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mckj,17 mhbyj 2007

`mKj Kl lu ok ol' cnCl mO `[ճym' SJ yov Yj Ilu Dn DC l cnCǮ DL& youu Dn. mk&mOjC mcp Dm Dn J, nl khjl l mKj Dhu jjlu mKj hcC k{kl. Flj yNծ i n hcC k{kCm JjCYl Dmll. Kj lj pmlǮ JjCYl Dmll. DcjJlu vkv DYmvmj mKjl `iuJp' k `HJwp' n p ov IJ Dmll, lhJ iuJpcU jjlu mKj hcC k{l. mcmcv Yil Dmuu HJwp n omj IJ hC&hC vթhok Dn. vkv v<J<&cU mKjhmv ojkuu (oKkuu) uJ L[Hj hcCl hvn pY u hjkCծ ci&J[ kUCծ Jwl Dn.
mKj yoծ klh `J&j' mbmJl yohmv Pu Dn. FbipcOu ij (sugar) n yo Fu, mhv, Hvm ob hkm Jv Du Dn. Fuճvmv cU Djy yo `Dud PJj' yokժv Ilu Dn. FLn cU yo mbmJlծ Dn, Dm omv l. JjC Djybv `Dud PJj' n hƵ&v yo `Jj'kժv Ilu Dn DC hƵ&vbv Dhu mbmJl J&jkժv.
mKj Flnm :
Gmhmv lճj JjCl CN mKj Gic ynO `Fjv pճ' mOծ Fb[vƵճcOu hbll Pu Dmk, Dm Dbop Dn. lLv l HuhFvm DC vblj cuƵճl iu. DYmJbv holu L lJlu uKCcO mKj khjyylծ cnl Ou Dn.
YjlcO lծ hmj Hj Phv Pu. DuJwPb[j JUl Yjll c hcCl mKj Glhov nl nl. lծ KyNbv `Yjll cOcյbƵkճ cO yvkll' (ynO JJk Dmk) Dյ cnl hjku nl.
 

Yjllv mKj Djymlvl iu. Djybv mlk lJl `Dճjyճ' (mOծ mhv-hl&iucOu ho) Jyp Ju, lkn mKj v$+l jhl hnu. 1390 cO Gmhmv ohh hcCl jm J{Cծ hil cƵvj lճj Pu. hjCcl: DL&Jo mKj yvkC JHճlյj Pu. lcU Dv[umD (mhv), Duijk (hl&iu) hbll c hcCl Gmծ uik[ m Pu. 1420 cO J@vj yb mcn (kճk DHJ), coj, D@Pjm Flo ybcO mKj hmj Pu.
1493 cO Jubym Dhu pnpl hC k ƵOmci YjCm J@vj ybkj Lbyu nl. cJwJc j-hծ okmbծ nl. hC lLu y vkծ iknv&j hcl h[u DC cJwJc SJ cnvhճեl k{u. lLv cJwJc nuklv vjhծ kU ymv Jubymu Gmծ jh Y cnCv ou DC vkv pil Gmծ/mKj hmj Pu. hl&ipbv mKj yPucO vu. 1550 cO yPuծ Gj Jvjhfluilծ hbll 800, [cjj k mjvc Yibl 2000 mKj JjKv Dmuծ Flnml (Hans Staden-rzvv) vbo Dn. lLv 1625 vblj [ uJbv yy&[m knp&v DFuB[md (km Fb[p)cO mKj hnku. 1625 l 1750 hճեl mKj D#j: mvծ Ykl kJu pճծ. vblj Fbipbv lb kmnlcO DHJlv c mbKv mkml cpj DCv hϮb[ hcCl mKj Glhov m Ju. lcU Jcl Imժ uiu.
18 k lJvblj mKj DJ<&C DC lծyjyj ciC k{ uiu DC Jclb vkv GbJ hmLhl nT uiu. lծ hcK JjC- jhcOu Khb Dk[cOu you, pc, DF&mc, J@H, n hƯ Juu KhoL& Flob DJ<&C k{m uiu. Hճo k{kCm Gmծ lyyl k mKj Glhov hƯl c hcCl mbOv m Pu. lcU Glhov JlJ hbv k{u. hjbl ciC lh# Phv k{l iuv mKj Yk DJյu Y[u. kknj Hճծ Dmuv pmll pml pcvl Gmծ hJ J{Cm mkl Pu DC JjKvbn hcC k{u. lcU ypjl mKj hjk ciCh# k{u DC Jc[ cJ&쮳 cuYl lkvmj mKj Yk Imju. SJJU (18 k lJl) ʹcblb cJwloj Dmuu mKj mk&mcvb Ijhճեl hnu. DlhJbcU L[ծ JUl Gmծ hJKuu pcvǮ hl Kuku (cKl: km Fb[p). lծ kU Jwylu mKj kkmճծ Go Pu DC DuhJUl l ov mKj Glhovl Dkku mLv hJku. FJ[ jhcO 17 k lJl n@ub[ n o mKj khjծ JbomLv Pu. Hvmծ pippl vhuճvv n@ub[cO Dճl nCN mKj vJybo Ju. lcU mKj Glhovծ Flj hճ&byyl mbOv m Pu. llծ 1750 ojcv `y ij' pvc Pu, lknhmv Dio Dlhճեl jhcO ծ mKj c hcCl Ghճi nl nl.
mKj cU l
Tm : Gmhmv mKj lճj Jjlv lծ jm J{ll k lkj kikiȳ hƯ Jv DvkյJ ok kiU Jjll. mkծs jm GJUv, Lb[ Jv nUkjhC {kUll DC p K[ lճj nll lǮ mKj. vblj lhmv kikiȳ i[ mKj lճj Ju pl. p cu@mm jnl lծ khj Flj GhճJwl Glhovbm Ju pl.
y : 1747 cO pc&v mbOJ D@v[Dm ciH v ycO mKj Db OCl յ cUku. vblj lծ Ƶ< HbP Dծ[& v yhmv mKj lճj JjCծ pilu hnu ij cu `mumճ' (mOծ hub[cOu Yi) L m Ju. y hlU Jh J{v hCl Oluvblj GJUl hCl {kUv J{ll. vblj vjvjȳ jmճvJ hƯ Jv Gmծ mKjhcC Ưmu lճj Ju pll. Gjuu cu@mm cKl: Hc&bvm khju pl. Gmծ l G<C hol nl. lm cyuJ hCծ DkյJl Yml. lkթ y l l hol nl. lcU JJ&khmv cJj khճեlծ hol mKj lj lhuJ[u hol y mKj Glhov nl.
Dpclm pkUpkU 100 ol mKj lճj nl. llu mcj 74 JwJ Gmhmv lj 26 JwJ yhmv yvl. 1990 hk& n hcC 60 JwJ k 40 JwJ nl. Gmhmv lճj Juu mKj mkml Dmuv DC GlhoJ obv DկcJ khj hlǮ khj Juv y mKj Glhov Il uu Dn. khjծ yyll mKj iCl Kvp luծ Dio Gu Dn. lu Glhov nl, l ocO lծ khj Jc Dn. mKj yyll 70 JwJ Glhov n GlhoJ obl khju pl DC 30 JwJ vճ&l nl.
mKj DL&JjC :
mKj Yk n pilJ jpJjC, hil olu uJbcOu Djiyylծ mbkovյul, hilյu ob hilǮ ki, Flo IJbkj Dkubyv Dmll. DL&DL& Jnn mbybO vmuu Kvp luծ J cln mKj Yklu lp-cbou JjCYl Dmll. luծ Yk k{u J pilu mKj hcK GlhoJ k vճ&loj yPu, hjJdz uvծ yծlm, mKjSkp FLv@u Glhovl k{ Jjl. DL&lծ piYjl mKj lk[ Ym uiu J Ykk{m mkl nl.
pilu ynlJ mk& hil obcO mKju mym[ ou pl. jh, DcjJ k phv obl Glhov Kծ& FlJ pml Dn J GlhoJbv mjJjv { Ykծ nc ou vn lj l kkmճl li Oժ JCj vnl. lcU l o Dճl nCN mKjkj c hcCl Jj DJjC Jv mKj { Yk Jճc kl Dml. Dio vpJ Yk<JUhճեl olu mKj Yk pilJ ypjhh# lhh nl. ocO Jn jkJ obv, ynO DL&Jo JcJkl Dյ jbv (LCD- Least Developed Countries) mKj Dճlm hlvOlk ou pF&. lbv Jjl m oTv lbJ[v mKj Dճl Ju pl Dm. Dյ mhlvJ kiCJcU Flj obv kթ Dkp Gkճu mkl Ju. Dյ hJj Dvճlv 20 D@im 2003 cO G20 21 ob mbIv Go Pu. DHJlu hծ, DƵճlu mn DC o#C DHJlu 10 jb mIbvv yPuծ vllkKu WTO (World Trade Organization) J[ lկj vboku. Yjhj kIvblj DC ծ&m$vblj nU[u mbIv lկj cv Jjk uiu. jhcOu ob mKjvlkj D#h ICl Du DC lծyjyj lbv Jn jkJ obyjyj Juu mKj Jjj jylu Jjk uiu. hjCcl: jhcOu mKj khj Ku Jjk uiu. J$cjl k{kuu Yk Ku DCk uiu. mym[ ybo Juv jhcOu 60 l 70 uK v mKj vճ&l ybo Pu. 2006-07 cO mKj Jbcl mcj 36 JwJwv Iuv jhcOu mKj Glhov pkU pkU hh Pu.
pilJ hjmLl
iu on k<եl pilJ mljkj mKj khj Dbop 2.4 JwJ hlk<& ilv k{l Dn. (lhk& n k{ mk&mOjChC 2 JwJ Dmճծ.) lvmj 2007-08 cO mKj ciC 15.5 J v DmCծ Jwl Dn. iu mui lv k<& DiJ #$l DI[kj Dmuu vcO mKj ciC Hj Phv k{l Dn. 135 J uJmbK Dmuu ol mKj khj cCյ 1 Juv k{u J pilJ ciC 13.5 uK vbv k{l. Flj obcO c$ pm L hjmLl Dn. Yjll mKj ciC mk&l pml Dn. 2007-08 cO ciC 26 J v DmCծ Jwl Dn.
2007-08 cO pilJ mljkj mKj Glhov 14.90 J v Dmu. llu 75 JwJ Glhov on hcK GlhoJ obcO nF&u DC 2.1 J vծ k jhծ Dmu.
Yjllu Glhov 1993 l 2002 hճեl mll k{l nl. 2003-04 cO hCծ JcljlcU Glhovlu k{ cboku. mKj Glhov k vճ&lcO mk&l DI[kj o yPu. ol mll u Dmuu lJ mbOvcU ojk<& Gmծ Glhov k{l Dn. pilJ hjmLlǮ D{k ITv mKjm k FLv@um Jl Gmծ khj Jjճծ lծ iCl cb[u pl. cji[bm FbOv cnCv huyjyj FLv@uծ khj JjCl n o DI[kj Dn. Kvp luծ Yk k{u J hjJdz uvծ yծlm Gmծ khj k{k hcCl Ju pl DC piծ pY u cnill.
jhcOu Glhov
y mKj pilJ ypjhl pkUpkU vmumjKǮ Dn. im, HvmmjK obv y lKuu pcv Jc Jv Flj hJbm Ghճil DCCJ[ Ju k{ku Dn. L[Jwl oblu Dճl k{l pCj Dn. DcjJ, D@muճcOn nǮ hjmLl Dn. 2005-06 hmv y mKj Glhov Il uu Dn. lcU lLn Dճl k{l pCj Dn.
vcO 2004-05 hmv hlJ uukl mKj Jbcl k{l Dn. Yk mLj kCl mjJju Dp lj յ Duu vn. lp%b Dboph# uuklu oj 20 JwJwbv pml Dmll.
SJC hjmLlǮ D{k Ilu lj mKj Yk lplծ jnCj DC lծ hcK JjC Dnl-
1) Kvp luծ { JclcU Gmծ khj FLv@u Glhovm k{l pCծ Jwl.
2) mbodz Klծ DlkhjcU GmKuu pcvb Jc nl uuu #cl.
lcU Dl mOjl cnC Dn-
`yPu oCj lj (pi) mKj KCj
mKju hճ& Dn Jճ?
cJwhmv yvkuu mjhծ (HFCS-High Fructose Corn Syrup) mKj hճ& cnCv DcjJl hcKv khj Ju pl. cJwhmv mjh yvkCծ hƯ cյ&u k Jv ov DcjJv mbOJbv 1957 cO Ou DC 1970 cO phv mbOJbv l hƯu cl& mkժh DCu. n mjh pkn lճj nl lkn ll 100 iuJp Dml DC vblj ll DkյJ hcCl HJwp cmUl l. DcjJl kikiȳ hJj KhoL&l n hcC 90 HJwp DC 10 iuJphmv 42 HJwp DC 58 iuJphճեl D{Ul. n mKjh# mkml DC (okժhcU) knlJu muY Dmuv DcjJl food industry cO lv mKju ci Ju Dn. JJJu DC hhm DcjJlu ov c Jbhv 1984 hmv mKjSkp n mjh khjl Dnl.
ouh mcbl
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