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jJJj , 27 c 2007

`[j' n Jn ƵKb DOJl hbL vkn. hjbl DOJl K hbL-hjbhj} c$ kl J, `[j'v lbv Dknv o} Dn. hbL} hby Dn l cKl: nbob... DC lln ƵKbcO} o}lb. lcU hbpycO} h#YJ mbI<&} pldz Dbin Dn. Yjldz GhKb[} plkkmL p h Dn, llv K Oc&n m}} vn. p DJ} o}ծ jp hbpycO Dn, l DJ}bbcO ynmbK p Dnl. DC l pbcO hYk Dn- Ovob[i, Djjk pcvojb. Yphv `[j'kjO YcJ Il}} vn, nn mbybOl cnkծ Dn. mbI<&} J@bim kթOo DJ} o} Dmn hjcC hhl P} Dn. SJCծ hbpycO DC K mcpl mO Oc&J k jpJdz Dmbl<ծ klkjC Dn. lծ hjcյ& ICj n }K-
`[j mծ mo' kjOlu lk voM&v hbpy-njCl m Dmlv lծ h[mo y\cin@ccOn Gcu. mblhl DbouJbv lLu Yjldz olkmkj c& vu. `[j' v<O Jjlvծ `Kumlv Poyo' I<C boi{-DclmjcO pM ou pl nl, lM l ub[vծ jmlbkjn ou pl nl. n lhuu klkjC Dpn Mcuu vn. ukJj Mcu Dm kl vn. p kiv hjmLl yI[u DC nmծjծ Di[by GmUu lkժv Dm kl, J pC Jn DM mbOǮ MOlծ n DbouJ nl... Mnjl obiu GmUu J l ibOUl Dhu pv nMy Jl JjCj DvJ pC Dmll! hbpy- njCl mO l m Dn. kM<l: hbpyl. lcU Sjkn SJcJb Jfj M$ DmCjn Dl `[j' kjOl SJ$ Du Dnl.

 


hbpy DmkmL Dn. p YlJU i[v lpmk Yk<ծ oMvb hbpy cCm vIu, l YlJUծb Yճ Dp hvn lծ cvikj ymub Dn. Kumlv UkUvb SbMǮ oMJl hbpyծ Dmllkh{b cb hMvƮvn GYb Jub nlb. c$, ljn hbpy mkju. vml mkju vn, lj ocKl GY jnu. lhk& lծ #clvb l GY Ju nl, pkn HUCvb DvJb Dճ< yƮjK Ju. Dm OiOil Flnm DC OcmCj Yiu b myl Dmuu hbpy lvblj njk kbv pl jnu. oMlu mk&l ʹcbl jp Dm uJJ Jckl DC hճYl mbjv yyll vkvk jdz kկc Jjl!
DL&l lknn hbpycOu Yճ mk&L&v mbhuu vknl. hծ k<եhk& mbmokj nuu Puvblj Yjlv hJmlvu p onMlkb o ou, lcO hծ MK onMlko nl. yyyj Kum, Kumlv Poyo, Kumlv Jcb[, Fbjv@Mvu MK L H[jMv, ou Kum onMlko mbIvb l Jճ&Jl& nl. Dio ov k<եhk& `p yu m vnu' Ʈ$hu kjO JjCm ouulu Ʈ$hinbkj mH JjCl n onMlko DI[kj nl. jh- DcjJl Kumlvkb yJ lkn m nl. Dpn l nl Dmll... hbpycOu nmծju Dm DvJ Dճc Dnl. SJ lj hbpyu uivծ hJmlvlu hbpyծ mc Dn. pcc-JMcj mcn hbpyu Tv Y[l. lcU hJmlvծ hbpyJ[n yjJF&v u# Dml. Mkճ hbpy-hJmlv bl pk vl Dn. (hk& hbpyծ jpOv unj nl.)
oj JMu, 1948 cO `[j mծ mo' pbv mLhv Ju l MnvMn cmlvp cnjp b pvc Dl hJmlvl DmCN yuƮmlvl Pu nl. njClu mjm L lbv `[j' mLhv Ju DC SJ Ymbhoճ vc&C Pu. SJ lj l JuKb[ kiU nl. HUCǮ OJwJwlv hbpy DCK mkjuu vknl. lbv DOj nk nl. Kj cnCp MK Oc&l i- yy bv Jn mLv vn. hC cvmJo Kծuu uJ DM yyծ MOl nl. lbv `Ov Ov modi lj n Dmj' Dm cnCCm cmlvp cnjp cUu. O|cJ onv JCl Dj JmUl, n DvYkuu mcv cCmbv Oc&, plǮ hu[ iuu n mbhoճ Dk[u. mjmmjK s Mnjl lcU Yb io& k{ uiu. mjm Dp njCl Dmu lj lkn l hbpycO nl. (noynu njC jp h{ hvj&v cl hbpycOv kiU J} i}.)
n mbhoճ kjkj k{l iu. Dp [jcO no mk&OJ Dnl. lln cimki& plbcOu Yb mbK pml. plb Gljb[ nobcO Dn, lMǮ l MKbcOn Dn. hmLhl jvl Jn mLv vmCj cb[U mbhoճJ[b D{u iu.
[j h{b Sk{ kmljl iu J, Dp npj SJj pcv lb lyl Dn. JJC cc Fcjl Dnl. mcpJ Ghկc Dnl. SJ mjm Dʹcծ pi 700 SJjb Dn. lLb Yk m[c Dn. Yjl-hJ ƯJ mcv lLb Pu nl. Sk{b Jճ, Mn jm@jb v y hu&jn Dn. JkU hbpy-njCծ vn, lj ncծu hoM, ouu DC jpmLvln lb Y Dnl. (Dlծ koiml cnjp cU jpmLvծ.) JCJ[v SJ hMծ oCi v ICN [jJ[ Sk{ mbh JM, Dm hMv JCun h[k. lծ Kj Gj cUCj vnǮ; hC mbhǮ SJ JjC o[u Dn l hbpyծ mhJ cll. Yjhj Mlpcv Dmuv [ju hMb lk[ pCkl vn. n Mlpcv, n [jkթ DmCN Dmbl<ծn SJ cK JjC. hbpyl mO pcvojbcO c mbI<& m Dn. lLu pcvb oj DJMu Y[u Dnl. DM kU [jJ[ c pcvoj cnCvn hnu pl! Sk{ pcv `iUbJl' JjCN yyu DJ Jj DC lb pcv lyl I, DM ciC DbouJ Jjll, l Giծ vn. DMծ hJj SJ nuu njClu JjLcO vJlծ Pu. lcO uJbv SJ cnjpծ ckj nuu {ku. cnjpu lyl Ilu DC cծ pcv yUJku!
SJ c$ Kj, c@vpcb쮳 kLեv O[ Ikl Dm kkmLhv [jծ Dn. cnCp mk& jpbcO mcl, k<ճvnճ Ghmcl, Jճ&Jj mcl Dm Dlbl vճpvy Jc ul. `[j' mkl: kymF& Dn DC lb kl&cvh$n Dn. `Ju, Dp Dj Ju : mծ JnB' vkծ kl&cvh$ծ kymF&kj DhC iu lj `hp cnjpb kikiU DJ<&J hMKlu H' Dm mklb$ kYiծ Dn. lL JwuJ Ju J yyb [PvYj H (H@vm [mcOu) hnճu cUll.
yy ijcl vkծ n hJjC Dn yJ YjǮ. cmlvp cnjpbv [jծ m$ m[lv cnCp 1960 cO pnj Ju nl J DCK ml k<եv Dcn hvn pvc ICj Dnl! n ijcl cnjp pvcu 1967 cO. lcU lbv 1980 cO hnubo hnlծ mlvc mip bv pnj Ju J, cmlvpb hvp&vc Pu DC n Dhu h{ cnjp. lhcC 1990 cO, cnCp kճծ DkI lkmk k<& ijclmi l iokj ymu. h{ lbv Dhu vkl jcjnc p[u. jbiu kckծ n cnjp mʹk hkծvm hm Dnl. lb vkkj yjǮ hmlJbn Dnl. Mkճ n cnjp Jn s-c clJj Jjl Dmll!
n mbhoճ k{l k{l Yb mbK SJ JǮ h{ hnukj MjcC DJu ouu OJwJ ymC mkYkJ nl. lcU lbv yy ijclu u# Jjճu mkl Ju. yyծ SJ vlkF&J Kumlv UkUl cnjJw nl. h{ Y[ծ JBim DcojMn yy vlv p[u iu. vblj l JBimծ Sk{ pkU iu J iu Hykjl Puu kOvmY vk[CJl lbv JBimu L hy ou. lcU `kn yBJ' cnCv [jJ[ hnu pT uiu. c mjJj ukl, h[l- Dm ib[ yyծ cvl lճj Pu. JBimu hy ouv DJu ou- Yphծ kjO, lj n JBimcO Hj c nl pF&u ծ JBim vlbv Yճ, lcU [jk<ճ hlJu klkjC lճj nl iu.
1978 cO DJu lKlv vjbJjbv yn<Jl Ju DC vblj l mbhoճծ hcKծ nl Pu. l kU DJu lKlv Oc&ibLծ nku ol DM YcJ Ilu nl J `i ibLmny' Mkճ kiU i MKbv Dm MJl vn. i ikomi n Mk i. Dl cvk hlu i vn. lծhcC MjcC ij hybOJ mclMkճ Dv JCun mbmJlJ- mcpJ nml#h JjCծ DOJj vn.
`[j'kj nCN nuubv DM DvJ hjcC Dnl. hC n `[j' Jn mO mjU vn! [j mծ mocO lթC mOkb ubiJ M<C nl Dmuծ Djh jCplmi vkծ [jծծ SJ Jճ&Jl&v Ju nl... DC lvblj Jn okmblծ lծ Kv Pu. n Iv yjyj hծ k<եhk&. jCplmiv Juu Djh DC vblj Puu lծ Kv, n Jn vkkU iճi vknl. h{ hJjC vճuճl iu. `myDճ' JMǮ DoM ou iu. Dl cnvl kM< myDճ vճuճh{ Kuծ mvkC nCj Dmlv yy ijclmibv n Gi Jjk, nn iճi vn. hծ k<եhk& mjm Dʹclu SJ mOkv llJuv hblhOv Duynj kph bv h$ unv yy ijclծ j Jcե k onMlǮ h{ kծu nl. MKb onk i i ikomi bhcC hMK Jv pnj Jճ&cl DkljC DC lm H kl&cvh$lv hm JjC, n Gi lj yybv Ju; hC i᪮ DOJjv M<bv pnjhC o#n (Dcl mbmJj) ou!
myDճ Kuծ mvkC h{ {JuCm yyb n } Dn, Dm lb Yn Dl Kmil mbi uiu Dnl. hծ k<եhk& `[j' ho&HM JjCN SJ h$Jjծ Kv Pu, l hJjCn JM m Dn. `mծ JnB' ovJ ukCN [jv `hj mծ' vkծ ovJծ mbhoJbv mbhku, Dm Djh Dn. yy ijclmibv n K& Sv kMl yUJku JM, yun yj Gumu yuu pl. jbiu mkճb DC ʹcbl pkvMuǮ n cnjp Kumlvkbhmv JBimhճեl miUJ[ kkjl Dmu k mjJj-ojyj lծ oyoy Dmu lj Dl lծ `nճ hHFu' pvOjծ Yl mkեvծ k uiu Dn.
o[ J Dvճ, DypkOb mbh, npj SJj Mlpcv... cU `[j' lJo k{u DC lcU `[j'u kjOn k{u...
hbpyl nmծjծ Di[by GmUu ծ Ůl lj Dn; hC FlJ okm mhlkmLl DmCj `JU' mJkCj lj vn v, n Yճ lnv DOJ Dn. `Kumlv Poyo' hvn pkbl Puu I<C [jkju nuubh#n pml nojkCN Dnl.uu
mbpճ Dk

K hbLծ kƵ
i vvJv F.m. 15 k lJl mLhv J}}, YJwl-Jwl b mcvkճ Dm}} DC DvճbcO kpi< k Dm}} n K hbL.
K hbLl SJC 10 i P}. lb vk k J} Dm- 1) i vvJ (F.m. 1469-1539), 2) i Dbio (F.m. 1539-1552), 3) i Dcjom (F.m. 1552-1574), 4) i jcom (F.m. 1574-1581), 5) i Dp&vok (F.m. 1581-1606), 6) i njikbo (F.m. 1606-1645), 7) i njjճ (F.m. 1645-1661), 8) i njJv (F.m. 1661-1664), 9) i liynoj (F.m. 1664-1675), 10) i ikbombi (F.m. 1675-1708).
kj} 10 ibvblj K hbLl DCK JC i P} vn. ikbombiv lյ I<C J}- `h{ i nCj vn. ƵKbv Flhhj iibL}ծ jC pk DC ll} GhohcC kik. iibLcO Dpkj mk& ib Dlcpl hJյl Dn, n }#l kk.'
hծ `J'Jj : Jm, JhC, J[, Js DC Jbik OjC JjCN DC kյ<l: Jm kCN ƵK} `K}m' Jbk `mjoj' cn} pl. hlJ K}m DLk mjoj n K Dml, hC hlJ K K}m DLk mjoj Dml Dm vn. ikj ʹ DmCj DC Jm jKCj l K.
K hbLծ kƵ : K hbLծ kƵ K}}hcC mbil l} - 1) SJl DC mk&YcJl, 2) mlmbi DC mbil, 3) mlJc&, 4) vjnbJjl, 5) Jhk}byv, 6) mk, 7) pl-hl vjO, 8) DYol Jbk mcoƵ&l.
ƵKb hծ hk$ lKl h{}hcC Dnl- 1) DJ} lKl, Dclmj (ծ mLhv injikbov J}.) 2) ynjcO} hCmny (i iybombnծ pvcmLv), 3) Jji{, Dvbohj (Kb[ocl hmbi), 4) vbo[ (cnj), i iybombnծ clmLv, 5) ococmny, Ylb[ (i iybombnծ FL Jn JU ckwkc nl. mLU} lKlծ cvl F.m. 1966 cO cU}.) lKlծ hcK} pLLoj cnCll.
mk& ijbv ƵKbJ[v mkճbmHl&v oCi cUll. hlJ K mcvhC Dhu GlhVծ 10k nmm Oc&Jճ&m ol. ol ib mcjCL& GYj}} p Jn ij Dnl, DյbhJ j ijbv ƵKb j lKl (vճovծ Oc&h) cnCll. lb JC Dյ- 1) hk&m hC L i ikbombib pvcmLv. 2) hƽcm Dclmj Jbodz Oc&h ʹ DJ} lKl. 3) Gjm Dvbohj k 4) o#Cm vbo[.
F.m. 1925 hճեl miU ij ƵjcC ij JcǮ mK} D}. F.m. 1925 m} y mjJjv ij Jճo vc&C J}. loddvmj 1926 m} ij hybOJ mclǮ hn} vk&v P}. mclǮ hcK Jճ& ijb oKjK, Oc&hϮj, khmj Flo Dn. ƵjcC ij hybOJ mclnv kiU Dm SJ Jbodz ƵjcC DJ} o} Dclmj L mLhv P} Dn. lծ pLL hlJ pul ijb kkmL DC pvmk Flo Jc Jjll.

K hbLծ GhյK
1. DJ} hbL- i vvJok v J}ll hjcjծ Ghmv DJ} vkv hϮ}l J}.
2. Gom hbL- i vvJծ h$ ʹǮbo n hbLծ mbmLhJ.
3. JJ hbL (vcOj hbL)- GhhbLծ mbmLhJ yy y}Jmbi (F. m. 1799- 1861). yy jcmbn (F. m. 1861- 1884) lծ Ƶ<v vcOj hbLծ kmlj J}. Oc&J hbL} blJjJ jpJdz o}ծ h oCծ Jճ& mO jcom cnjdz h<v J}.
4. K}m hbL- DC Y (kjjm DC hcjm) b Dhk& mcvkճ Dm}}, ƵKb 10 k i ikbombn v mLhv J}} }{kճ ƵKb n hbL.
5. iv hbL- i ikbombnծ JU vc&} hbLyjyj iv hbL vkծ SJ omj hbL vc&C P}. lծ Dvճbv K pvl} iibLl} Jkv mh hbpyl mcpkv mbiCծ Jճ& J}. YF& cCmbn n hn} iv n. l i ikbombnծծ Ƶ< nl.
6. vvJn (vvJ hbL)- Gom k piճm n ծ GhhbL Dnl. hbpyl} }{ճbv JbUv p K }J mbOcO i}, lbv n kiU hbL k{k}.
7. vjbJj hbL- hbLծ }J vjbJjծ Ghmv Jjll, cnCv lbv vjbJj Dm vk h[}. hkj L} o}om K$ n hbLծ mbmLhJ n. n F.m. 1783 cO pvc}. i vvJծ DOlcJ ƵJkCJ} K}mv so o} Dm ծ cl nl cnCv vjbJjbv Jn kU} vvJhbL cn} pl. (ouu L} mbl vjbJj cb[Uյ vjbJj hbLծ Jnn mbybO vn.)
8. vc&} hbL- F.m. 17k lJl kjmbI vcJ h<v hbLծ mLhv J} Dm Jn }J cvll. lj Jn }J i ikbombI}ծ l hbLծ mbmLhJ mcpll. hbLծ Dvճb kmlk cLj, kbokv, <J Flo #$l Dml. n }J J[k Oc&v k vJ yծj Dmll. n }J ynO Jճcծ cl jnll. hC lbhJ JnpC hkmU m[v D cnv Ycbl Jjll.
9. vnbi hbL- i ikbombnv ci}bkթ cb[}u }{l vnbib iov }#Cdz Dn. ij cm lbv L& Pbp o}. Kb mklb$}{ծ hlJ cnCv lbJ[ hn} pl.
10. Yil hbL- b kml y$ puծ hn[hj Yil DC [jFmcF}KB l}Jwl D{Ul.
11. mbi mY UkU- Jjmbi DC iv iDvmi bv 1 D@Jwyj 1873 okյ mY mLhv J}.
12. mLjյn hbL- mLjյnv hbLծ mLhv J}. hbLծ }J hbpy k ybi} hblbl DOJ mbKv D{Ull.
13. mkhbL hbL- Jvn̳ n hbLծ mbmLhJ. cpj, oN kUC Flo n}Jm}J Jcn hcCJhC Jv vk&n JjC lbv Y#kh# DOJ Dk[l.
14. nbo} hbL- Dclmj puԳl} pb[} ik hbLծ ij Dn. l `yy nbo} J ojyj mny' vkv hm Dn.
(mboY&- bJj DYbJj b YJ)