cbiUJj, 2 c 2006

cyou
cPk[ kc kjCj Sk Jmk Dp Dhu ukk[ kuM iJ kc vIv pCj n kUuJj cu JF& Jub. Sk lj DpR cP mN Iju Kh mJ Pu nl. D[uv[uu Dp OJv 箳. cP nlv jnuu `GC` kc `hjl` kjl jn箳. Dl vJ kcJu J hU Cj! DpRk[ Dcn DOǮ `kcJu` vb yIl vJnl. l Dc箳 IjcOu Sk yvv iu nl. hC Dl lb hC M kc nl uu nl. DOvcOv h oK. Dbi oKb. cnCv lb ukvb pvcYj ukb OC-Yb[ kjCN Dhu cTuu Dl j Im Jvk KCb mK Jb Dmb jJub nlb.

 


Dp vIv pCcU cP D[C nCj nl n l pCv nl. cnCv omj kcJu MOC pyyoj DpRv DhC nTv DbiJj Ilu. c DpRv Mkwl Jvb unv Dmuu kcJu MO Dn ku. cuiuM Dmu lj pml yjb! Dp Sk oJm Sk yj-lj J<祮 cui ITv Du. kJl vJ nlb lb! Du Du cu i[c@\vi cnCu. pJUhm yEu[i箳 kcJj yh J@cv nl. vov yEu[i mbhhl- cnCp ov J< lj kc kjv cnCu. lJ{l cP Hv Jpu. hkv kJlvb Duu Hv vbyj mbilu. lu unl-Jl l nlb. FbphC kUl nlb. DJ vhm nl l. nl Kh ljljl. km kwuhvb v ybOuu! JJmLl D{C ybOuu. vuhW Jij uJuub. kvl, iUl Iluub v kwk nll cyF&u! cu hm jJlv pj o[hC Dub! lk kc `u j` lvb cu mbilu. cu pml Ju. hC lu i Jl nl. `mCJju v cil oF&v k c kn v kn` Dm l[i c k{u. kjC DpRv lmb ub. hC n HddoM cnCu, ``mCJj lc KM! lvb jcO you v nT Mkl. MJ cPk[ cyF&u Dn c@[c! Cj vmu lj kUJl pF&v! hC kc cyou c cnCl lJ{ nJ... ykǮ lc cpa!`` Dp cnCu, ``cCmkn uil.`` l cnCu, ``l D@[Mvu!`` lvb cyF&u vbyj ou. Dp H yIl nl. cyou Myo DL& uJl nl. yN! omjb k?
n kcJub h{ h{ lj ee !c cvcv cnub. l Sk Dn nl k, l cnCu l cyou cUu lj l kc kjCj! ... cCmk, cpa n mjb D@[Mvu! Dc箳 Dp yN pvcYj cCmkǮ Kj cvl Du... cu Hjk pCJl nl. ljn cnub, ``k Dn!`` l KM Pu. LBkw cnCu!
nc uu

30 S}
jcb Ykp ibpkj b pvc

jcb Ykp ibpkj b pvc 30 Su 1843 jp Pu. `JJO %vJmlj` cmk l hnu mbhok. l Mmkdz M#k Dmuv lb vJ c$ cmkJj shCl Du vJnl. cjlu hnu Slnmk kobyj `cvi[` lbvǮ unu. cjl uIuhǮ pvkn l. ibpkjbv cj, mbmk=l J Fbpyjyj ipjL, kv[ J ybiu Y<bn biu %v nl. 1867-74 kUl lbv mbhov kv `JJO %vJmlj`u G op& vlkuk Dm op& hl kv ou. lb `cj Y<', `oMY<b oo&M Dhu Y< mLl`, `Dhu Y< h{ k nCj?` Do uK ipu. `obYonk` cmkmn lbv kn uK unu. MJ lbv kobyNmn Flj kj bLuKvn ku. `ioJj` vJ hl&ip m DcuKuu Yjldzb pJvJj DOjl omj Slnmk kobyj c$ DhC&JmLl jnu. c=lmc l Dmmb SpkMvu Fvmhkwj nl.

1 c
Jmblicv v oJm

`c` Fbp cnv vJ `c糳` jcv oJlJv JCl Du Dn. Fbp ovo|Mkl SkC j cnv oJb vJvb DUKu pll. DOǮ ovo|Mkl c& (cbiU) n hnu cnv cMJ oJ箳 vJ nl. ci mPjvb p mOjC ku ll pvDj n cnv pvm cnCp ovn oMbv hnCN oJm JCl Du DC pv vJ pv DyOl jnu. jcv kUhmv 1 cu Jmblicv mC mpj ku pl Dm. kjC lJn n lmj cnv nl. jcvb LcCb oJM HUb DC Hub oJl `c糳 DC Hwuj` b oJM hp Jn. cOiv Fbiub[cO mCl DCK Sk L Yj h[u. iJlu lC `cFi`u cnCp Hub iU kju pl. hjluJj `c kwJv` vJ[v lu Hub Dh&C kjl. l oJM `c hu` GYju pl Dm. 1661 mu ub[v箳 m^B[ JYil 42 cj GbǮ Dm cvj GYjCl Du. F.m. 1717 cO DP@k vvv l Jkl Ilu DC l Jhj DkM vj#Cm m ku. Dcjk m[v pil Flj$ n oJm kcijov cnCv mpj kjll.

2 c
Eki pcm yyu m Pu

2 c oJmu Sk DiUb cnJ Dn. oJM yyu `Eki pcm` DJ= m Pu. 1611 mu m Puu n DJ= hC& Jnu j J<祮 DJO uiu. 47 Jv DOǮ yyu箳 DJ=R lhmC kjCm Sk$ Du nl. lb Skcl Jnu lu lv J<x K& h[u, Dmb Jvovb cnub plb. n kuJO Kjb lj lm kcǮ nl, b kjC DO yN JiJiU yyu箳 DJ=ʳ DmllJl nl. lcU Yb iWOU nl Dm. DJ=vblj mOjChC mJ&$ Eki pcm yyub hC nT uiub. DOǮ yyucO Sk `yǮm yyu` nlb. ll D@[c DC FJnv Lc Dbpj箳 hvb Jm$ MJu Dm GuuK nl. kJnj[udm yi yyucO `j$ lcnu kkb Yl yUib kjC vn` Dmb Dmv nlb. l youv `j$ kmun Yl yUib kjC vn` Dm yyucO Hjk kjCl Du. 1631 cO yyu Sk `Jk[` DJ= m Pu. ll hjcj mlJ D% `o M@u v@ kc D@[uj` cOu `v@` n Myo shu iu vJnl. lJn shKvJuu 300 hQ[ ob[ Pu DC lb oJUb vIub. 1702 DJ=l [Jn[ cnCl, `Em& n@J hmxkw[ c JoT k@p`, cUl n Myo `vmm` Dm Dn.
vjbpv I

jC
DhC pj ijc Puu cjpJU, Mi[pJU GY jnu lj Dhuu Oi pCJl. lhmv uby iu k Lb[ Jl. Kj mӳ& Oi Dhuu pCJl, hjbl pj DkMl {i Du lj Oi kc uil. ijc hoL& DLJ mӳ& l# Dhuu mhM& kjl vn, lcU G<ClJnv DLJ mbJnv ci&v Dhuhl hnl vn. l hnl jC EkJ JkjCcU. mӳ&k[v p G<Cl Dhuhl hnl l nJ DLJ {i DM kCln cOcu ijc v kjl Dhuhl hnl Dml. cOcMJ mӳ& G<Cl Dhuhl l. h=LJǮ JlJjChuk[ vJ&l mLl Dn. cOcMJ G<Cl mj cnCp jC DLJ JkjC DLJ Glmp&v. SK JmlJj kM h[u k, kM kn Yi hjJ|ll nl, lj kn nmm M<u pl. lcC SK hoL&Jj jCcU G<Cl h[u k, l G<Cl kn nmm hoL& hjJ|ll kjl, lj kn nmm hoLk[v M<u pl. hb{N jbi hoL& G<Cl kc M<l J DOk G<Cl hjJ|ll kjl. kU DLJ lhkj jbi hoL& G<Cl DOk M<ll. cnCv ijc nJ oMlu uk hb{N jbi kh[ Jhjll, lj Lb[ nJ oMlu uk jbil kh[ Jhjll. mjcO y[ m yvJlv jCcU G<Cl ijc ljhmv y[hl pl. ykjlu hoL& yvJlv jCcU G<Cl hoL&u cUl. jbicU pm hoL&u kl G<Cl cUl l jl, lcC hoL& h=Yi K[y[l Dn k Imuu, iUiUl Dn Jj jl. K[y[l h=Yi pml cCJj G<Cl M<l, lj iUiUl hoL& kc. iUiUl h=Yi G<Cl hjl JlJjCl Hkl. DivMck oulu pJvb Mjm$C h=Yi iUiUl Dml. lcU G<Cl ynj ypu Hku pTv [k `Lb[` jnl. n Lc&m hoL& G<C EkJ Lb[ Jl, kjC ynj yuǮ Dlu EYl (h=Yi) DC Dlu yuǮ ynj h=Yi hN箳 DLJ boǮ uhvv lj kuu Dml. lcU G<Cl jC DLJ Glmp&v nl vn. j$Ǯ JUu h=LJ/ pcv G<Cl Glmp&v / jC kjl Dml. lcU pcv, iJl, nJ Lb[ nl. nJlu y<h hC箳 LWy箳 hl iJlJj mlb. l Dmlb oJ. hjbl pj DkM mJs J vjY Dmu lj oJ yIu mh[lb. {i h=LJJj Dsov lj kjll J lcU pcvk[v G<Cl jC nl vn. cnCv ijJ vc&C nl vn J lcU obJn cUl vn. kM J G<Cl ovn Jl bykdz ljbi Dnl. jCcU mӳ&hmv cUCj Tp& mjYf lj kjCm nl. YfJju Djm G<Cl hjJl&l kv Sk kWEyoJj Sk$l kjll. lcU DlG lhcv hl kjl l. vj#C - Jcvb h=Yi hb{j Dml. JUJblu K[y[l JU oJm pml G<Cl M<l, lj j$ pml G<Cl Glm|pl kjl. cnCv JUJbl j$ Lb[ Jpl. mӳ&hmv G<Cl J kM ovn Dhuu cUll, hC G<Cl Dhuu oml vn, lj kM oml.
pbl Sjb[
cj J%v hj<o, J%v YJv, SD J@j Bk mcj,
J. v. hjJ ci&, mv, vYf, cbyF& 400022

kml : 10 lmb
Dbljj^dz nM kml mbIvv u{llu iC oC箳 hll iu hbJm J<l DvkJj you ku Dnl. lv-lv cvb lv [Jbhmv l h cvb Sk [Jl mcv hC& kjChl ll Kh kb you Pu Dnl.
hC jbYǮ D@Euhk mhOxl DC lvblj pilk kml DEpkwho mhOxl JU yyll kcmJhǮ vc SJ{ Ph kmlǮ vJnl. JM<l: D@Euhk jbY 1936 mhOxvblj kmlijb mbK luvv Kh kc nl. ynO lcU kmlu JU ybOv Hjm vJnl.
lcU mJ&mcv kmlm ov-ov lm ul Dml. hC m@knc箳 (1912) mhOxl l Dio Dljk Pu. l JU iC oC箳 hlln HjM iblibl vJnl. lcU m@knc箳 mhOxlu k - jcv箳 c[uJ ilu jM c@kwm kwuF&v DC Hvub[ Du[ DmkF&vv blu Ghbl Hjlu u{l lyyu on lm uu. l kwuF&v vb Epku Kj, hC l l kmlvb SJ{ Lku k lu mJ&Ok l Dblc Hj m[v J uiu.
l oIbl kml m Pu l SJ{ Dck Phv k kwuF&v DC DmkF&vv n oIb pC ml pvcb Jj DmJl. hC h lmb kmlvblj l oIn nUnU SJ{ mbL nT uiu k, #kbvn l u{lǮ kbU Du. ibcl cnCp kml mbhu lJn ov kmlij, mn DOkj DC oIb cUv on- yj mcL&k SJ{ l Fv[Dj m[ccO yk nl. Mk[ #kbv kJn Ij iub nlb. ojcv, kwuF&v DC DmkF&vv n Skckb If c$ yvu.
Dblc mcvm kwuF&vvb h{ u ou. lJn omN Ghbl Hjlu Jpl mJ[v kwuSm p@vmv n mJC&hok cvkj ju. c|v (c@kwm) kwuF&v, DmkF&vv Dvc jh DC yBP hok Jpl ju.
l mhOxl lmvd lm uCN kmlb pC cuk Pu. ll uF& nJJ il Hvub[ DJnj ynuRi DC mJ[v D@v[m& Duv oIb u{ln DMǮ m[vT lm Pu. l oIbmn mj DOkj kbUu. lJn l u{l Dv|Cl cnCv I<l kv jhhok oTv oIb yUJC kjCl Du. DL&l mJC&hok kCk[ iub vn.
ncbl pioJ

 


lk yOJj

lk Jj