yOJj, 9 D@im 2006

DMvH n Sk DbljMm$dz MK Dn, cnCp DMvHj J%vk pillu Flj MKb DJil Dmuu %v, pm jmvMm$, YMm$, YlkMm$, nJcvMm$, pJMm$ DLJ iCl, mbKMm$ b Ghi cnmijlu Dvk I[c[R Tnhn kjCm J l vm|ik I[c[h k&jl DmCN kjCccbm Gui[ kjCm kjl.
Yjlu mcj 7500 k. c. Flk kvjhf uYuu Dn. n Flk c J JMu hf Jkml kjCm J J%vk mbMOv kjCm Hj c cCl DMvHj ijp Dn. DMvHǮ mnm J jcn<&k #$l kc J lodv<biv kjDj kjCm yj kn Dn.
h=LJǮ $p n Dbop 6300 k. c. Flk Dn DC lu h=LJǮ 71 kwk h=Yi cnmij箳 hCKu Jhu iuu Dn. cnmijb mjmj Ku 3700 cj Dn J lbl h=LJJju 97 kwk
 

hC mcJuu Dn. H Yjl Jj kum Dhuu Dm D{Uv F&u k Yjl jhk lv mcbl oM Yjldz cnmij箳 hCv Dsou iu Dnl. Gjuu mcbl oM ncu JMu hJ&ljbi DOjKl kjl (hC kOkU hJ&ljbib pi `hBvpdz` cnmij箳 hCv Jhuu nl.) lm Yjlu mcj 7500 k. c. Flk kvjhf uYuu Dn. Dbljj^dz Jhj, oUCJUC, D|Lk J J%vk mbMOv箳 v mb j^ mbI箳 Jcv SkwmkwumJn Fkv@ck Pv (F&. F&. P[.) n 2.1 oMu# mkwJ. k. c. Flk cnmijdz hf Dhum jKJ JCl Du Dn. F&. F&. P[. oMl Flj kCln oM mbMOv箳 DLJ Kvp mbhǮ MOm nml#h k Mkl vn. F&. F&. P[. hf Yjl箳 DOv Dmuu pcvǮ luvl 2/3 Flk Dn. n Flk c J JMu hf Jkml kjCm J J%vk mbMOv kjCm Hj c cCl DMvHj ijp Dn. DMvHǮ mnm J jcn<&k #$l kc J lodv<biv kjDj kjCm yj kn Dn.
DMvH n Sk DbljMm$dz MK Dn, cnCp DMvHj J%vk pillu Flj MKb DJil Dmuu %v, pm jmvMm$, YMm$, YlkMm$, nJcvMm$, pJMm$ DLJ iCl, mbKMm$ b Ghi cnmijlu Dvk I[c[R Tnhn kjCm J l vm|ik I[c[h k&jl DmCN kjCccbm Gui[ kjCm kjl. cvJ DOjp pcv J DJkMlm mLhl Puu Dn; hC o& hCKu kCl kj J DmllJl Dn yyl yN c cCl DvY%l Dn. DLbi cnmij箳 Gojl kCl kj mnm o[uu Dnl MO IC DMvHj Flkl&J jl. {yUcvv DMvHcO j kj GhMK Dnl. l DM
Hpku (Ylk) DMvH : pcv J mclu hCl DmllJl DmCj Dmcv Ik J iCJMbcU Dvk vm|ik I[c[R J Ƭ-Ƭb Gic nl. mӳ&hmv cUCj Tp& mccCl pcvl J hCl M<u EkJ hjJ|ll ku pl vn. lcU lblu mIvll J lhcvl Hjk vc&C nTv nJl J hCl DYmjC DLJ hjuv vc&C nl. kjCmlJ nJcvl Jk hlUJj Dvk you I[v ll. youb DYm MKl ku pl.
pcvhmv DJkMhl hmjuu JlJjCl Dvk Dcu you J hjJl&v I[Jv DCC kmy mӳ& J cnmij箳 vjblj hjmhj Ƭb DOj nl Dml. DM lNn Dvk vm|ik Ƭ J I[c[ cnmij箳 JMu Dbljbil k&jl Dmll. h=LJJju kn Yiuk oM Hj Lb[ Dmll. (pm Gj J o#C OJpJUu oM) lj kn DlM G<C (pm Dk J DM Kb[Jju kn Yi.) Jhjl lhcvdz hjmLlcU cnmij箳 Gojl Dvk DYmjC J hjuvdz Jn GlhV nll. Jnb yj-JF& hjCc cnmijlu mpJbJj lm jmvk ƬbJj Dhjn&hC h[l Dml. ybiu箳 K[Ǯ h=dz lhcv 22 l 31 mumm Flk Dml lj Djy mc lhcv 1-2 mummv kc Dml. ovn mc箳 h=dz lhcvcO DmllJl Dmuu sM HjkcU Yjllu nJcvJj Hj c YJ h[l Dml. cnCv Djy mcpJUu JMl ybiu箳 K[pJUu kCbh# kc cCl hTm h[l. hC ybiu箳 K[l Hj c mbKv ^@hku (DvJ=blu) JoUb Godic nl. cnmij箳 YJcU nJcvJj k, km, kJn, kO J kl Hjk h[l JO IC Hpku DMvHj k& Dml. m YlkMm$, jmvMm$, YMm$, iCl, mbKMm$ F. %v DmC DJMk jl. ScSmm EkJ hS.[. Dmu lj Gc.
kcku (jmv) DMvH: cnmijlu KN hCl Dvk kj jmvk Ik JjIUuu EkJ Ivh mJhl Dmll. lu Sk cnJ Ivh Ik cnCp GuF (oolite) n Sk DmW Kvp Dn, p hClu m#c mpJ JjIUuu DJmLlu k@uMc k@yxvu M<v Ill. GuF Yjl箳 cbyF&, JMKhfCc J VF& kvjhfuil Hj c cCl D{Ull. H@mHjFmd EkJ mljl H@mH, p pJjmvk Ƭbj vc&C nll, Yjl箳 hJ& J hƽc kvjhfpJU Jhu cCl DmllJl Dnl. cmj (Gjbu) J Gohj (jpmLv) FL D{UCj H@mHjF Dvk oMu# J<hJa cnmijdz h&JjCl vc&C Puu Dnl. yjF Kvp m Ku mcl mljl K[kl mW J pJk IkmcJl DLJ pJucK Ƭbj vc&C nll. PDuFdmm c cCl mcl mh[ll.
hC cnmij箳 DlKu oMl (4-5 k. c. Ku) HjcBivp v@[um (nodules) m Jhu cCl DmllJl Dnl. n v@[um 10 mW. c. Dkj iu Kvp Dmll. pbl un J cBivpMJ k@hj, vku J kyu (l cC mcj D[Ǯ kwk Dml.) m D{Ul. n v@[um mcj 1-3 cucj l oMu# Flkw kc&ilv mclUJj vc&C nll.
DlKu cnmijdz oMl Dvk pJucKR pU DmllJl Dn. pJucKlv ynj h[Cj JJO Ik J lb hCM nCN mbilv J hjmhj Ƭlv Dvk jmvk Ik Ivh mJhl Skckbhmv JiU nll. lbv n[^Lc&u (hydrothermal) Kvp m Dm mbyOll. p pJucKJ OlӮ muHF[dm (pm un, lby, pml) J muH (yjc J k@uMc) hl ynj h[ll. pJucKpJUu pil c cCl un, cBivp, muJj, cc, u[ J EPk D{Ul.
YJ<lu Tp&l cnCv i@m n[^dmk[ c DMv hnu pl Dn. mb MO IC箳 k&u Dl Lckl oCl T uiu Dn. k=<C-ioJj KNl i@m n^[dmd c hf DmllJl DmC o Mbk pCkjbv Dn.
DM lNnv cvJ箳 Ghi Kvp mbh Hj c cCl cnmijl o[uu Dn. n mbh kl cCl, kCl kC J kM hjmLll DmllJl Dn MO IC chl jl, lm cvJ Ghi Kvp m kCl kuKb[l J h&JjCdz hjmLll vc&C Pu n MO IC DJMk jl. n MO YMm$, YlkMm$ J jmvMm$ pC DmCj JLa mcL&hC IT Mkll. lbv #$l kjDj kjC p[ pCj vn.
pD@u@pku (YMm$dz) DMvH: kO kU Dvk k J<hJa Dp mj Kb[ Sk$ nl. l mJ祮 cUv Sk Hj c cnKb[ DmllJl nl, p vJ `h@vp` Ju iu. h@vp kubljv ov lk[ Pu. n ov lk[ cnCp u@jM J iW[Jvu@C[ Yjldz GhKb[ iW[Jvu@C[ Ik nl. n iW[Jvu@C[m vblj kn s-c lk[l JYiu iu. pm pm Db|kwk, D@m^u, Dk J Yjl Skckbhmv oj pT uiu lmlm lb ojcv hkU vc&C nl iu. p kubljv cnmij箳 hl Gou Du.
Yjldz cnmij Jhl kl Dn, l YkJ kl p[Ǯ Dn J l jmvk h=LkwkjC kM kj Dn, l YkJ kCl, kl J kM kj Dkjcv Dn, kCl YYlkdz Ƭb DOj YkJb v|cl Pu, kCl kuKb[l J h&JjCdz hjmLll cnmijdz GlhǮ c m Pu MO MKl Ilu pl.
Yjldz cnmij箳 cOJj Dvk pJucK Gklv cc hJ&ljbi lj Puu Dnl. hJ&ljbib Dv<biv Yjldz GhKb[, lm D@m^u-Db|kwk Ylk[b mLubljC m Dn. lcU Lu I[c[RJj mllv u# JC ijp Dn. c& 1992 mu Dbocv Lu y@jv yJj pJucKǮ Gk Pu nl. DYmDbl Mm$%b u#l Du k y箳 Ku 10 J 24 k. c. DbljJj uJnjm ov m DmllJl Dnl, p箳cU L pJucK Gk Pu.
ncu hJ&ljbib kMlv O[O[l CN ibi, yh$ J EmOmjK v #jC kuu iU ybiu箳 K[l J Djy mcl vTv kll. ybiu箳 K[l mcj Sk Dyp v Flk iU ojJ<a ml Dml. iU DYm kum ncu hJ&lb GlhǮ mj Oioj, mj kbij nl ui Mkll. mbklb DOj JMu hJ&ljbib v|cl kJn m Pu, kCl YYlkdz lm jmvk Ƭ k&jl nl DuK jKC mh nTv pl.
YlkUlu Yku (geological timescale) HNl Dvk JU mc箳 hlUl you Puu Dnl. Dp箳 luvl mc hlU Jj EkJ Ku Puu Dn. youu kjCYl Dmll hu kw@vkwm (Plate tectonics), pJucK Gk J nJcv you. mcj 90 oMu# J<hJa Dp箳h# mc hlU 300-400 c.v pml nl. hC ciu 18,000 J<l n hlU 120 cjv J{uu Dn. kjC OJpJUu yH& c cCJj JlUuu Dn.
pD@u@pku DMvHl kc kjCm Yjhj c cCl JJ J mbO Dnl. c$ #$l kc kjlv mc Jm Dhjn& jl. lm Dvkbmyl mcvJ mOC ijp yvv jnl. #$l kjDj kjCm YMm$ ScSmm [ EkJ hS[ DmC mF&mkj jl.
yu@pku (pJMm$dz) DMvH : Dmb yuub plb k, mpJ Glh Sk-hM Ikhmv hCKu Pu. Dp箳 I[u pcvJj plk mpJ J lb JJO kj D{Ull l箳 kkhv l cnmijlu Jl DmllJl Dnl. l mJv MOv k{C J lb mbK cpC (Dbop) n Sk cnkC kc Dn. hC hClu mpJb Ghi Sk Dv kjCm Hj cnJ jl. ky&v [D@kwmF&[ n Sk cnJ njli=n J Dn. kMmbMu<C (Photosynthesis) DOj cnmijlu mpJ n J M<v Ill, lcU cnmijl kcv 38/1012 v Flkw Jhu cCl JjIUuu DJmLl ky&v[ D@kwmF&[ Dn. n cC pcvJju JlJjCh# 60 iCu pml Dn.
cmcjlv cvJu K cUl. cMb mJv kn kUhJa H kvjhfuil ku p. hC cMb K cnCv mj mJ&oj hmjuu Dn. lcU lb vM nT v, l mbhv pT vl cnCv lb Dvk pl GlhV ku pl Dnl. lm lb JmlJ kCl kC Dml, kl cCl Dml, youl cmcyjyj lbln kn you I[v ll k, Jju mbMOv Dvk kC m Dn. CMm$lu lm JvmhlMm$lu ScSmm EkJ hS[ DmCNbv #$l Yjhj cCl JJ Dn.
cnmij mbMOv km ku pl?
cnmij mbMOv kjCj DMvHj ov Mvb Gj MOv k{Cl Fvjm[ Dmll. hnu Mv Dn, ``cnmij箳 Gojl kCl Ƭ-Ƭ k&jl Dnl?`` DC omj Mv cnCp, ``k J km?`` hnu Mv Gj cnmij DJukv, l m#c vj#C kjCv cUl lj omN Mv Gj cUJCm vj#C l|kk DL& uJC chl jl.
cnmij箳 Dbljbi DYm kjCm ` on [U` pTv vj#C kjC Ylk Mkw vml. SKo Mm$% hCl [yk cv ([EJi iDj EkJ hCy[MJ) Dcu mbMOv kju n Dh# kjC kǮ Dn. kjC kn Kuvblj hC oy Flk pyjoml Dml k, cvJ l koh huJ MkCj vn. lm lu JJO GhkjCb col IJ uil. n GhkjC, mbMOvm Km yvJuu ylv, JJ#l mLU vu pll. lhcv J KjhC (Salinity) cpCm HF&um& Dmll, JiJiU kCbnv J JiJiU Kulv (depth) hC vcv DCCm JM< yu Dmll. lm cnmij lU J l箳 Ku kM mbjv Dmu MO ICm c@ivcm&mjK DlOvk GhkjC Dmll. yjyj mpJb DYm kjCm pU D[kJu pl, mJbul GhkjC Ku m[u pll l mclUJju Kvp lm mljl K[k iU kjll EkJ sƮ$C kjll. hC Dpku Ghnb colv m cnmij箳 h=Jj k&jl DmCN Ivb vWo Ilu pl. GhncU Dhuu [u[ cnl cUl vn. hC Hj c #$ kJjp c$ pj kjl l.
GhkjCb mn糳v kjCl CN mbMOvl kwvMv J ck@vku FbpvDjv Jhu cCl mbO Dnl. YjlcO DMvHǮ ScSmmhl DYmc H ov kC MkJu pll. hnu Dn kjU Lu kv Jh lj omj Dn cbiUj (kv&kcO) Jh. c$ YMm$, Ylk, jmv, pJ, JvmhlMm$ J DYb$kǮ JJO kmxm ynlk mN Jhlv J ynlbM cnJul MkJu pll. ScSmm EkJ hS[ kv Yjllu JJO mbMOv mbmLbl pm NIO, NCOAR, GSI, ONGC, IIG mjK kC mbm, pkw DmmS Hu EkJ kwvku D@Hmj cnCv kc kjl l. lm juvm, FUGRO, Schlumberge mjK c j^dz J ynj^dz kbhvbl kc kjC mbO cU Mkl.
JC iJU
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