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n h$ Dn 2002 cO Yjldz Ƭkhbv unuu. DC lJU `Dmm`v KU[b JJmƳk kjjbJ< kn vJ DC KU[b cl k[k vc lj ku nl. Dhu l h$l vcbJ< Dhu vhmbl Ƭkhbv kUJu nl. Yjldz Ƭk mbI kC&Oj jnu J[v Dio vhmbl J kjCj vmu, lj YJvbM cUlpUl Jj DmCj h$ unu Dmuv cu h J<hJa h$ DJC Pu. KU[b JJmƳk kjjbJj ybOv uou pJl k vnl, J< ocl Dm Mkl. ljn DhC ckoj Ƭk KUl jnu DC mll mǮ Pll jnu lj Dhuu pnjlRm,

 

`c@[Eui`m Jjl Ilu pCj Dn, Jmj Ƭkhbvn h[ ol kc v. `Smmu Ju[&`v p h& Ƭk cb[U箳 mk&mm GY ku Dn, l KU[b mnYiMJ l#l T MkCj vn. DC kn J=h$bcO m Puu ylc Kj cvu, lj J<k Ƭk mhOxhJa mcj mn cnv n KU[ mbybOl kbhvyjyj JjJvc kjCl ibluu nl. L[kwl- h{u kUl Ƭk pi {JUv vICj Dn DC ll yN GuLhuL I[C Mkwl Dn. Ƭkhb yb[ n vbo Dn, Dm cvu lj yb[ kClj m$mbuk DmCj, ln Mbk vn. mbi c n, k Ƭk n Yjldz `J` pi u# JOv ICj Dn. hJa Ƭk Dm vJnl... Dc箳 JU Ƭkhb DUK `hmJu cmlJu` DM kO kvm nT Mkuu vn, Dm mbiCj yjpC Ƭkhb vJ h{cU YbyJu Dnl. Ƭkh pnjl kjll, kJOǮ c pcJll, lb KUh# Flj iRk[ pml u# Dn, Do Djh kjCNbv ci Ƭk vck cb[Uv pcJuu hm kCl iblJCklv Du, Gj u nJ. n miU hM KU Dn, n cv; hC vml hm Dmv Ƭk KUl l vn, nn Jmv uCj vn. hJa jp-cnjp ƬkcO nl. lbvn Ƭk jpkjC ku. hC lbv l h{ jl Du vn. iJunj EMo mjkjbv Dhu mbmLvl plYo jn v, m Ƭk Jhj ku. hlU箳 jpbv DhCn yMb yjyjǮ Dnl, n oKJCm Ƭku lmnv ou. vj mbmLv箳 jpbv kynj jpbv DJnv 箳 nlv Ƭku Jhv Ilu. hlU DC Jpvijcd n mbmLv pJU DbljJj vJnl, hC ovnRcO M$lJ c$ nl. oIbvn l J{m uiJ m Ƭku DOk JJ ou. Jpvijcd cnjp JP bv uu DcjvL bv Sk #uuk kyu lv DJ[b yǮ Jmvblj Fbiub[cO Gljl coM hjl hJv ou nl. `JP` n Kuvk cnCv pml m nl. pb vJv jCp kjb[k mcv YjJu pll, l jCplEmip bv Dhu jpkjCm Ƭk Jhv Ilu. hC l Ƭk Gc KU. FljbcC l Ƭk쮳 yl H cj vnl.
Yjll Ƭk DCu l yMbv. 1780 cO Ƭk Yjll Du, Dm cnu lj lv MlkbcO Yjldz Ƭkv yN biu-JF& i hnu Dnl. Yjl mcpk Flnm n Ƭk쮳 Dbivn pl, Dm cnu pl l GiǮ vn. Yjll jbYǮ kUl Ƭk mbmLv mJh pm nl, lm l O|ck DOjJjn JYiuu nl. hjM pcKv, Eno pcKv DM mbIb v|cl pj kjCbm Pu Dm} lj ll OcOl Yi vJnl. lblu jbi, hbjbi mcv DOk jMǮ nl Dml.
Dp n mJ& mbiu nJ. kjC SK KU[u l箳 KU箳 DOj vkjCl Du lj l箳 Oc& cb[URv l Dhu Oc&Jj ku iuu Dv Jl! Yjl Ƭk pv mcpk Flnm k mbil, l mh kjCj `dJW [d&m [c- D mMu nm^ D@H Fb[v Ƭk` n bL Jvl Du. yj cpcoj bv Dmmu cnlǮ DOj unuu n bL Jvdz lj Dn, hC Dlhl cnl vmCN Dvk i lbv Gp[l DCu Dnl.
Jpvijcd cnjp TH& JP n Dc箳 unvhC DkMJCJj Fbplv Ƭk OJl mc}v kj. Iij DJp, hC v kUCj Gj. Gu Jp c b MJ J mJs Gj cnJCj Dm. [k jlvij, hDm&v mjl, hC, mjM mj̳ n vJ DkMJCJj Fbplv OJl mcuv kjCm m nl. DOǮ kUl y@y lujKv n mc}v SkCNu vJ. Enol SkcJ vJ h{ Du l pmoJEmi b. mMu oM lvblj h{ Du. Ƭk- n@kmn Dvk KUb l JC&v k Mkl. Flk k, hC pmkov箳 mbuvmbi pmoJEmi vmlu lj Dhuu i cnl cU vn, pC K$Ǯ J. pmoJEmi n D@uchk mhOm p. DC Sk J<a Yjl n@kǮ mJC&hok MJ쮳 #C nku lJn lbv nbok DJjl Du vn, c m#oj Dn. c lJn l JC&v j[DJv Sku Dn.
1932 DC 1936 J<a Fbiub[u pCN Yjldz Ƭk mbI vl=lJ Dhuk[ J, m `JPR`v yj jpkjC ku nl. DhC Dhu jpl Ƭku SJ{ lmnv ol cnCp Ƭk쮳 kC&OjhoJjn Dhu DOkj Dn, Dm lb oJ nl. DC lh{ Ƭk vck cb[Uvn cv lkJu nl. JPR jpkjCu hlU箳 cnjpbv JiU lNnv Gj ou. lbv Dhu mbmLvl uu DcjvL, DvJj nmv, uuEmi, Sm. vPj Du, Sm. JPj Du bv vkN ou DC mbmLv mbIl lbv JJ ou.
ybiucO Hy@uJ< pml c oml, n hnv cbyF&v Ƭkk[ DOk u# hjJu. SkCmJ Mlk箳 DKj nuu u#Cdz nl. lhl yMbM KUl yjyj k MkCj hjM pcKv cbyF&l Gom l nl. 1848 DC 1850 cO cbyF&l DjSvu DC Pjm^v Ƭk kwuy n hjM cb[UR ov mbI lj Pu. lvblj lb kwuy n ynlbM k oJlb vJv lj nT uiu. l mcjm cbyF&cC hCln Ƭk mj nT uiu.
1880 mcjm cbyF&l Flj mcp u# Ƭkk[ yl-ylv pT uiu. hvJukj ybOb knC lj mJv Lkwk kv m[Cj Dn. yU, Jru, MJjc DC iChl n In ybO Ƭk KU. l bYj mcplu nl, hC KU GJCa Eno mbIk[v DC ln cbyF&l. yU hvJukjb ƮjbpJ 1944 l 1955 ojcv cbyF& mbIlv jCp kjb[k mcv KUu Dnl. l `Dbl` cnCv m nl.
I hvJukj ybObhk Jru bv pJUpJU on J<x GJCa Eno mbI vl=lJ ku nl. yU hvJukj b pvc OjJ[. 1875 cO l pvcu. hCl lbv [kwkv pcKv ynlbM yC KU[ DmCN mbIyjyj KUv yMb hv pcKv hjYJ ku nl. jbYǮ kUl yU n hjM kwuycO `Tb[dmcv` cnCv kc hn. lb lJn hij nl cnv 3 h. lvblj lbv jhvb kwuycO vkj hlkju, lJn lb hij 4 h Pu. KUhf lj kjC, p DKC, mcj< lj kjC n lb kc nl. v ybOn kc lb. Sk oJm m jhv Ƭkh p. p. i bv lbv mjJ 箳 nlv Sk W[ ku. lv i Lkwk nTv iu. i bv yU bv DCK iubop kju mbilu. `Enobv SJ{ biu iubop kUl vmu lj l cK& Dnl,` Dm i lJn cnCu. hCkj Enobv yU hvJukj b cnl kUu DC lbv lbv Dhu mbIl L mLv ou.
DM lNnv hCkjb mbIl yU hvJukj Uu. . o. y. oJOj bv yU hvJukjb JC&v `Glk= iubop DC kcuǮ opxoj #$j#k` cnCv ku nl. yU hvJukjbyjyj hCkj nl jKv Jilnl, Dm u#l Duv y@cy Eno pcKvv Flj lI hvJukjbv Dhu mbIl Ilu DC l lbmcJl Sk$ pJCKCn k uiu. oozJv iChl hvJukjb Dku vOv Pu. MJjc hvJukj bv hlU箳 cnjpbyjyj Fbiub[ oj ku DC l oNl lbv omN cbk箳 mJ&Ok 631 OJ PUkJu nl.
yU hvJukj n vJ lJn mJ&lcK Pu nl. Fbiub[u KUv l hjlu lJn lb mlkj `[m[ kwumm` Jlv cbyF&l hj h[u. lJU [@. yymny Dby[kj b nml lb mlkj kjCl Du. lvhJ&k kJ{ c M cUJl T Mkl, n mh kjCm 1927- 1928 cO [@. Dby[kj yU hvJukjb GonjC K[h[ .
yU hvJukj pJn cbyF&k[v KU箳 GMv hCnv vIu lJn hC箳 pcKvJj lb c vjh mcjbY Dpl kjCl Du nl. mcjbY箳 DO#mLv ukcv Uk nl DC cK J nl vcla jv[. 1890 cO yU hvJukj hCl KU uiu. lJU n cui DJI 15 J<祮 nl. J箳 hbJmJ J<a n vjh mcjbY Pu, Dm cvu lj n ovnn Gbk cnCJ uilu. (vcla jv[ b 16 pvJj 1901 jp vOv Pu.) yU hvJukj n cbyF&l pTv Dhu k|lcvl DCK Yj Iuu, Dm cl oIbvn lJn J ku nl.
cbyF&lv KUl Dmlv yU hvJukjb vJ `h. yU` Dm Pu. yU, y. p. oJKkj DC hu n lI `[m[ kwum kcv` uJ uiu. [@. Dby[kjbv JiU clojmbIm j m kuvblj lIbv cnlc ibOR vl=lJJj Dhu Jm Dmu pnj ku. mhWyj 1932 cO yU n `hC kjj` xm ibOpR Jlv kBm cOmL yvu. 1933-34 cO h. yU bv cbyF& cnvijhuk vJ[Ck u{Ju. hC nc SH. hJj bk[v lb hjYJ Pu. 1935 cO [@. Dby[kjbv hC kjj HUv uJv `M[u[ kwum H[jMv` v|cl ku. 1920 hmv 1933 hl [@. Dby[kj byjyj vnc & kjCj h. yU lb JjOl cbyF&lv vJ[Cku GY jnu. yU bv 11 npj 225, lj [@. Dby[kj bv 13 npj 245 cl h[u. u{ll kcij h{j k. Sv. piUkj n kBm yb[Kj lmj GcoJj nl. lbv 10 npj cl cUuv h. yU h[u, Dm v<k<& lJn k{u iu.
cbyF&k[v vblj kUl yC, hjM, Ƹv, cmuc, o#Cl Dm mJ& pl-pclR lC ƬkcO h{ Du. cbyF& n mJ&L&v ynY<kb vij yvu DC l lvOlJ cbyF& mbIl omu, lj ƬkcO cj lC DI[Jj jnu.
cbyF& KU[bv Yjldz Ƭk vck cb[Uk[v mhlvYJ JiCk cUl Dmu lj hJa ku pl Dm. Jp c bv l mcplu mJ&Lc Okwk ou DC cbyF&kjbv kJU l cbyF& Dnl cnCv [Juu pCj vn, K$ ou.
cbyF&l yy@v&Jj KUJu pCN km Ƭk mcvl mnYi Dmuu cbyF&kjbv Iv pJC [y ITv pJ ui, n yy lkU ibYj cvu iu vn. cbyF&kj KU[ Ghvij i[blv Jm kv &iu DC yy@v&Jj mcvhJ& mjJn kj.
Yjldz Ƭk vck cb[Uv 1987 cO Yjl DC hkmlv bl J<k Ƭk mhOx I Ilu lJn cb[Uu `lyyu` 10 uK 11 npjb `Ho` Pu mbill. cb[U箳 DO#ho picnv ouc Du DC Ʈ$ huu. ouc cnCll, 1993 cO ojoM&vv cb[Uk[ mcv箳 L #hCm h uK hb ciC ku nl. `^vm Ju[& Fbjv@Mvu` kbhvu #hC DOkj Yjl-Fbiub[ cuk JU 1993 cO Jku, lJn cb[Uu mn uK [@uj cUu. lvblj c$ cb[Uu `l` n Myo kOǮ Y[mJu vn. vJplEmi mv hjJ kb$ hlJj l箳 hlv Y< ku. Dhu Ƭkhbv pj pnjll Yi IT v Dm cb[Uu cvhmv Jl Dmu lj cb[U箳 3 npj k vHwcOu on kwk Yi- cnCp lvM k h cb[Uv KU[bcO Jv kJl, l pnjl kjCj vnl, Dm mӮ cnCC Dn. Ƭkhb pjJj cb[U cuF& Kl Dml, Dm l Djh Dn.
`dJW [d&m [c`cO cnlǮ D#jM: Kpv Dn. khuoJ- mvu iJmkj blu JoJJo DC lvblj lbl vc&C Puu ijmcp J<Ǯ lhMu covynj u{bcO mh[l. khu Fbp llkm biu vJnl. lcU iJmkj Dhuyu ijmcp kjJv Il Dn, Dm khuu J. Dhu ƬkJj vu iJmkj DJnv ol Dn, mcplv oIbcO h{n Kk G[l jnu. Gu, iJmkj KUk[ MbYj kwk u# ol vn, DM khu lj nl. khuu pj lm Jl Dmu lj DhC cm箳 (VF&) mcvl KUCj vn, Dm iJmkjv cb[U lJn DO# Sv. k. h. mUJ bv kUJu nl.
Fbiub[J 1984 cO omN kml vJ ouucO KUlv khuv Sk Dll Hk cv l HU Yiu. lmN kml khu Dml kc v, Dm iJmkjv Dn Oju. khuu JiUCl Tv L kml lu hjl ICl Du. mJ& JoJoǮ hjCc l hC& cukJj Pu.
6 D@im 1989 jp ouh JWimjkj, khuoJ, jJ Mm$, DCuu, cncco DPv DC kjC cj mn KU[bJj cb[Uv Sk J<&m ybo Ilu. l kjC nl- Jm Fb[p箳 oNJv l hjmhj Dcjkl DC k@v[cO Ƭk KUu iu nl. lbyjyj mbp cbpjkj, Sc. JWkjcC, mbp Mc&, Dp Mc&, vjW njJC, j@yvEmi nn iu nl, hC lbv cb[Uv `DvvYJ` Dmu箳 kjCKu k[k M# ku vn. lbv H lk 15 npj h ob[ kjCl Du. lm mJ& KU[bv Jm Fb[pcO Ƭk KUCm J lk 35 npj hb jkwkc phl kjCl Du.
hmlkl `c@ HEkwmi`J<Ǯ ljKJj cnl oCl Du Dn. Gcbo vJ箳 Jk[v Dp p[pu jp ku pCj 13 l 62 Hv k@um yj kn mbiv pll.
yj cpcoj b `Fb[v Ƭk L Spm`Jj hJa c unu nl. l hmlkl L[ HjHj kv n hmlk unu Dmu, Dm l JChJa cP mcp nl, hC l K ju. hnu hmlk Glk= mbhov vcv nl, lj n hmlk uKv Gc vcv Dn. `FuJnv i@[dm, D yuv Fb[vm` `dJv [d&m [c`cOu kjCl Yjldz #kbn npj ICl Du Dn. mcv nju k Ƭkhbv MJiU DC Epku k lb Ʈ$bn kUypj- n Dn Yjldz #kb cvmkl. 1 c& 2003 jp Yjlv J<k Ƭk mhOxl hkmlvu njJl mjJ ibiu DC mƮv lW[ukj b Ʈ$bv MJj$Ǯ hpl mLv ou iu. lhJa D@m^uk[v Yjl 15 HyJj 2003 jp hjYJ Pu lJn lb lk=l oMYj hJv oCl Du nl. n M Kh} J<k mhOxl Lck Hjl Yjldz mbI J uiuvblj Dhuu hnu cUu. ƬkJ<Ǯ n c YJv Dmu, lj hJa hjYJ #kbv hJu Dnl DC pUhUmjK #Yk kj Uu Dnl.
cP unvhC Jp OJl JC&v L Dhu Ij DCv hnJCN j[Du nj Iuv mpJ i cn ku. iJl Jp ylc mbiCN Dvk Hukbv Dm nj Ilu iu c DvYJu Dn, hC Dhu mJ&pvk cuc vkmv ku iu kO DvYJ} vJnl, l Dl DvYJ} cUl Dn. u kjCYl Dn- Iv l# Ʈ$C. l I[Ju pl DmbK J=JnvbJj. DC ci n mL mJ&$ hmjl pl. J=Jnvbv n M oKJC ybo kjJ Dm c cnCCj vn, hC ljn ƬkcRv mcbpmhC oKJl u nJ. DhC hjhkwJ Dnl, n lbk[v oKJu pu nJ. Ƭkhbvn DhC #kb kn oC uil, cvcv pCJ Ju nJ. [Umcj nJlv W[ h[l Dmlvn l Pu vn, Dm lb `v` Dmu lbv vov oKJ lj v. Mv mJ祮 D[ulfhC DC D[ChC Dn. `khxj` pin J[hChmv oj vn.
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