳 Y<l mbi Pum `ii箳 oI&v`cU hnubo kuy J vblj Duyi L bykdz JOMU mLhv Mkw Pu. Dp kuy-Duyi JOMU iCv pilu j DJJu JOMUbcO nl. kuy-Duyi JOMU Jlj DCK H lv DM JOMU Dnl p 160 J<nv DOk kU DKb[l k&jl Dnl. l Dnl 1) Fbiub[cOu vJ-DEypj- n&uB[ 2) D@m^u Lu cuyv&-uBi- k@vyj J 3) jMmLl mJj[uJmk JOMU.
DO kuy J vblj Duyi L vWoCl Duu Dk[Jju DhC Sk M=bKu k mcpl ? l箳 hn Sk cvjbpk kmm Dn. Dhuu cnlǮ Dn k, 1841 hmv kuy L bykdz vWo JC k& m Pu. n kc 1904 hl DKb[hC u nl. c$ kuKb[l cbyF& lm kuy Lu pvmbK Phv J{l nl.
lm hnu iu lj cbyF&l I[bj D{Cl Cj ^c mJ DOǮ DmllJl nl. c$ F.m. 1900 mu ^cm箳 JlkjC箳 vC&cU cbyF&l mjU Jl Oj Jhju pCj nl. I[c[cU kuy bykdz JOMUlu YӮbykdz #$箳 chvl $ vc&C nlu J l vWo Dk nCj vnl pCJ [@. vvY@ cm bv Pu. lcU lbv kuy JOMUu h& JOMU mLhl kjCm cbyF& Div oMu, cbyF&hmv 30 k.c. DbljJj Dvm|ik Jl bykdz hjCchmv c DM mO k&jl DmCN Duyi kC bykdz JOMU mLhv kjCm vJ[ ku. n pi 7 Skj Dmv l箳 v$l oMm Djy mc Dn. lL mLhl kuu bykdz hjCcbhmv c DM ov Fcjl Dpvn mmLll Dnl. llu Sk Fcjll c@ivcj ymJuu Dnl. l箳 mv YӮbykdz #$cO ojjp nCN youb vWo ku pl. c@ivcj mYJl Sk cj boǮ lv EYl Dnl. lcU c@ivcj Juu Kulu lhcvl pml you nl vn. omN Fcjll YӮbykdz #$箳 JJO Ikb vjh# (absolute) chv ku pl. FcjlǮ ybOkccO bykdz iCOc& vmuu hjyboj JUӮ oi[, ym DC lby箳 Jml Jhjuu Dnl.
Duyi YӮbykdz JOMU Su 1904 cO m Pu. 1904 l 1906 ov J<祮 kuJOl kuy J Duyi ovn kC Sk JU YӮbykdz #$ J lb Ikb vWo ku iu. l oIbcOu D{Uv CN YӮbykdz mOc& K$ huvblj kuy Lu bykdz JOMU ybo kjCl Du. lcU Dl Dhuk[ kuy-Duyi Dm 1841 hmv l Dplil Dm 160 J<h#n pml kuJOǮ YӮbykdz chvb vWo GhuyO Dn.
Duyi bykdz JOMUv Dhu DmllJ MbYj J<x hj kuu Dnl. 100 J<&l n JOMU kCln kjCm kOn ybo Puu vn. Dio omN cn箳 JU m. omN cn箳 kUl ykǮ lv JOMU ybo JCl Du nl. pilk kla n cvEyo Dhu oMl DC ln cnj^l mLl Dn Dcnu mL& DYcv Jl.
JC iJU
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