jJJj, 4 HyJj 2007

kwmhDjJ< yN oblkL }l Dnl. DC Jo lj lnv pml. cnCp Dio MkwmHDj nl k vn, l m$ nl k H<, kbJ n vkb Skvb unu Dnl k Dvkbv cUv, Dm Dvk Jo Dnl. Jj `mbMOv` kjCl D<b IuJCj cnYi Dpvn mH[ll. iWOUu l箳 vJHmv mJl nl. kjC lJU Slnmk jk@[&mdcO `MkwmHDj`, `M@imHDj`, `@kwmHj` DM lNn 34 vJb yNo GuuK Dn. kwmHDjJ< (1564-1616) m DM mui cnl k cUl vn. lcU l箳J< yN oblkLn Dnl. DC Jo lj lnv pml. cnCp Dio MkwmHDj nl k vn, l m$ nl k H<, kbJ n vkb Skvb unu Dnl k Dvkbv cUv, Dm Dvk Jo Dnl. DC Jj `mbMOv` kjCl D<b IuJCj cnYin Dpv mH[ll. iWOUu l箳 vJHmv mJl nl. kjC lJU Slnmk jk@[&mdcO `MkwmHDj`, `M@imHDj`, `@kwmHj` DM lNn 34 vJb yNo GuuK Dn. jǮ DjHcU 1248 mu MkwmHDj JbMpbHk Sku HMn ou GuuK Dn. MkwmHDj 23 Suu pvcu DC yjyj I[U uJumjK 23 Suu cjC HJu!
Ij ijycU J箳 ljJ J<a pj MkwmHDju MUlv k{v kub Dmub lj lb `uvi` biub DmCj. MJ lb Jv DC DpypӮ vmi&b DC cCmbb vj#C KH KuJjb DmuMJ l vkb, lblu H$b, llu vmi& DC C SJ{ pJblHC lu jbiJl Du vml. l箳 vkl

 

3000 JU 180 JiJiȳ KN DC kuHvk Cb mboY& ll. lbcO lvb p po Hbku, l c$ Ju#C nl. Flk, k l cnv pilu miȳ Y<blu mnlkjbJj DC pvmcvbJj MlkvMlkb H[J!
MkwmHDjvb unvHC yj Gi kjC lv ku. MUlu M#k, Jku Jij nC DC J[ubv col kjCn lv JL& lv ku. ci D@v n@LJ HJa ovo uiv Puu DC lJU lv cnvb ijoj Dmuu `DvL` cuyjyj MkwmHDjvb IF&IF&vb uiv Gjkub. MkwmHDjb Kjb c omN Sk c}Jj nlb, Dmbn knRb cnCCb. lu mPv vJ cui ml cnvbl Pu. H{ Puu pȳ cubHk Sk cjC HJucU MkwmHDju DlJ o:K Pub. o:K箳 mJulv `c@kwyL`, `kbi uj`, `D@Luu` mjK Mkblk vc&C Pu DmJl, Dm Sk Dbop Dn.
kUl Sk oblkLcC- MkwmHDjvb mj L@cm um pcvoj MpN Sk cW{ HUJu. lyu lu lbiJm M# Pu. ci Jliv MkwmHDjvb lJ Sk HJ[ unu. n lb Hnub kJ DmJb. HC kJlcU l iJlu miU uk MkwmHDjJj DCKv KJUu. ci MkwmHDjvb lLv kwk Oc ku DC l ub[vu Tv L[ku!
ub[vu Dmlv- Kb k, n Mv nl. yjb, l箳k[ Hm cUlu DM kuǮ ku kbJ %vn vJnlb. l LSj ynj pTv lL ioa yIl jn. lL vku vkjbMJ Duu pcvoj, GcjJb vk mbHHl I[ mbYUCbb kc l kj. HC ln lvb `Skwmuvm` cUJu! ci DM kcb kjCNb l cnjkw yvu. lvb Flj ukbv n kc kmb kjb, n MkJu mJl ku. cubv `MkwmHDj y@F&p` Dmb cnub pb. n kjl Dmlv vi=nlv kwJƮl ynj Duu SK v} yIu cUJb, l箳M yuu cUJb cnCv l O[H[. lv ci mHla ITv lvb mpJj mJl:n kcb kjC mJHvb yIu mJl ku.
Dmb Sko MkwmHDj vi=nynj ibcl, vku kjl Dmlv kClj yIv, Skv lu kulj j} kjC D@Hj ou DmJ. Lc lu vklu ioalu Sk yI Dm}Ǯ kcb cUu. HC vblj nUnU pj yNHk kcb cUu uiu. HC knn Dmub lj jbiYcJj lvb Hnub HTu kub c$; DC ci ci JUv yIlub vn. Hnubo lvb KH s-c kcb ku DC llu miȳ kwl, kwuHl DC yjkJ Mkv Ilu. miȳ kUu `u@m Fm&` Dmb cnCll. kjC kUl MkwmHDjvb vkwk k kub, kCu H vndz.
1593 mu Hui箳 mLcU ub[v miU LSm& ybo H[u. lJU ub[v箳 ov uK ukmbKHk 10,675 uk ll c=lcK H[u. 1594 mu L[ kU LSm& GI[u, HC Hvn l ybo H[u. MkwmHDju Hvn K Jbo Jnu uiu. kUl lvb kJl kju mJl ku. (n cnCp Gub. Kjblj kJl kju uiuJj K Jbo nll, n Skub nlb!)
MkwmHDj kUl mvlb (m@vmd) unC H@Mv nl. n cU Fuv kJkj. D DURl knlj Mv GY kj DC vJJ DUl lb Gj b, kbJ JiUb knlj mbib- Dm n kj. Fbpl MkwmHDj, cuv, J[&mJL& JijWv l uk ku. ll c$ o DU (yj DOk ov) DM JHjl. cjcO n H@c& kMJmlbv pJu. MkwmHDj SkC 154 kJlbHk 151 mvlb nl. pu uiv kjb vndz DM Sk lC GcjJ cuu GMv llu Hnu 126 mvlb nl. lJv Hvn MkwmHDj n mcubi DmJ, Dm lk& knRv ku nl. l 127 l 152 n mvlb Sk `kȳ` yF&u GMv nl. llu 123, 130, 132 DC 144 vbyj mvlb KH ipu. 1609 mu kMl Puu l n mvlb `cmj [yu. S.` Dmb i{ vJ DmCN kCu lj DH&C kuu nl. 1609 mu MkwmHDj yjǮ mvlb l箳 HjJviMJ kMl PucU l Sk `k@HjF` Jol mH[u nl.
1594 mu MkwmHDj `u@[& Wyjuvm kbHv`cO kc kj. pJn kbHvǮ l LSj up mbHu, lJn miȳbv cUv Sk vJb LSj ybOb jJub. ci pv LSjcOub uk[ Jij JHv lbv pu 1599 mu vJv `iuy HunTm` ybOub. MkwmHDj ll on kwk Yioj nl. MkwmHDj j@y& v cnCv kkj nl. `n k Gi Jj T HnCj ku lj Sk kJU!` DM Myobl l l kj. kubljvb ci kbi pcmvb `u@[& Wyjuvm kbHv`u `kbip kbHv` cnCu mJl ku. MkwmHDj n Sk Gc JJmƳkn nl. MkwmHDjvb kbip kbHvm ojJ<a ov PHuu Jivb vkb unCb DC ll kc kjCb m᪮ Jub.
MkwmHDj kUl j[& yyxp n Sk v vkbl kc kj. lvb `D@Luu`, `n@cu`, `kbi uj` Jij vkbln kcb ku nl. l箳J<Ǯ Sk oblkL Dn. Sko cnC l `j[& lv` vklu DYv Hnv Sk yF& l箳 cl H[u. lvb Ij pTv omN vjH yF&yjyj yyxpu mboM HJu. `cP vJj mkUHmv omN iJ iu, lJn l j$ cP Ij ...` DM DL& l mboM nl. `ojM DuJj `c lmj j[& Dn` Dmb mbib- cnCp c oj GI[v,` DMn k[Y< ll mJu nl. MkwmHDjvb n miUb Skub DC ll[vb yyxp箳 Dioj l l mboM oCN yF& cici iu. kn JUvb lvb ojM `c lmj j[& Dn` Dmb mbiv Ijl JM cUJu. MkwmHDju yIv l yF& JuǮ. HC `MkwmHDj lj MkwmHDj` cnCv lvb oj GI[ub DC H{ p Jnb l Pub. vblj pJn Kjb yyxp l箳k[ Du DC `c lmj j[& Dn` Dmb ynv cnCu lJn MkwmHDj Dlv Dj[u, `lmN j[& Dioj Juc (MkwmHDj)b jp nlb.`
MkwmHDj kn kc jbiu vJnl. D@kwmH[&cO jnCN Sk yF& `c$`lv MkwmHDju Juc vJ cui Pu nl, Dmbn knpC cnCll. HC n u Dmlv vkb unCb DC ll kcb kjCb nn m nlb. MJ Dl LSjn DbMl: l箳 cukǮb Puvb nl Hmn KU uiu nl.
MkwmHDjvb SkC 37 vkb DC 154 kJl unu. 37 vkbHk 17 mKblk (k@c[pd), 10 Mkblk (^@p[pd) DC 10 Slnmk (nmjpd) Dnl. MJ `uJn uym& Jv` DC `k[xvD` n vkb Flnml v Pu. llu ku vkb kJn unu, n vkwk mbil l vn.
knpCbv MkwmHDj vkb j kuKb[ cvu Dnl. mKblkbHmv l MkblkbHl l vkb Ju D<lu DvYJbcC youl iu, Dmb kn kkjbb cl Dn. 1594 muHJa l vT vkb jbiYcJj Du nl DC ov kJb m Pu nl. 1594 l 1597 ojcv lvb `jcD DB[ puS`, `c D@H Jnvm`mk H vkb unu. 1597 l 1600 ojcv lvb D vkb unu. `D@p uFk F` n mKblk DC `pum mPj` n Hnu jcv Mkblk kUlu. 1601 l 1608 kUl lvb on vkb DC Sk kJmbn unu. `n@cu`, `D@Luu`, `kbi uj` DC `c@kwyL` jn Mkblk kUlu. 1608 vblj l H vkb, m@vmd Do mnl m Pub DC i} jMnv pml J< mbHC& ovlu mnlJJj DvY<kwlHC jp kjCN MkwmHDjvb 1616 mu MJ m m[u.
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