jJJj , 18 HyJj 2007

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`KU` cmkv pvJj 2007 Dbk Jum mjbi JM<bk k{u Dn. ll mjbi bv Dym mnlJj kuu n #h
cj J*ddcl hjnl Ji&b DOhl oI&kU u jnub. cC / #$ Ji&v lvblj Dhub DmllJ Myl kub, hjbl l Hjmb MmJ Pub vn. mJlb$vblj Sk i I[u l cnCp `lUiU` Ji&v Dhub JiUhC vpjm DCv oub. oul J*ddcv u# JOv Ilub. l Ji&b pJv Flkb hjkb nlb k DKu Yjldz, SJ{b vJn lj hjoM JkJi&un lcO jm IJm Ju.
mbcCl Dphl Sk Ji& Gh#l jnu nl. `Jj` J `Ku` Ji&l v ymCj Dm Sk Ji&. l cnCp `Dym` mcp. JmlJk mcp GhmLl Jhu Dmvn n mcp SkmbO J Uk nj Dmuu Dm vJnl; JKjuu mLlcO Mcv nl nl. Dvk s-c ib hbpk cnCv Ji&b mcpk DmllJ pCJl nlb. n v<Y JCpi hjmLll yj kU ll nF&. lcU Dym Ji& J*ddcv GhmLl, mJ&l MJ ll Pu, hjbl 1980 hmv Ji&lu uKk nUnU Dhub JiUhC oKJ uiu nl. lbb JcJ Uk nNb vJnlb. hjbl 2000 muvblj Ji&v DOkOk Dhub DmllJ voM&vm DCv u mJl ku. Dym Ji&lu uKk FLJj kCln Ji&l yml vJnl. kn cCl l kO hjnlJia uKkbcC J lj kO cC Ji&lu uKkbcC uKv kj. J kO DOvklb Jm$ hbIj. cU Ji&b uKv kun m箳l ymCjb vJnlb. n Ji& yjm Mnj nl. kkC J Flj h&Yc Ji&l kc-DOk UkhC D{Uv l. (`Dym` n DYOv MyoM: IC pj vn.) cvmk Duhpv (GJCa) J cC Ji&l J vKum oul Ji&l v ymCj l Dym Ji&.
DymJi& J*ddcv YV nl. 1950 l 1980 oMkbl YJ ipJCj (cKl: Duhpv Jia) J*ddcv DymJi&u Ghi Ju vn. Gl#, lc bv Yjuu kJl DOǮ oMkl cC J GuuKvdz cvu pl nl. Dubk=l J mbJovMul mHF&b oM&v kjCN kJlh# Dym kJRv pJvJ<k JOvlck kJl unCb Dil Jub. Dhu pJv hjcCb vƽl kjCJj lbb u# kWl Pub nlb. lb kJl `JmlJJo kJl` cnCl l. n kJl DOǮ kJlJj hmuu Jkbv v<Y, `DUC` J uiu, hjbl Dl J*ddcv cCkb youu nl.
1970-80 h{ Gou Duu uKk- kJR J*ddcv JiU Dn, cCkb JiU Dnl. lbv cnJ箳 JCN i JiU Dnl. cK cnCp lb pJvMuǮ JiU Dn. lb mbmk=lk h&Yc JiU Dn. hhJj cj J*ddcl I[v Duu you n mbmk=lk (Culual) DL&vb (Civilizaional DL&v vJn) you Dn.
1950 hJa kLkj J 1950 vblj vJkLkj blu youmjK vn. vJkLkjbv l#l DCuu you cKl: lb$, mbJov, J= J l DYJ, kLvk ljul b. yyll vJkL `vJ` Dn. uKkb mcpk h hJamjK nl. cnCp Duhpv (GJCa) vJkJlJ< n cnCl F&u. vJkJn Duhpv nl- y. m. c{xkj, EJ. o. kjbokj Flo. 1960 cO mcpk mlj-you nT uiu. Yub vc[ Dym lCv cj mnl OJp nmlil ku. lyjyj oul uKkb Go Pu. lbv Dhu JiU PW[ GYju, Dmb cnCl F&u. kjC lb uKv mc, lb DvYJ, lbb YJvJ Flkb hjkb nlb, k n Jn cOJla Jnynj nl Dmb cnub lj uu. Gu vc[bmjK uKkb mcpk GicmLv JiUb Dmub, lj lbv cOJla, cOcJia mbJovMulu Hjm Okwk hnJu vn. lb Mu yN DbM vJkLM Dhub vlb mbil. l kU Flj uKkn Duhpv uKkbcC JoiO mhHmkMv uJv Du nl. Go. ouh Ʈ$ (m. k. h.- lbv GJCa cnCJb k, J< Jo nC Mkwl Dn); c mJl: (D. y. m.), m (oul).
mJ祮 hjCc cnCp cj mnl箳 mcpk cb[Cl u#Cdz Dm M Hjk omv Du vn. vc[bv (J Jj GuuKuu Flj uKkbv) yv DuhpvlJ J Dym i PW[ GYju Dmb cnCl l vn. uKkbv Duhpv mbmk=lǮ ynlk iC Dlcml ku Dmb cnCJb uiu..
lJn 1970-80 hl kn cuic you- pJvcO J mbmk=lk ljcO I[v Du vJnl. 1980 vblj kJ c$ JiU Ycklv Dhu h{ ll. 1980 h{u yN kJRv hJa kJl hjk, Dvkuvdz Ju. y. m. c{xkjbv mbmk=l DJljCb Dhu kJlbcO Jhju Dnl. l kl Mlkvl kJRv Dkuv nlu K$ vn. EJ. o. kjbokjb kJlbcO GJCa mbJovJ=Ǯ J Y< Dvk KC Dnl. MlkvlǮ kJRv hjkw Jlu. (`h<` n Myo cCo< J kJǮb DJOv vmv `h<` Myo mbmk=ll Dn. n yN Dym ilu kJRv %l nCj vn.)
SkC 1960 hJa kJl J kLlc J*ddc D[iUl h[Cj DM Ʈvnb oml Dnl. JM<l: EJ. o. kjbokj, Jmbl yh DM mbmk=lv kJJ< n Kjb Dn. kJR mbmk=lv Mu MlkvlǮ kJRv DhuM JCj vn. SK hjkw mcn kJl Jl Dn, Dmb lbv Ju.
kLlc J*ddcln DM hjmLl D{Uv l. Sk DvYJ J pCl cj Ohk nJu oll k, v. m. H[k bmjK uKkbJ< kcuǮb Domv vJ h{u Dn. llub mKJml svsk pi, `c` DCYk mJ&u h{Ǯ Lb[ lmo cUl. lb mJl: D<M k[c$ mbybO vn. [kwkv pcKv J l hjmj cC cvv unuu kobyN kuy Puu Dnl.
pmpM oMkb hj nlu, lm cj J*ddc l{ JiU mJhl unJ uiu. 1880-1960 mbhC& kuKb[b J*ddc Duhpv (GJCa) Ji&hjlb c&ol nlb. 1960 vblj J*dc Dym Ji& J oul Ji& bv cK oF&u. l oul uKv n Sk mbhC&hC JiU, JMhC& bl cvu, lj Dym Ji& n cOJla Jnb mjL kju. cC hjmj pmpm Mnj yvl pF&u, lmlM `cC J*ddc` n k youl pF&u. mmLllu ynlbM cC J*ddcb Dym kcO hjJl&v nF&u. m pj l mc Dym mcppJU Dn. lbb pldz/ mcpk mLv Skblk ovb vn. lbcO M#C yjǮ il Pu Dn. lbk[ hjmb mHmkMv Dn. lbv hJa cj J*ddcb yNhk %v Dn. (vov knpCbv lj.) lJn cj J*ddc OJp nll ITv h{ vCb kc Dym uKk mcL&hC k Mklu.
Dym Ji& Sk kckJl yp cnCp Ji&l Skp vn. yjk yjk hbpk EkJ Skb[ Muoj cnCv l uKv kjll. Sk DLa n biub Dn; Gi IUkwv u kv pC lbv Tca l vn. kuJOv lb uKvl Dhmk vm|ik SkmbOl omv F&u.
Dym Ji& lvO 1963 mu #lpJj GiJu. Yub vc[, kmu (1963). lb v$ohk Mv Dym Ji& uKCu Sk DOJ& cUu Dml J Dym uKkbcO vJ pM mbju Dml. hC vc[ bv Dhub Dym mLv ynlbM iuomll Jub J oMJj lL cC uKkbM J lnv mc#kbM

 

nlcUJC ku. oMJj YJ mc#kbv vc[ bv np@k kub.
JmlJk vc[bv Dhub Dym mLv cunp v jKl, Jkbh{ Jub Dmlb J DymJia uKkbv i oM oKJC lv ku Dml lj cj J*ddcb DOk Yub Pub Dmlb. `oMJju cC mbmk=ll` vc[ D[ku J uKk cnCv `hmbmk=l`b pUb lhMl jnu. yjb lbv jKk hmbmk=lu mcjb pb nlb Dmbn oml vn. lb mJl: mcn Sk hmbmk=l Dn, hC uJ-hu mJl: plmcn lbv uKvl kn GuuK ku Dn Dmb Jl vn. Sk s h-mbmk=lyu kmb unJb, ll Jlck s kM DCJl, b sv l#k vc[bv DM lNnv o|Ml kjl Dub Dmlb DC mjlMJ lbv F[Cl OJo hl&l kjl Du Dml. 'Knold hall mak you '
vJ J*ddcJ箳 DjbYu Dym J*ddcu kMcv nC mbO nl, hC vc[b clY< OjCv l icJu.
ci cnucC 1960 DOǮb ynlbM J*ddc v<Y nF&u. vJ h{bv ll kn mJ&kuk cub D{U nCj vn. (JOJb kMJhv { kl Jkbv Dhu nF&u ?) Sk cvJ UǮ jv { cnCv l lk[ hnlu. ibiOj i[iUb `k[ DC i[` kLl Sk Duhpv kbyb DlM yboml JC&v kjCl Duub Dn. 2050 mu Jk l kL Sk hjk EkJ Hj lj Slnmk, DBL@h@uku kL cnCv Ju.
llh&, cj J*ddc箳 Flnml cuic you nlu. 1940-50-60 J*ddcb mjmk DJcuv nF&u. cj J*ddc KN DL&v 1960 mu m Pub Dm clJn F&u. lu yUk k&kjC uYu. 1960 hlb J*ddc Sk DlM c&ol ib nlb; lu `cj J*ddc` Dmb mcpCb n i vn. mJ& mcpu mhM& kjCjb J*ddc 1960 hmv m Pub.
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