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jkkj, 1 7 pv 2007

`cvmv cnCp hTm' n vl hϮul Dmu lj cvmvծ kNb hYk#$ lnv Jllj c Dn. Yjlmn DMճ Kb[lu ynlbM ibkj cvmvծ hYk Dn. hoMlu DV, hL-hjbhj, mC l Oc&-mbmJl DM cnkծ ib cvmvM Khծ pkU mbybO Dn. hծv khjm l hcK mnճJ ju. F.m. hnu MlJl nhhum vkծ iJ o&ko&v kNb khjm Ghճi Jv Ilu DC khjծ njcnjծ youv iu. Yjlu I[kCl kNb c YcJ Dn. DM cvmvծ KjKj DUK Jv oCj uK...
pbiu kծk cnCp y Oc& kծu!...
phv mbMOJ k uKJ mPJ nok ծ `Dճ[ D@H H@jm, Dճ[ D@H [P&' hmlJlu n Juhv! y Oc& DC pbiuծ mbybO pbv cnl vn, DMbv l `H@vm' ku, hC lciծ lJ&

 

hCpi Dn. ծ JjC y Oc& n pbiu k kv Dmuu hoMlu Oc& Dn. cnCvծ l pml hkmծ hoMl- cnCp Yjldz GhKb[, Div DMճ, phv, JjmjK oMbcO kmlj hku. pbiu nծ lծ iY Dmuv pbiu Jc Pu lj n Oc& JCj Jm?... n mPJǮ mbl! lu DOj olv, phvծ luvl Jjl ƸMv Oc& DկcC DOJ Puծ mPJ mbil. lծ mbybO l Jjl v Puu kvmbhoM k phvcO m JwJwbkj Jv Dmuu pbiubM p[l. DMճlu pbiubv pvc oCj Dhu cvmvծ Dn. lcU cvmvծ hkmv y Oc& kJml knճun col Ju Dn. Gu, ƸMv Oc& pvcu k mklu k{u l cKl: pmuc k Dmhmծ Jj[ hoMl. lcU y Oc&kju lծ DկcC jKճծ Dmum `pbiu Jk' Dm ko mPJ Jjl.
Oc&mjK DlMճ cnkծ IJu cvmvv Jmb hYkl Jub, ծb n GonjC. JkU Oc& vkn, lj Yjlmn o#C DMճ k Div DMճlu mk& ibkj cvmvծ hYk Dn DC l UJhC omlm. hoMlu Yl k cm n cK DV Dm, Gljl shj Dmuu Ij- cbojb kmlMu Dm Jk hL, hjbhj, mC Dml- mkեkj cvmvծ hYk hnճu cUl. DhC c$ `cvmv cnCp JkU hTm DC Ml' FlJծ cճ&ol kծj Jjl. hl#l lծ hYk#$ c Dn. Dhu hjmjl kJml Puu mbmJlbcO lծ hcK k Dn. hծ npj k<եhk& mO mbmJl Dm k lծn DOǮ mbmJlǮ kkO hh- hlJkj cvmvծ m Dio UJhC Gcuճ.
DMճ Kb[l kkO mbmJl kJml nCm DC lbv v JjCmn cvmvծ JjC ju Dn. ipjll F.m.hk& JUl vbouu kkO mbmJl k l JUlu cvmvcOu {Glj b mbybO y[o khlu hjlkk k hծv Flnmծ DYmJ Dpl hu bv uku Dn. hkmծ hcCvmj jnCcv Jm youu, n l oKkll. Dphmv 6600 l 4800 k<եhk& JuKb[l mklu K[J k lby khjCj lch<C mbmJl Dmllkl nl. h{ jnCcvl DlMճ mOhC Du. JjC ծ JUl h{ hhl cvmvծ hkml I Pu nl. Jj[ nkcvl Jv jnCm jnCcvlu n you DkMJ nl. h{ 4800 l 3000 k<եhk& JUl cvmvծ hkmծ hcC k{u. vcJw ծ JUl ipjll hil mO mbmJlǮ kmnl vc&C Pu. kժv cvmvծ cvk mbmJlbkju hYk mh nl. cnjln hC pul Fvcik Lu GlKvvl hjlk DYmJ [@. cOJj {kUJj bv n mbybO oKku Dn. kikiU JUl cvmvծ hkml Puu {-Glj DC lvmj lL Duu my k ojo lbv oKkv ou Dn.
kkO mbmJlbhcC cvmvv hcKv hYkl Ju l hծv khj! lծ hYk FlJ Dn, J cvmvMkճ hծv Yjldz khj k{u vml DC YjYjn Pu vml! n kOv O[m ku, hC n kmlmLl Dn. ծ kNb Ghճi Jv JlJ MlJbhmv Yjlծ khj kJml nl iu. Kjb lj Yjlծ mcoci& nCj khj mO mbmJlǮ JUhmv cnCp hծ npj k<եhmv Dmllkl Dmuծ hjk Dnl. `mO'lu uJb Djy mco Dub[v huJ[ cmhcճ lm jcv-iJbM khj mbybO nl. khjM cvmvծ Jճ mbybO, DM MbJ GhmLl nF&u. hk& khjm M[ծ pnp khjl nl. n pnp knv vCj hcK M nl- kj. kkO oMbv knCN kNծ Ghճi Jvծ c khj pnp uճծ. lm cvmvծ kNb Kh Ghճi Pu. JjC kNb kM cnCp l k<&lu vcc JU Gj-hk& (F&Mv) oMv knll, lj Gjuu mn cnv kթ cnCp o#C-hMc (v$+l) oMv. lcU pnpbv SJ oMv pCm DC hvn cIj hjlCm lb Ghճi nl Dm. M[ծ pnpbm n kNծ `FbOv' GhuyO Dmuv khj kJml Pu. DM hJj cvmv khju Gpv oCj hcK IJ ju.
Yjlծ hMc JvNkju Kj khj k{u l Fmk mvծ Dmhm. JjC ծ JUծ DO cvmvծ kNb J[ Gui[u. n kj k<&lu Ju JUl JCl oMv knll, ծ hnu vbo JUl Pu. kNb khjm Ghճi Jv ICծ ʹ ou pl- iJ o&ko& nhhum u. F. m. 45 l 47 JUl lv cvmvծ kNb Ghճi Ju. ծ vbo `o hjhum D@H FjLϳv m' hnu MlJlu hkm iF&[cO Dn. hmlJ uKJ D%l Dn. c$, llu cnl DlMճ jbpJ Dn. ll lby[ mco k Djy mcoci& YjlM nCN khj ci&kju kkO yboj, mcoci&, kj b cnl Dn. ll nhhum k kM JUl knCN kNb (cnCp cvmvծ) GuuK l. (cvmvծ kNb n hnu vbo Dmu, lj lhk& lv npj k<եhmv Yjldz khj m nlծ!) cvmv kNb kkO iCOc&, kM<l: oM cnl Puvblj khju c uv cUu. JjC lcU DOǮ luvl DlMճ Jc kUl Yjll C MJw Pu.
hk& mcoci& nCN khjlu c mcm nl- hkmu uiCj kU. lcU im, jc, cmhcճ Lv Djy mco Dub[v Yjll Cm JlJ cnv uiճծ. hkml uiCj DV k hC hcCh# pml uov vC MJw vm. lcU hkm ubyu, lj khj cnc cO m[v k uiճծ. c$, cvmv kNb hknծ cnl Puvblj n mcm mu. Djy mcoծ huJ[v GvnUvblj (cnCp Yjllu hkmUծ mcjm) hkm m Jum JkU Um okmbcO Yjlծ hMc JvNkj hnC MJw Pu. JUl Yjlծ oMv knCN cvmvծ kNb Ghճi Jv IlucU n MJw Pu. lm YjlJ[v Djy mco Dub[v cmhcճ, FphlcO pCm hkmUvblj cnl& mOu pճծ. lcU hjlǮ hkmn Um okmbl nT uiu. khjlu hcK D[LU Dmuu hkmծ JukOǮ Jc Puv khjl k Pu vml lj vku!
nhhumv cvmv kNb khjm Ghճi Jv Iluvblj Yjldz khjl k{ Puծ hjk GhuyO Dnl. JjUmn hMc JvNkju SJ hjk cnCp jcv vC k Flj kml. Fmk mvծ Dmhm D[ǮM k<ե JukOl hMc JvNkj DvJ yboj kJml Pu. lծyjyj ծ JUl hծv Yjldz Mnj k ybojbcO c hcCl jcv vC D{Uu Dnl. cnjln Dm hjk Dnl. jckժv kF&v, D@ukn lu DC Flj ok hoL& Dճl JjCm khju pCj Jbvj jճi[ pulu u, vij pulu vkm, GmcvyocOu lj DC ipjlln DvJ JC mh[u Dnl. Junhj L lj jcv mcookl (h@m[@v) y@vPծ kMhC& cl& cUu Dn. mkե JU Dn Fmk mvծ hnu Jn MlJ. ծ JUhk& cvmvծ khjm Ghճi JjC m Pu nl. vblj jccOu kml FlJw JC cUC n JkU iճi vkn, lj khjkǮ hjkծ cvk uiu. h{ JUl Djy k jhճv uJbv cvmvծ khjm biu hJj Ghճi Jv Ilu. mklu hl&ipbv ll DI[ Ilu. lcU h{ JUln lb YjlM Dbljjdz khj m jnu.
cvmvv Yjlծ hMc JvNkju khju uv ou, lծhcC Div DMճlu pk, mc$, yu y (Dlծ Fb[vMճ), cuMճ, Lճub[, knSlvcmjK oMbMn khj mbybO hmLhl Ju nl. lmn cvmvծ Ghճi Jv Ilu nl. yylծ mbMOv iklu jdz mij-DYm mbmL Mu $h k ynjchj khlu Su. Sv. jTl bv vJl hm Ju Dn. ll cvmvv Yjllu- kM<l: Djmlu hL-hjbhjbkjn Jm hYk Juճ, nn cb[u Dn. Djm k hk& JvNkju kkO jpbcOv Div DMճlu oMbM khj mbybO Du. n hkm cvmvծ kNb Ghճi Jvծ knճծ. hk& JvNkj Dmuv Djmlu khj cvmv kNb hjlǮ hkm m Pu J (D@Jwyj-vknbyj) khju vIճծ. h{ Hykj cnvhճեl oMv pC m jnճծ. Djmlv n pnp o#CJ[ DbO hoM, lcUv[, ʹubJ Jk Div oMu yu, pk, mc$J[ pճծ. lLv DjmJ[ hjlǮ hkm cvmvծ Dicvծ JUl- cnCp pv l mhbyjojcv knճծ. hkml Dbocv-vJyj y n oI& cJwJcծ JC nl. Dm nl cvmv kNbkj khj.
khjծ p[v Yjllu y Oc& Div k hk& DMճl hnkCln cvmvծ col Pu. cvmv hծv khj} mnճYl juծ; Mkճ unv-c hL, hjbhj, mCbkjn lծ hYk h[uծ omv l. Djmlu J|lJ h|Cc mC n ծ Gc GonjC. n h|Cc vknbyj cnvl l. okM Dpn Djml l `yu $' cnCv mpj Ju pl. khNb k o&koǥ hkm mj#l knk cnCv n okm mpj Ju pl. n hjbhj JlJ MlJbhmv m Dn. lL okmhmv mcoci& yu k Flj hoMbM nCN khjծ mkl nl. vknbyj cnl& cnCp cvmvծ hjlǮծ JU! DMhJj hL-hjbhj cvmvM hC&hC SJh Pu Dnl.
cvmvծ JjUM lj kiU vl Dn. JjC JjU Jvj n khjծ cK Jbo nl. mnpJ hծv JUhmv DuJ[ SlnmJ JUhճեl kkO Oc& JjUl Du DC vbou. hjbhjil mcplvmj p Oc& F.m. hnu MlJlծ lL hnu. ƸMv Oc& mnk MlJծ DOǮ L hnuծ hjk Dnl. Fmucn mlk-Dk MlJlծ lL hnu. n Oc& mco Dub[v MJ[ cubkժv Ph JjUl Du, l cvmvծ kNmyl. luvl h{ lb pcvkժv Flj$ hmj knճuծ pml kU uiu...
Dm n cvmvծ hYk Yjldz GhKb[ lm Div k hk& DMճkj hnճu cUl. DYmJb cl, Yjldz GhKb[lu cvmvծ kj mcj vkko uK k<եhmv Dmllkl Dnl. lknhmv lծ hYk hC, h#, cm, Flj puծj k kvmhlbkj h[uճ. luvl cCmkju hYk DioǮ DuJ[ Dn, hC lv cCmu I[kCl cnkծ YcJ ypku Dn. lծ vcJ Ghճi Jv Iluvblj khj k{u. hC n Pu pv yl. DOvJ JUln lծ Dhukj hYk Dn DC h{n jnu. JjC cvmv n hϮb[ M Dn. Dl ijp Dn- lծ DOJ DYmծ DC MǮ Flj ibm Ghճi Jv Il l J, n hnCծ!
cvmv cnCp vcJ Jճ?
cvmv n piծ hkj DvJ JC D{UCj kMhC& kj Dnl. lb kiUhC cnCp l k<& Jn JU SJ oMv knll, lj Gk&jl JU kթ oMv! l DHJhmv D@muճhճեl mk&$ DvYkճu cUll. k<kkծ SJ ypu cnKb[ k omN ypu c mco Dmuv Dm kj vc&C nll. Yjldz GhKb[l lm DlMճ DvJu YiuJ mLl DmucU Dhu cvmv mkեl hYk cvu pl. Yjll hkmUl- cnCp pv l mhbyj JUl n kj v$+l (o#C-hMc) oMv ll. l myl mcokju y<h DCl Dmuv DhuJ[ Yjhj hTm h[l. n kj vknbyj l cծ& JUl kթ oMv cIj hjlll.
`cvmv' Flnm
cvmvծ kNծ DC lծ vkծn Flnm Dn. kNb Jn hcCl cnl F.m.hk& JUhmv Dmk. JjC lknhmv Jc-DOJ hcCl Yjlծ mcoci& khj nl. hC lծ Kj DUK Pu Fmk mvծ Dmhm. hnu MlJl nhhum iJ o&ko&v kNծ khjm Ghճi Jv Ilu. l JUvblj n kj `nhhum kj' cnCv DUKu iu. h{ lbv `cvmv' Dm vk h[u, l `cmc' Djy Myokժv. `cmc' DL& nbic. n kj nbic Dmll. SJ nbicl l SJ oMv knll, lj omN nbicl kթ oMv. DhuJ[ lbv `cmc kj'n cnu pl.
Yjldz GhKb[, o#C k Div DMճlu kNb GuuK hծv k*dcճl DvJo Du Dn. (DL&l lkn lu `cvmv' n vk vknl.) F.m. hnu MlJl `hjhum D@H FjLϳv m' hkm iF&[cO Djy mcokju kNb GuuK Dn. lm hnu MlJlu `huv' DYmJծ `v@ju nmj' hmlJl DC omN MlJlu @ucǮ `p@iH' hmlJln kNmoM Jn GuuK Dnl. Ʈv hkm H nSv n F.m. 399 l 414 ojcv Yjll Du nl. hkmlu vj#C k DvYkbyyl lv unuu `jJ@[& D@H ym Ji[c' Ʈv hmlJl F&Mv cvmv kNb GuuK Dn. FlJ vn, lj Juomծ cIoll F.m. 450 Dmhm cvmv Dicvծ kU Dmuu nkcvծ kC&v D{Ul. DCK ov Ʈv hkm Dճ lmbi k Sv lmbi bv Yjllv ibi cKhmv Dbocv-vJyj k ʹubJJ[ nCN hkmծ GuuK Ju Dn. lkժv ybiuծ Ghmijl cvmvծ kNb Jm Ghճi Jv Ilu pճծ, n mh nl.
HճoMj khj k hkmծ JU
Fphl, jc, im Jk cmhcճhmv (mOծ FjJ) Yjll Cm mij ciե khj Jjlv DO lby[ mcolv DcvpkU k uiճծ. khj pnp lLv h{ Djy mco Dub[v Yjlծ hMc JvNkj hnճծ. cvmvծ kNbmyl (cnCp DhuJ[u hkmUl) hkm Ju lj ukJj hnl ճծ. hC ll c OJn nl. JjC JUl kNծ ki hϮb[ Dml DC mcon KkUuu Dml. lm Yjll hnukj Lu cmUOj hTm khNbv cvkճծ vn. ljn n OJ hlJv khj Ju pճծ. JjC l DlMճ HճoMj nl. SJ vbovmj, JjUcOv SJ Hjl Dճl Juu cmuծ hoL&, nmlobl k Jh[ b Jcl FlJ pml nl, J lk{ Jcll lJU FphlcOu 2400 SJj op&oj Mlpcv kJl IC MJw nl.
hkmlu OJ Jc JjCm khj FphlcOv pu cnvl vIճծ. lLu lby[ mcol Hjm OJ vmճծ. l lby[ mco Dub[v Djy mcol D@imhճեl hnճծ. lLv cvmvծ kNbyjyj hl# Djy mco Dub[ճu mkl Jjճծ- D@im쮳 DKjm Jk mhbyj cnvl. lhճեl cvmv kNb ki Jc knճծ DC mcon Jnm Mbl Puu Dmճծ. lcU hkm mj#l knճծ. Mkճ mhbyjDKj Yjll hnukj Lu hkmծ pjn Jc Puu Dm. DCK SJ Hճo cnCp hjlǮ hkmu cvmv kNb DvJu mLl vknbyjhmv m knճծ. ci Hjm v Lbyl n khj vknbyjcO cIj hjl MJl.
DYpl Ijh[