jJJj , 29 D@kwyj 2006

``mJx vu箳 lp vkuu mjkj vkNbcOu y{lb h&Yc Dmu, lj lu DmCj Dj#CJ<k OjC SkC mboY& Jhk Dnl. h{ Dj#CJ<k ko-vcb vuv lhmC kCl vk<bJj J kCl c&ol ku pF&u mbkl vkuv ou Dnl. lcU h{ ku pCj jKJ pibJ<Ǯ ko vuk[v Ivy jJv jylu ku pu vk Dmlu, lj k&huk J JOƳk Mmv箳 Dv ov Dbibv kCl c&ohl pJ u#cCj<n pC vkuv DKv ou Dn...``
 


vJ=Ǯ GbyjJj Dmuu mjvOM v. iWkcj mYjJu b cKlJKuu mJx vu箳 h vOMb Ivhv mjkj vkNbcOu jKJ pib mboY&l ouu lp vkuv jpkdz JoU GC Ʈvn Dnl. jKJ pibJ<Ǯ Yjldz jpIvlu cU ljlo, h#vn clYo ypu Jv cimJiab clb piJm mJ& jpkdz h#bv JUJU Skouv kuu Ivoml DC mJx vuv lmboY&l ouu vku b Mn-kMn [Jh iu ov oMk KUu pl Dnl. mJx vu Dl vku Duvblj kn lml l v<Y kjCm mbmo JM< DOJMv YjJv hvn Sko Ivoml kjC ciC ku iu, Jv GI[hC plǮ jpkjC kjCm v{&Juu jpkdz JJmL DC oJmWoJm DOk mƬ nl Dmuu vhuk bl mbI<& GY kCn Mkwl vkjl l vn. mjkj vkNbcOu Dj#C OjC Jj vJJmLu (G J mJx vu) ui vn. Jj vubcO GJCab yu Dn. lcU cimJiab jKJ pibcU mJlhmv vjp Dmuu DC iu 50 J<l jKJ pibcU Gjj kbyC nl uuu h{juu mcpk Ji& Jj vJJmL kv n Dj#C EJ cjC lv kjl Dnl, Dmn knpCb kv Dn.
mJx vu lp vku mjkj vkNbcOu y{lbv ui kuu Dj#Chjl Dmu lj lu SkC Dj#C OjC Jhk mboY& Dnl, lm h{ Dj#CJ<k ko-vcb vuv lhmC kCl vk<bJj J kCl c&ol ku pF&u, n mbkl vkuv ou Dnl. h{ ku pCj jKJ pibJ<Ǯ ko vuk[v Ivy jJv jylu ku pu vk Dmlu, lj k&huk J JOƳk Mmv箳 Dv ov Dbibv kCl c&ohl pJ, u#cCj<n pC vkuv DKv ou Dn. 1995 cO 77 J Ivomlv jpIvl mcJ kuu Dvso 16 (4 S), 2000 cOu 80 J Ivomlv mcJ kuu Dvso 16 (4 y), l J<a DCK Sk Ivoml kv (82 J Ivoml) mcJ kuu Dvso 16 (4 m) DC lvblj J<&Yjl hvn Sko kuu Ivoml (85 J Ivoml) b mJk< Jj kv vuv n vku ou Dn. 77 J J 80 J IvomlǮ cnCp vJv mcJ kuu 16 (4 S) J 16 (4 y) Dvsob Ivlck JOl Mv cKv vuh{ nl. mbmou Ivoml kjC DOkj Dmu lj lun c&o Dnl J jpIv cU mbkuhjvm (Basic structure of the constitution) yO hnu, DM kCln Ivoml K mbmon k Mkl vn, n DCyCvblj ui mJkju iuu mbJOvk vllJ Dl biu mmLhl Pu Dn. vk<Jj lhmC kv vuv Dvso 16 (4 S) J 16 (4 y) JO jJu. SKo ko EkJ Dio Ivomln mjUOh vk<bJj DL& uJv Ivy jJv j kjC EkJ lm JiU DL& J mboY& uJv llu DJOl o< oj kjC, Dm ov h& GhuyO Dmlu, lJn vuv Mkwl omj h& vJ[J, DM mJbMml vhukv mJl:u uJv Ilu Dn. m vuv hjY<l `Reading down' Dm cnu pl. Dl vku olvn vuv knm lm kv DC lm vuv mƬl (Judicial activism) p[ oTv 77 J J 80 J DM ovn Ivoml JO Dmu I<l ku Dn.
n kjl Dmlv y{lbcOu Dj#C JOl c&ol jnCm vuv jJv ouu km J vk< n c$ plǮ jpkjC箳 pjJj m YiCN EkJ m mJhv hnCNb Ph G[JCj j} Dnl. vuv cnu Dn k, mjkj vkNbcO cimJiabv Dj#C oC箳 jpIv cU ljloRSJ{ ybOvkjkl y{lbcOu Dj#C箳 yyll vn. y{lbcOn jKJ pi JC mjkjJj lJl: ybOvkjk vn. ljn i hjmLll DC myU DOjJj JU h[um jKJ pib ljlo kjCm cY oCj JJmL Ivomlv kuu Dn. DOkj Jhj kv ku iuu Ivoml JOl kl jnCm h{u iRn hl&l kjJ uiu. 1) Flj cimJiabcC (Dym) DvmƮl pl J pclRvn (Sm. m., Sm. .) D|Lk GVlǮ vk< uJv (Ƭc uj) mcpbcOu DM GVlJi&u Dj#Clv JiUJ uiu. 2) jKJ pib kcu 50 kwkwb c&o kCln hjmLll Dub[l Cj vn. 3) DOǮ J<祮 jKJ pib v Yjuu DvM< h{u J<l YjCm civ h{ vC (Cay oad) J YJ<lu vJ jKJ pibM lb iUyjp kv DM Sk$l jKJ pi YjCm JM< cnc jyJC i Dmu, lj n Ƭ Dc&o kUhl u Jl Cj vn. cnCp Sko Dj#l kl iuu pi J<&vJ<x Yju iu vn lj lMǮ Dc&o kU jKJ Jl Cj vn. 4) Dj#C OjC jyJuv Mmv JJnj kMul J k&#cl l JiC lj l vn v, n Yv mjkju JJ uiu. cnCp kMul J k&#cl bv lubpu oTv jJk cCl jKJ pi JC Dn Ojl Cj vn DC 5) p mcpJi&m jKJ pi Dnl, l Ji&m mjkj vkN/ hobcO klhl lvOlJ cUu Dn mJx#C jJk kuJOvblj ku pC vjblj J Jmn& JJmL Dmu nJ. SK cimJi&m hjm lvOlJ cUJ n Dj#C cU nl Dn. lcU hjM jKJ pi cnCp kl DC JUJU n hjmhC kc JCm ll kl J{ EkJ I kjC ijp Dn, Dk[Jj iU kjC J l Dj#C kwkJjM mbi[ IuC i mcvJlhC Jnu nJl. Dck Sk Ji&m Dck JUu SJ{ cCl jKJ pi k Ju Dnl, vC&k mcL&v kjl F&u, DM h=Yc lj kuKjp mjOh hlv Dj#C OjC jyJl Cj vn.
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jpIv 1950 cO Dbcul Duvblj ui j^hlRv DoM k{v pbm Dj#C ui ku pT Mku, DM cim pl J pclRmǮ DOmӮv pj ku. mӮRcO pb mcJM Dn DM pl-pcl `M[u[ km` J `M[u[ ^F&yp` cnCv DUKu pll. Yjldz pmk mLhv PuJj ui DvmƮl pl-pclRv mjkj vkN, M#C JM DC vJ[Ckj JOcb[U/ ukmYl cUCj lvOlJ l jKJ pi Ju iu. JC&JJmLJj DOjuu Yjldz mcpl GJCa Jik[v pb h{vh{ M<C ku iu J pbJj mool Dlj Pu, DM ci jnuu mcpJiv mcp箳 cK Jn箳 yjyj C mbO cUJ n ci cU GM nl. kCln YoYJ v kjl mJv mcv mbO oC cuYl lJ lbllbl hUu, lj cimuu kc ci jnlu J h{juu mll h{ pl jnlu. Dm nT v m cimbv #cl DC h$l vc&C nCm L[ Pkl ch oC J lbv mbO cUJ m lbkjl kn pi jKv JC, DM n JJmL nl. J<cl J YoYJjnl j^GYjCǮ Go k [Uh{ Jv Yjldz jpIv ybOC ku iu. jpIv lj Pu lJnn Dp箳cC ynmbK Yjldz mcp Eno nl. ynmbK Eno Oc&Ol mcpl p hjbhjk Jk=l vc&C Pu nl, l MmvJJmL cOclv oj kv SkmbO mcp GY kjC, Dm n Go mJhv nl. jpIvlu Dj#C箳 cU ljloRci Jj jpkjC vJnl, lj vlc J cvJl nl.
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JvL lhEmi hblOv Pu DC jp Ivlu Dj#C箳 ljloR mJ&Lc jpkjCm Jhj ku iu. j^hlRv DOmƮl kuu DvmƮl pl-pclKjp mcplu Flj cimJi祮 Dj#Cm iCv kjCm y. h. cb[u Di mLhv ku iu. l Di ymvl ybOuu hC mbOmO jpkjCm Dlbl mǮ Dm DnJu Jn. h. Emi bv ynj k{u. l DOj lbv DvmƮl pl-pclRcC Flj cimJiabvn (Dym) mjkj vkN J M#Cl jKJ pi JC ljlo ku. DM JJO JicO JYiuu cim mcp `ynpv mcp` Dm mcᮮv GuuK ku pT uiu. DM mcp iUyjp kum lLkLl h{juu plR mbK Duhcll l n mjU DbkiCl nl. hC DbkiClm pJn jp Ivlu Dj#C ljloR p[ ou iu, lJn jKJ pi Ku pibh# pml Y uiu. cnCv mJx vuv nml#h kv jKJ pibv kcu 50 kwkwb c&o Iuv ou. vccnv DOk mcpm Dj#C箳 hv Pkl ch oC mJv mcv mbO oC箳 cU lJ箳 mjUmjU JjOl pCj DC DhJou vc jJCj nl. `Dym`v jKJ pi JCm mJx vul DJnv ou iu. 1992 cO Fboj mnv kjCl vuv `Dym` Dj#C JO jJu, hC `Dym`cO `Ƭc uj` n mbkuhv DCu. DM kj vuv mƬlcU pmk Yjll Lc D|Lk vk<bJj Dj#C Ju iu. `Dym` h{juu mcp Ji& luvl cim Dmu lj DvmƮl pl-pclR luvl mOjuu Dnl, DOj `Dym`cOu pb D|Lk mlj Sk jJk c&ohl GbJuu Dn, lbv jKJ pib uY Il Cj vn, Dm ybOv vuv Ilu.
iu 15 J<l oM箳 jpkjCl DmLjl Du. Sk Ykwkc h# Dbcu mbhv Dvk Jmbil J hjmhjJjO JjmjCǮ h#b ynclm c ybOv DI[Ǯ mjnC EkJ mkb# m Pu. kUl JM<l: h{juu GY clojJi祮 hyUJj mLhv Puu J J{uu jpkdz h#bv jpkjCl EnolJ YiJ jbi GOUCm mJl ku. n OUJ[ jKCm ynpv mcp箳 jpkjC Mn-kMn m Pu. lv iu 15 J<l lyyu h JU Iv oml kv plǮ jpkjC kjC pC mhO& m Pu. DO H mjkj vkj cUJlv ui Dmuu jKJ pib Jhl J{Jv l y{lbvn ui ku iu. vkN cUu lj iCJ DOj cimJia mjkj mJb Gljb[l Ku箳 Lju jnll, n DvYJ u#l ITv n m ku iu. pmpM mONb Ka DmLj nl iu, lmlm Dj#C箳 kuhv DJk J{l iu. jKJ pi Ju lj hjM h$ GcoJjb DYJ l jkc jn uiu. knn kv mcpbv mJbcO hjm lvOlJ , DM pyyoj MjJj Iluubv ci onj Gh pu. DCK ov Iv oml kv mcv mbOǮ lJ DCK hlU ku iu. Skk[ h$l Dbi J m cimJia GcoJjbv J, M#C, iCb kwkJj FloRcO mJul oC m ku. omjk[ Yju pT v Mkuu jKJ pi h$ GcoJj cUlu DMv J<&vJ<x v Yjl lM JC m Pu. DM Dvk J<x lbyv jnuu jKJ pib Sk$kjC kv l Skir YjCm cimJikjl JM< Yjl cnc jyJC m Pu. 50 kwkwb kcu c&o D[C T v cnCv DCK Sk Iv oml kv DM Dvk J<祮 muu pi Skoc Yjlv 50 kwkwb c&o D[ Cj vn, Dm jJu iu.
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