jJJj , 26 vJnWyj 2006

l pvJjl lk kjko& hC& kjCN `}}lk}o&` vmbmL }k-c}k DC p DYvl Y}b hW{jkj bv `ljbi` mbmLlHx nCN jbimbc}vl Dp mbkU pJvijJ hjmkjv mvcvl kjCl Cj Dn. lvcv lhmJ vcn<a pJvk&Jj} Sk #h...
SK mbmL lk J}l} l ov-l=lb Jm Sk JkwlǮ vl=lJK} P}} Dm}, lj mbmL l mJ kjkoaǮb vJ&JohC l Jkwlk[ plb. hjbl Dmb Dm}b lj p ik v DC `}}lk}o&` mbmL i} 64 J<x mJxmJ& Dm}} Y}b lL DCC hW{jkj n Dhu Skb Dn, Dmb cv} cUǮ lj vnl. l cnCll, b `}}lk}` iu 100 J<l JJO vlbv p[u i}u }Kk, oio&k, v, mbilkj, vhLkj D lkb Dn. DL&ld DCC n Jvvb DC k=l%lvb Dmb cnCl Dm} lj lb kjkoal mbmLvb cUJ}}b }kk , `}}lk}o&`vb kUl jbiYcJj k}} vvJO i, h[}} vJ hb[, mbmL ilk kC h{ v}} hlk DC lbv mJl: mbmL} o}}b mcL& vl=lJ mN jbiYcǮ Flnml vƵlhC mJC&#jbv vWo nF&}.
 


mbilmӳ& kJjJ Ym} bv 1 pvJj 1908 jp nyU L mLhv k}u `}}lk}o&` Oj lbvblj lbv kbhvl} Sk cK v DC lb Dlbl JJm mnkj Dm}u yhjJ hW{jkj bk[ mhJ}. yhjJbvn l llkw lkovb DC vvb h}}. hjbl 1937 m} yhjJb P}u Dkmck vOvvblj lJU DJI 16 J<祮 J Dm}u Y}b hW{jkj b kJȳ KbbJj mbmL pyyoj Tv h[}.
kUl vJ vJ}F& y}hb J{l YJcU cc vk kbhv #kb lmoDYJ kp& KF&l y[v ybo h[ }iu nl. lJj DL&k mmLll Dm}} `}}lk}o&`n DL&k ilxl mh[} nl. hjmLllv ynj h[Cm vk} p[Obo cnCv yhjJbv Ʈ$hk[ JUb jJ}b. c$, lln lbv lb knǮ k vmlv pyj K ym}. kbhvǮ @ha }}Jl vI}. ojcv kn cK v cb[Un kbhvǮ vpk mLl }#l v Il kbhv m[v i}. lcU kbhv pJUpJU ybo h[ul pc P}. n Okwk mnv v nTv yhjJ Dpj h[}, l hvn llv G} vnl. yhjJb vOvvb hW{jkj kbydzn pJUpJU DvL P}. yhjJb hCF& c$ lb myl nl. mbk箳 kUl yhjJb Iv mvn iJboom yvlJ} bv hW{jkj kby pyyoj mJkj}. yhjJ hW{jkj mc=l mclvbn s Y}b箳 Ƶ#Cm DL&k col oC vC& Il}. hjbl Y}b iC ƵkCm jck=<CyJ JP bk[ pl Dmu kUl mclv n col LbyJC jJ}. Jhoml kUl} DJC mbilv DCC Dpn Dblc&K nll. lbv }nv Jl n mjb pJUv hn}b nlb... DvYJ}b nlb.
`vk kbhv kp& KF&l y[v ybo h[}} Dmlv l hvn m kjC Jj lc箳 cvl km D}? `}}lk}o&` mbkl Dmlv l m[v i}u vb DOǮ k DvYJ iǵ Dml lc箳 kbydzbk[v i} JjO P} vn k?` Dmb Jj}b lJn DCC cnC}, `cP kbydzbk[v kbhv m kj} y}k} JjO P} vn. cP Dp Sk Kbyj m$ nl. lvb Dhu c}- yhjJb c=ln OjohC mJkj} nl. yhjJb vOvvblj lmN oJ Ijl kb JlJjC Dmlvn lvb c} iJunj} njyF& y[okjb iC箳 k&c} ITv pCm mbil}b nlb. FLb lvb cP h{ J}Ǯ o vƵl k}. `}}lk}` ov h{b ivi jck=<CyJ JP bk[ c} iCb Ƶk} hJCln l l nl nl. yhjJb kbhv hvn m kjJ, n l cvhmv Fs nl. Dc Sk mvn yyjJ omF& b Ij lkU mnl-v-k} #$l} oiip cb[UR c jyl Dm. lb ihhb D lLb pc. l ihhblv vkObl} Dvk yjkJ c} kUl i}. llu KKn kU }iu. lcU 28 vJnWyj 1942 jp pJn c `}}lk}` mo, JPyJ lm vvmny Hk, kJjJ ol bmjK v DC nlƮblkb hyUJj Hkwl 51 h nl Dmlv `}}lk}o&` hvn m kjC I Il}, lJn cP Dp cPci KbyjhC GY jn}. lvb pv k DvYJb oK} oTv c} vGco kjCb jnӮ , G} YjYkwkc hby o}.`
Y}b hW{jkjbk[ jkwllv vk Jjm D}, Dmb cn}b lj l Dlkwl v. kjC lb pvc箳 oJǮ- cnCp 25 vJnWyj 1921 jp `}}lk}o&` mbmLhk kJjJ Ym} b c=lh$l} ljlovmj yhjJ DC vv hkj bk[ mbmL c}k D}. kJjJb h絮l lb vl}ibk[v ku i}u Jjmnkwk箳 k&kpplv kbhvǮ koj DC Kj c}k yhjJbk[ D} l oJ! n oJil i cnC} nJ. `}}lk}o&` h{ lk Flnm Dhu kl=&lJvb }nCN Y}b hW{jkjb `}}lk}` vU pU} l n D! vlǮ n pC mbkl nl.
yhjJbv s Y}bb Ƶ#C v JnJb cnCv lbv DF& J hlvmcJl kbhvǮ mll箳 oNbhmv pCJhJ&k oj J}b. lcU cbyF&l pJn kbhv F&, lJn k l kbhvǮ vkb Y}b} yI} cUl. lJ{b k l yhjJbb kc lbv hn}b. yhjJb Hj Duh mnJm lbv }Y}. lcU lbk[v s Y}b} Hj kn Ƶkl D}b vn. c$, lb p vkb lbv hnl D}, llv lJU Dhu mcplvb lbb vk, lbl}b iCb lbv h}b. U kn vkblv s Y}bvb kUl kcb k}. yhjJb J쮳 Dpjl c$ h cnv Y}b hW{jkj lb pJU nl. hjbl lJn miUǮ hjmLl JƮ$ P} nl.
1937 m} yhjJ iuvblj `}}lk}o&` OUOC G[}. kbhvǮ nl-vJnl l @ha mJkj oC H[Ckjl phll i}. `}}lk}o&`vb cj jbiYc} o}} blkj oCi DmCj cKc} h[on kJ[c}vb Jk} i}. kbhv mbmLil P}.
Y}b hW{jkjbv 1942 m} kbhv hvn m kjb jJ}b DC `}}lk}o&` m[v i}u pv v cb[URv DojhJ&k hvn y}Jv Il}b. n cb[Un P}b-i}b ci mv hW{jkjb ci chC GY jn}. DJI 21 J<祮 Sv lCl} Y}b hW{jkjbbbJj lbv JJm oKJ}. `m i}c` `}}lk}` l c} oi[ j}u vkvb kbhvǮ hvn mJl kjCb j}b. vkl lj} lj DhC jbiYcJj k, n mJO hJ$ hW{jkjb lci nl. kbhv m kj cnCp miU pcJpcJ kjCb D}b. mnl mbIvb DC yhjJb mvbv kc lbv nml-hjnml colǮ nl h{ k}. DC hvn Sko vhmv mJl P}! vk kbhv }J, lj vkm }iCj mJl:Ǯ @ha nJ, n hW{jkjbv kUl nlb. nUnU kbhvǮ pc yml i} lml @hal} Skk Jml lbv Jkl Ilu.
1942 l 1956 m}hl vJv mJl k}u `}}lk}o&`v `m i}c`, `mbv mbmj`, `mv kUm`, `YJybOv` D pvǮ vkb cKlJ moj k}. kUl vvmny Hk, jck=<CyJ JP, Ʈjbpv kunkj, kJjJ ol bmjK oiip cb[U Y}b hW{jkjb DJlYJl nl. lbk[v hW{jkjbv vk mbybOl Dvk i Dlcml ku... pCv Ilu. ojcv mnl mbI箳 vcnlmJblv nCN vkblvn lbv yjb kn Ƶk} cU}b. SJnv lbv vkObl} iClb, llu yjkmjk D[D[C, ll} KKUi l# DvYJblv kU} nl. 1954 m} ou}l P}u j^dz v-cnlmJl cbyF& cj mnl mbI箳 `nvp yU` vkl} yU Y}b hW{jkj b Yck bi}Ǯ ip} DC Sk mJ v cnCv l jbiYcJj mLjJ}.
1956 m} `}}lk}o&`v `mJcv` n h. Y. YJ bb vJb vk jbiYcJj DC}b. lJj pv, mJ vkb moj kjCN hW{jkjbv vkj Dh} mJlb$ J} m k}. mbilOv vkb cKvb kjCN `}}lk}o&` vJ vkl Skn iCb vJnlb. hjbl iCƵJ n vk kjb k, Dm lb Ijil Jo jbi} DC Skoc pKc vk cnCv vkl vblj j iC `I}Cl` D}. i vk moj kjCb hW{jkjbb n O[m `}}lk}` DpJj ilǵ} J̮jk hjbhj mmbil nlb.
pv mbil jbiYcǮ k[J mcL&k D pj Y}b hW{jkj b lc { Dm} lj l llkǵ Kj vn. lbv k}vh mbil vkbl} hob kc k}. iCb k}JOn kc kv l DOk mml k}. lJj m[j-h lm }Cj mbil vkb lbv mcpk JlJjC yo}l k} }#l ITv m[lv lmbJj DC}. `k=<Cp&v` n vk lj lbv 2 lm 20 cvbl m}i moj k}b. Sk DLa oIk箳 Dp箳 hjbhj h DCCbvǮ D lNnvb Il} Dn, Dmb cnC} njkl vn.
vk Sk kmm DCC DJp&v mbill... `Ʈ$h oio&k Jn. bljc n Sko `k=<Cp&v` vk hn} D} nl. hjbl k&ynucU lbv DOǮ mbil}b nlb k, c Sk Dbk yIluvblj vIv pF&v. hjbl mJJov lmb m}i i moj kv bljcyhbv Dcn n vk hC& hn} }J}b.`
`}}lk}o&` cnCp i}l- n mckjC hW{jkjbv Dhu kjkoal h{ v}b. `hb[ljp piVL` n cUl}b j Dbk vk. hC }kb ijm nl, n }#l ITv omN il lv Dbk kjCl D}b. }l mcpk J<bJj} vkb moj kjC kbhvǮ Jm lbv h{ v}. Dhu vkblv vJvJ J< lbv cb[}.
`mbil vkbl} hobv k$ }JCb O[m `}}lk}o&`vb k}b. } hjbhjJbk[v JjO P} vn k?` Dmb Jj}b Dml DCC cnC}, `y}k} vn. cUl mJl Dc箳 DOǮ h{l P} nl. vkl} DvJ絳k hob hJahmv iU} pl nl. }kb k} yIv JUmbi v cb[U hob mb#h kjl Dml. yo}l kUvmj Dcn hobv DCK k$ }J}, Flkb.`
1957 m} yU kunkjb `ojlb lcj pJ` vkvb Flnm I[J}. ll} oiӮ Yck hW{jkjbb lj Flkb Dl vlb pU}b, k Dpn jmkb mcjCl l lpb Dn. vkl} lbb `DF& lP DJC l...` n ho Dpn }kb [ȳbl hC DClb.
1960 m} cj mbil jbiYc} Sk vJ cmn }Y}. Y}b hW{jkj DC vkkj JOj iK} b oJ lvb mbil jbiYcJj vJb cvJblj I[Jv DC}b. lJU JP JP P}u mbil jbiYc} iKub vkbv vJmbpJv cU}. vJ hJ&l `}}lk}` mbn J Dn. iKubb `hb[ljp piVL` n vk hW{jkjbv hnu Jvl YJ}b nlb. hjbl lJj mbmkjC ijp nl. l lbv iKubmyl yk cv kjJv Il}. hjbl vk箳 vc&lcubl kbƮln kcljl jn v cnCv l lylvb k{b, Dmb lbv jJ}b nlb. mbil, vhL, mojkjC miȳbl YJ-oJl DCC hW{jkjb Jj nl. lcU vk箳 hnu Jvvblj lyy} D[Ǯ J<v c Lcl y}& cl vi=nl vk YjbY i moj kjCl D}. `hb[ljp piVL`cO jk@[x[ ^@kJj iC iC i Lc kjCl D}. vkvb hW{jkj DC JOj iK} oIbn Ƶjhl cv Dvk lj KJ} i}. hW{jkjb hb[ljp l} Yck b[ ip}. n vkn lHv }}b. ou}l hblOv pJnj}} vnb GhmLll vk i P}. lbvn ckwlkbv vk bm k}. iKub `p p ijǵbkj` DC `mbil yJvKC` n vkbn `}}lk}`vb h{ jbiYcJj DC}. `yJvKC`cO Yjl箳 vm$Jj DOjl vhLjv i kjCl D} nl. D}k[ kUl vn mWj vc&l `mbil DjOv` DC JKl ik mi} b pJvJj} vk箳 vc&lƬl Y}b hW{jkj b cnJhC& mnYi nl.
`}}lk}o&`v kJU mbil vkb moj k} Dmb vn, lj DOvk cj jbiYcǮ h I}CN Jp lW[}kj bb `P} Dvbl nvcbl` n vk Lc `}}lk}o&`v JJmƳk jbiYcJj DC}b. lyjyj `jkwl vk, cp c nJ`, `Dvbo ihU` mjK i vkbn vc&l mbmLvb k}. Y}b hW{jkjb vJb mJil kjC kv lv ll nl. ly} mbilv l cnC}, `c kJU mbil jbiYcǮ kfj mcL&k Dn, n cnCC Kj vn. bi} vk- ci l mbil Dm J i- l `}}lk}`lHx vc&l kjCl c vncǮ h{kj Il}. Dpn cP l kv Dn. cnCv `}}lk}` lyo J<&l vJ vk oC Jvbl c lW[}kjbv k} Dn.` Dpn mbmLlHx vJ D-J<箳 vkbb mJil kj} l Glmk Dnl. hjbl l lkoǮ vkb c} Dp oml vnl, n Kbl l y}v oKJll.
DCCbv vJ iRb vncǮ [UmhC mJil k}b. ou}Ǯ j^dz v J}lv Ƶ#C ITv D}u vkc\bv Dhu vkblv lbv DJp&v mbO o}. Ƶ#l k}Jblbk[v kbhvl} k}Jblbvn knlj vJb Ƶkl F&}, n lb lci nl Dm. l mJl:, lmb cmj ojc bmjK oiip DYvln Ƶ#l cb[URk[v vJb kn ƵkCm JL& Yckl Ƶjl. yyll} Dh} Yck mh kjlv l cnCll, `vJbv lb Ƶ#C l# jbiYcJj Jhj kv hnl J, lb m=pv}l} JJ cUJ cnCv c lbv lb DJ[Ǯb, lb hlǮb vk kjCb mJlb$ o}b. lv G箳 jbiYcǮ il nCj Dn, n kv lci nl.`
Y}b hW{jkjbb hC lb DCK Sk Dbik=l Ghclv omv lb. cj jbiYcǮ Flnml} mvj hvbb omlJpkjC kjCm lbv mJl: K} Kj }Jv h{kj Il}. Skk[ vvc&l kjl Dmlv lbv Sk iǮ lǬlvb pCJ nl nl k, Dp Dhumyl kc kjCN oiip k}kjbb kc h{ h{bv hn} cUCj vn. lbb iov lbv kUCj vn. m knlj kjC DJ絳kl Dn. llv lbv ip}u vkbl} cnJ箳 mbib OJvƮ$Hl lj kjCb cvJj Il}b. kn ypi& k}kjb lb kcmbybOǮ c}Kln lbv OJvcl ku. y} mbilv DCC cnC}, `cj jbiYcǮ omlJpkjC lv kjCj k. . ocK Sko Sk Hm cPk[ D} nl. lJn iǮ lǬ vk[ c} pCJ} DC l ovb c kc m k}b. `Dcj YhU` Ʈ$hl} kc箳 vcvb bljcyhb cP pJUv mbybO D}. lJn bljcyhb J< hjJvi ITv c Ʈ$kjC, jk@[i, mbk}v Jij i lb m[Dl ccnv Ƶkv Ilu. c$ omlJpkjCm mJl: k@cj nJ cnCv c hoj hm K& kv vJ kj k@cj Jkl Il}. Dp cP mbnl Dvk vkbb DC k}kjb c}KlRb D@[D-Jn[D jk@[i Dn. Dio J<Com YJb kUm$ ynu Ov k{v l jcom hO b mJOv kjCmn cǮ kjC j} Dn.`
hW{jkjb mnl mbIl} mbnl 1908 hmv箳 vkbl} oc&U H, vkbmbybOǮ mc#lck }Kb lm vJ<k Iv J I[c[R k$C, iC箳 cH}, jbiYcǵ mbybOl cnJ箳 JkwlR Y<C, c}Kl, kd-J mbk}v Dm c poF& Kpv lbv iU k}} Dn. n Dvc} J jbiYcǮ DYmkbm Gh}yO JnJ cnCv l kUphJ&k plv kjCb n cb pkjǮb kc Dn. lu ynlk vibb Ʈ$C n l# i } Dmlv k}}b Dmuvb ll #kb lmomn Dv DJpn OJvcl P}} Dnl. n KkCj DJp DOvk lb$%vvb k{v kC DJ絳kl Dn. DL&l lkjl yj hm K& kjJ }i}. mvv kc lbv mn糳 kj} nJb. DCCbb n kc lb pvb DC vvb h{ } jnC ijp Dn.
hW{jkj b oI& v-kjkoa JUJU JJO hjmkjbv ijJ P}} Dm} lj iu J<a mbil vk DkocǮ Dlbl cnJ hjmkj lbv cU}. hJa cbyF&l} vij mlkjmn J<Com YJ hjmkj, y}ibOJ& hjmkj, kJjJ Ym} hjmkj, pilk cj hj<o hjmkj, cnW vjp hjmkj, lvJj hjmkj, DuH pJvijJ hjmkj Dm Dvk cv hjmkj lbv cU} Dnl. hjbl v#$l j^dz hlUJj} cnJ mcp} pCj mbil vk Dkoc hjmkj lbv lm Kh GƵj cU}, cj vjmkbv vƵl Kbl Jl Dn. Jj Dh}b cl cb[lv l cnCll, `DkocǮ mombv pj c} Flkw GƵj mvcvl kjJbmb J}b Dm} lj l lb v Dn. c lyyll kn cnC FƮsl vn. hjbl kun k}Jbl} Sv Gcol Dmlv Dm hjmkj cU} nJl, Dmb c$ c} vkwkǮ Jlb. kjC lcU l k}kj} DOk pcvb Dh}b kc kjC Gco F&}... i JU l} lmnv cU k}.`
`}}lk}o&` l pvJjl lyo J<&l hoh&C kjl Dn. mbmL jhcnlmJ, mJC&cnlmJ, njkcnlmJ, Dc=lcnlmJ, vJJo c Ll mpj kjCl D} nl. n cnJ hh vJ vk箳 vc&lvb mpj kjC `}}lk}` hjbhj Dn. hjbl lyo cnlmJkjl Dh lbv vJ vk mh[}} vn. c$, n lyo J<& vJ<k vjvjȳ Ghcbv ipJv m[C mbkuh DCCbv m[} Dn. lvb lbv kbyj km} Dn. lb Sk Kbl c$ Dn k, bYj hj kjCN mbmL JJO hhbJjb mpjb kjlv cnj^ mvv kOn l oK} Il}} vn. mbmL mJC&cnlmJ mpj kjlv Y}b hW{jkjbv ou}, cm, k}k, ybi}j Dm mybO YjlYj oj kv ov cnvbl 60 vi moj k} nl. lbv cj jbiYc n k p Dn, n Dvbldzbv oKJv b nlb.
Dp J箳 86 J J<an l lJ{ l[Hvb k&jl Dnl. jp vJvJ mbkuh m[l Dnl. Olj, moj, k DC lJj K}}b i}yb lpb H} Dm J<- n DCCb ^[ck& Dn. kun mbmk=lk k&cl Dpn Jl ll }l Cj DCC hn} k lb D# lCF& nJ Jl. lbv `ljbi` mbmLvb pJvijJ hjmkj oTv Sk kj Dhu hjmkj Gb J{J} Dn.
jJR hLj