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jkkj, 2 [mbyj 2007

okbil h$Jj kթCjp Y[ bv `Jbjc b Dknv' cLȳծ uK pu 1994 cO `mlin kծjOj' (mbhoJ Jcj mhl<&) DbJl unu nl. lj k<եhk& mboY& kiU nl. Jbol vjmbn jk b mjJj nl. jpk ibOb nlvblj vn- ibO IjCծ mboY& mbhu nl. mvճ ibO jpJjCl Glju vknl. kյkvL hlhmbi bv hblhOv Dmlv DJmcJhC pnj Juu (1990) cb[u Dճiծ mvb DbcuypkC Jn hcCl m Pu nl. SJ ypu DճO vcv GHUv Duu Oc&ko DC omN ypu cb[uծ vcv OiOi uiuu pldzko bv jpJjCu k{uu nl. Jbjc b knvl yC, yvճ DC #$ճ hmLhl plbv kiUv, yJ ym-Dymbv mbIl Jv ml Cծ nl. Dl Jbjc b jpJdz kjm mbiCN cճklbv `mk&pvnlճ- mk&pvmKճ' Dյ I<C Jv yCbmnl mk& plbv ynpv mcp h#ծ J#l DCճu mkl Ju Dn. kթCjp Y[ pj Dp nl Dml lj lbv plb mcJjCb kյu<C vkv Ju Dml. Dm. lbv l hjmLll Juu yJ kkv c$ Dpvn ui h[l. cnCv n uK mb#hl mkժhl hvn hm Jjl Dnl.
Flj cimki& plbv DuJ[ jpJjCl yj cnk Duu Dn. kikiU kծj Ju lj mbKv unv DmCN pl SJ$hC yNծ nll ծn mkեv pCk Puu oml. Dhu SJ$l yU m GuLhuL JjCFlJ c Dmuv, Dhuu l hcCl ml k cUճu nk, Dյ plb mkYkJ Dh#

 

Dn. n lJo Dhuyjyj Dmk m mj uJ Khu uiuu omll. mOj h#u m JkCm DC kjO h#bv m cUkCm Flj cimki&b pթj kl Dm oml.
c$ pl Dlhճեl mhmv oj nl Jbk lbv jpJjCl mLv vknl Dm c$ vn. lbv vijhuJ, pun hj<o, kOvmY, uJmY Dյ JC pi cUl nl. cb$ho, vijO#ho Dյ DOJ m pi cUl nlծ. ծ DL& lbkj JC GhJj Jjl nl Dmn vn. lbv mbK yUkj DC k̳JwlJ iCb pjkj ho cUku nl.
lbv ml cUuu mLv hjm nl J vn, n c$ DkI[ hϵv Dn. JjC hjm mLv ծ ov DL& nll. hnu cnCp mbK hcCl hjm mLv DC omj cnCp hl# DOJjl hjm mLv. lhJ hnu hϵvծ Gj oC JC Dn. JjC Flj cimki&b vcJ mbK JCuծ cnl vn.
plkj vcJ uJmbK cnl vmCծ JjC plkj cnl iU JjCծ b$Cծ GhuyO vn. hk& ƵjiCl Jjlv plkj cnl Ilu pl nl. hjbl 1901 hmv hplb cnl IC ybo Pu. 1931 vblj plkj cnl Ilu iu vn. vkko k<եl hplb DC m k<եl plb cnlǮ Ilu iu vmu lj Ju Yil, JCl plǮ, Jl uJ Dnl, n Jm mcpCj? plb cnl pc JjCծ ybo Juvblj plkj mkul oCծ kծj m Pu. lm vcuu JJmny JuuJj Dճiv 2399 pl Flj cimki& Dnl Dm jku DC Jn pi jKk ku. h{ ybokj-hmo cb[u Dճiv 3376 pl Flj cimki& jku DC jKk pib hcC k{ku. SJC jKk pib hcC hVm JwJ JjCծ lb ƵHjm nl. DOǮ lnlm JwJ jKk pibl Flj cimki&b kCu FlJw L[ pi l nl J Ku pi hk NSb JwJwbv mbhu, lj Flj cimki&b $Sb Jbk m[$Sb JwJwbv mbhճծ. ծ DL& mkul vmumjKծ Pu nl.lcU cb[u Dճiv jKk pi k{kk Dm mku. c$ ƵHjb DbcuypkC knճu o k<& uiu.
cb[u Dճiv pl vƵl JjCm 1891 DC 1931 pviCv Dnkub khj Ju Dn. lDOj lbv Flj cimki&b hcC ykV JwJ Dmuծ cl kJwl Ju Dn. c$ ykV JwJwbcO p, ok, Dnj, Jc& pln Dnl. l mk& pl Gj nbomLvlu jpJl& pl Dnl. l plb DI[ J nll kj lLu jpJjC ul Dmuv `Flj cimki&' n Oi mkեv SJ$ ybOCm hjm jCj vn.
JC Dhuu HJwl cnjծծ kծj Jjճծ Dmuv DhC ok, p kij cb[Ub kծj uKhjl ypu k. cb[u Dճiծ olu 272 pl cnjl Dnl. llu hYo u#l Ilu lj lb kYiC npjծ Dmhm nF&u. JjC ok% mvj, Dnj mvj, u[ mvj, hbU mvj Jbk u[ Ƶbh, vcok Ƶbh, Ykmj Ƶbh noKu SJpvm Dnl Dm cnCC DkI[ Dn. Dm Dmlv npjYj i mcv plYkv yUiv SJ$ jnlu Dյ Dh# JjC JǮ nF&u. SK vk[CJl lm Ʈ$ omln hC l Jճc JCj vml, n u#l Iճu nk.
cnjln Flj cimki&b hcC cb[u Dճiծ cnCChcC ykV JwJ Dn, Dm cvu pl. lm inl Oժvծ mj D[K cb[u pll; hjbl yjJF&v lhm Ju lj n hcC ykV JwJwbh# Jc Dmuծ u#l F&u. plkj jpJjC JjCN ykV JwJ cimki&bv ykm JwJ oulb DI[ Ju lj Nnj JwJ nll. lbv on JwJ cmucb mL cUum NSb JwJ nll, Dյ iCl cb[ll. Ƹml, pv, K cUv m[lv JwJ nll. Ƶkճ h{Nb cnCCvmj yC m[lv JwJ Dnl. Dյ kpyJw Jjl iu lj cnjl cj mcp HJwl ml JwJ Dn, Dm DL& J{Cծ Dhukj kU F&u. lcU mbK Jbk hcC OCm kiU ci& hnC ijp Dn.
cnjl cj n pl mk&l c Dn, yu JCծ ocl vn. c$ c cnCp vcJ Jl yu kikiȳ JUl kikiU Dbop Ju pl. 1957, 62 DC 67 vk[CJbcO cj mcp hVm JwJ Jbk lh# pml Dn, Dm cvu pF&. vblj c$ n hcC vcch# Jc Dmuծ pCk uiu. vƵJjk ljh[ bv kUkU cj mcp mkm JwJ Dmuծ mbilu nl.
pv vbokժv hcC J{Cծ hϳlv Ju lj ll J nlu. p JUl plkj cnl pc Ju pl Dm l JUl `cj' Dյ vbo JjCNb hcC L[ nl. yj uJ `JCy' DյǮ plǮ vbo Jjl. JCy yoծ DL& `JCyk' JjCj cnCp l JjCj Dm Dn. p lkj GhpkJ Jjl lbv Dhu vbo JCy cnCv Ju. pb Ijl ƵhF&h nl, cnmuծ Jbk cuJ huJǮ DOJj nl, Dյbv c$ cj Dյ vbo Ju nl, Dm Jwlko yjpC Jjll. hC l Kj vn. c cnjlu hlJ punծ pv i@Pm& hnu Dnl. l hlJl cj DC JCy SJ Dnl, Dm Dlbl mh jlv cnuu Dn. lcU JC JCy n kiU pl Dmuծ mbiv cjb mbK Jc Dmuծ ok Jjl Dmu lj l cCm D%v Jbk Kj[ Dn, Dm Ku mcpk.
jpJjCkj mbKlcJ hjCc I[k JCN pl cnCp cU, Ovij DC kbpj. Dl lvn plb kƵ hn. kbpj mcp DuJ[ jpJdzo yjծ pil nT uiu Dn. n mcp jpJjCl DOhmvծ Dn. p Yil kbpj mcpծ kml yNhJ Dn, Dյ Yilv kbpj Dcoj vk[v Duծ 1937 vk[CJbhmv oml. n mcp C#, ycv DC cnvl Dn. yu cnvlǮ p[ cUu J mk& DLեv YjYj nl. lcU n mcp hk&hmv KTv-hTv mK Dm. lu DOvJ Ƶ#Cծ p[ cUuv l Dbivn mcpծ hil Puu oml. omj cnkծ Yi cnCp n mcp okYU DC Oc&J hkǮ Dn. lbl c hcCl kjJj mbhoƳJ Dnl. cU Iuv kj Juv c-cbmhmv l Duhl Dmll. YJwlmbhoճcU Cj mkJhC mcpl Dn. n klkjC FlJ khJ Dn J ` kbpj cbmnj vnl Jbk oժ hl vnl'. lmj cnkծ Yi cnCp kknJ vlc mbYUCl n mcp o# Dml. DL&J my Du J c-cbm, mu kl&v k{l n yNծ JC Cj DvYk mcphjl K ju Dn.
mcpծ hil knճu DOvJ Ƶ#Cv ki Du. lծ mcju kmbljk vF&J cnjծ cKcb$ Pu. l ybpj mcpծ. l JUl ybpj DC kbpj SJ$ mLj nTv l J uiu, lbv kbpj DC YJl jnuubv ybpj, ucC Jbk uby[ cnCll, Dm Jwlko ovn ypbv m Pu. i@Pm&cOu vbo hnu lj ll kikiȳ Yibl kikiU cl kJwl Puu omll.
kmbljk vF&J DLk mOJj vF&J ovn cKcb$b YcJ ovn mcp SJ Dnl clu DvJu oml, hjbl ynpv cnmbIծ vl cKjc hkj, p mkl: ybpj Dnl l DC YJw mcpծ vl u#cC cv n ovn Dcoj clյ mncl vnl.
Flj cimkib&bcO UJ cvu pCN lv plbhJ kbpj pl mk&l unv Dn Dm cnCll. n pl on JwJ cvu J cU DC Ovij lh# pml cvk uill. lcU cU hbOj JwJ DC Ovij km JwJ Dmuծ mOծ uJhϳ cl Dn, Dյ cl cb[Cj yNծo DO v<J<& jkll DC ci l m JjCj kOv Jjl pll. Sjk pyyoj DmCNv SKo Dm kOv Ju J h{ uJ l hcC cvv kOv Jjl mll. n Dbop Kj cvu lj lv pl cUvծ hbUm JwJ uJmbK nF&u. Flj plbyuծ mbKlcJ ok Kj cvu lj cnjծ uJmbK mU-mlj J Dmճu nk. l lk{ vmuծ pviCv Dnkubkժv mh oml. lhƵul pChk& DhC cU DC Ovij b iCkƵ mcpkv IT.
cU mcp jpYj hmjuu DC kikiȳ #$l cJCj Dmuv mkեv cnl Dml. ljn Jn kƵ mbiC ijp Dn. n mcp Dlյճ JU, vJhC DC vcJhC Jc JjCj Dn. mbl mkl cnjpb `Jbo cU Yp DkI kyF& cP' n GJwl hm׮ Dn. Jc n hjckj, n mbJuhv l FlJw vcJhC cb[ Ju JjC l lb pkvhlǮ nl. mj cU mcp Jun Jcl Dյծ luuvhC civ nl. kJu, lJj, JjKvoj, LSjcuJ, oOku, ijCku, yu[j, oJvoj Dյ JCln kkmճblu cU hnu lj l lL cJlv omll.
YIj DC Yb[joj n OjC ybOv Pu l kU hkj DC vj Jukb hCծ cnk DUKv mmk[ cU cb[U vij DC muhj puԳbl l JjCm iu. mkkյ k<եhk& n ojo oKkC ku#Cծ Dn. hCl Ykvcl cbojmcj mhJ hL Dm yU Dn. lL cȳb kml Dn. mhJ ծ DL& mn hJ. k<&l SJ hJ ICծ Jj[kn l hϮul Dmlv mn hJ ICpi mhJ DC Dulծ pcv OCl l& Dn, hC mnh J DC mnh GlhVn Dn. Jun #$lu mhJl njCl cȳb yjyj JjC JCun JCծ Dn. yiճoj cȳbv յmk Juu cUvij mKj JjKv n olu hJj hnuծ hϳlv nl.
cnvl, yc, DL&J hil, ojo< DC #CJ hil JjCj cU mcp jpJjCl DOhmvծ mƯ nl. kOvmYcOn lbv mllv hlvOlk cUuu Dn. hC puԳl hlJ vk[CJl lbv SJ ov pi cUuu omll. Flj puԳbln n Ʈ$ Dn. lcU n mcp mhmv kbƮl jnu Dm cnCl Cj vn. ljn DhC mhmv oj jnu n Ykv oml. ծ JjC vijhuJblu ho m{UhC cUu, Dcojho cUu, lj Dcojb hcCl cb$ho cUu vnl. p cUu l hl# m ukCծ ho vknl. siv YpyU bv cUu lk{ jpJdz cnk omN JCln cb$u hk& cUuu vknl. DhC mhmv kbƮl Dnl n Ykv mcpl omCծ JjC hcCյj DC hj mmLv vmCյ Dn.
cj mcplu Dcoj Puu Jllj cCm DO hbOj-km k<& mbOǮ k hnl hC&kU jpJjC Jjl Dmll. lb Ijlu yJǮ cCm, hukv cui mbYUk lյ hJj jpJjClu cui mbYUl Dmll. kmbloo hLc Dcoj Pu lknhmv cb$ knճu lbv km k<& uiu. bJjjk cnl-hu JOǮ cb$ nT Ju vnl. n hvm Flj plbcO oml vn. m Jbk hoծ k hnl km k<& lJUCh# Flj plblu Jl&yij DC cnkJb# uJ khj-Gil Ƶjll, vJl Jc Jjll, hOhJ nll DC յ cUkll. jpJjCծ lbv cյil k hjC Juu vmu lj lb jpJjCu miǮ okm C DkI[ nl. c pvcYj hOhJ Jjv, vJl Jc Jjv, n@u ukv DC llu uJJծ pjkj jpJjC Jjv, m cUkv n mkhv hl#l C DkI[ Dml. m m[ծ, hC kjOծ jpJjC յmk JjCun hC&kU jpJjC vc&C JjCծ ijp Dml.
ծ&l DmCj lmj mcp cnCp Ovij mcp. cnjYj hmjuu Ovij mbmJlJ ovn cnkծ Dnl. ppj- huǮ Kb[y Jbk hb{jhj ky cnjlu cnkծ oklb Ovijb Dlյճ o{ mbybO Dn. cnjծ SJCծ mcpjv n mcp Dlյճ SJmbO Puu Dn. cjb mcp Gj nbomLvl o{ JjCl DC hvhlծ hjYkvblj Gjl cjb kծ&mk Jkv kCl cunjjk nUJjb c k nl. ծ IjCl Dnuok, lJp, յkbljk n Jl&yij cb[U nTv iu. Fboj n cnkծ mbmLv nl. Fboj mbmLvJbv [JwJv SpJv mmճu col ou nl. J. D. JUmJj b Ƶkծj$ծ Fbip Dvko piYj ibLuճl hkճu lb YjIm col Pu nl.
plkj jpJjCծ kծj JjCj uJ cU, Ovij DC kbpj lvծ plb hv:hvn DC lhƵuv kծj Jjl Dmll. c$ lm Jjlv uk, Dij, ubiճl, Yb[j, mU, J, lu, Ƶbh, o#C pv jpJdzo pil Puu plbJ[ lb ou&# Puu oml. Y<Cl Jbk I<Cbl mU, cU, lu, J Dm cnu pl Dmu lj hl#l Dյ mcplu nlJ Jճ&Jl& nlյ Oժv lbv k{kCծ hϳlv nlv oml vn. lcU vk jpJjCl Dhu mLv Jճ ծ mcplu uJbv JUp klv oml. vk jpJjCl DhuJ[ ou&# nl Dn, Dյ lb Ykv nT uiu lj l J plu ծ kծj Jjճu nk. ``vk jpJjC Dcծ yJb[ JC ymճծ yu uu Dn. lcU Dcծ pkvl Jճ HjJ h[Cj? lh# cj yJb[ ymuu hjk[l, JjC Dcծյ Jm kik n lu JUl DC lծյ Jm kiճծ l Dcnu cnl Dn,'' Dm YJw mcpb h{j u#cC cv pnjhC mbill. lv plb jpJjC JjCNb ou&# Puu 269 pl ծ hJjv kծj J Jlu n u#l Iճu nk.
cnjl yCb jpJjClv hsn Pu Dn. hjbhjJ cloj m[u lj n mcp Yph, pvl, mcpko, Jcvm Dյ kjO h#bv clov Jjlv oml.
Dlhճեl kikiȳ plb mbK Jl Jbk JwJkj Jl n mbiluu vn. JjC lյ cnl cUl vn. cnl cUl vmu lj Dbop JjC c$ Jw Dn. l Dbop JjCծ cK DOj cnCp 1931 pviCv. lkU Dlծ cnj n cbyF& FuK, cO hbl DC kNn[ lm noyo mbmLv bl kYiu iu nl. l lvnb pviCv Dnkulv cnjծ mOծ Yib plb JwJkj h{uhcC oml.
yC - 4.04, mvj - 1.08, Ƶbh - 0.56, JU - 1.5, cnok JU - 0.53, ubiճl - 2.0, cj - 24.9, JCy - 8.57 (cnCp cj k JCy cUv 33.48), cU - 3.5, mlj - 0.93, mU - 0.44, J - 0.48, cnj - 9.48, O[ - 1.91 (cnj k O[ cUv 11.69), clbi - 2.5, coi - 1.21 (clbi k coi cUv 3.71), lu - 2.18, Ovij - 2.55, Yuu - 1.6 Dm SJC Ʈ$ Dn.
DJ[kjǮ kYikj hcC kikiU Dn. okju vT puԳbl cj mcp 39.17 JwJ nl, lj koY&l 24.21 JwJ nl. ljh[ DC JJ[ b Dbop kiU DmCծ JjC n Dn. koY&l cnj mcpծ hcC 17.25 JwJ nl. cj mcpu JwJj oCFlJ lb koY&l mbKlcJ yU Dn. ծ yUkj koY&l kUkU hmLhlbv pyjoml Dknv GY jnu nl DC h{n GY jnlv omu.
kj mbiluu JwJkj pj 1931 mulu Dmu lj Dp ll Jn HjJ h[uu DmCծ JjC vn. Oc&, DvmƮl pl-pcl b Dpvn vbo nl. lb hcCl iu m k<եl Hj you Puu vn. lcU vbo v nCN plb hcC youu DmCծ Jwl vn. iu m k<եlu pviCv punkj Dnku ITv hlJ oJlu mLubljlb DYm Ju lj Dpծ punkj DC plkj hjmLl mcp Ju.
cloj plǮ kծj Dpyl Jjl vnl Dm c$ vn. ovn Gcokj luyU Dmlu DC Flj Jmbkj vC& IC DkI[ pl Dmu lj plkj vC& Ill.
FlJw D[C Dmu ljn Flj cimki& pl Gծ jpJl& pl Dnl. Dhuu m m[k uiu, ծ cj mcpu Jknծ pCk Pu Dn. lm Jճ Jjճծ ծn lb lճj hC& Pu Dn. lLh lbv ypu JjCmjK hճ& l vn, lhճեl l DhC nTv m Jm m[lu? l kU ubykճծ, Fljbv ml Yioj ճծ, ci&v Jw lk{ JU l m lyl jKCծ hϳlv Jjlu.
Flj cimki&bv jpm cUkCծ ov lճj JjCm mk&l Hճoj i cnCp lbhJ hlJu mkl: Obo DC hjbhjJ J̵u Dn. n J̵u DOvJ hlv khժv lbv mkl: DL&J hil Ju hnp. cnjծ DL&JjC ykj vծkճu mkl Ju J jpJjCn lb ykj vծkճu Hjm kU uiCj vn. mkulb mcv Oibh# DL&J mbybOb mcv Oi pml yUJ Dmuv l mkեv SJ$ ybO Jl. n hƯ Ph nCj vn. lm km-hbkm k<ե ƮJv uCj hϳlv nkl. Oj Ojl Du hnp.
Dm Oj Ojl Du vn, lj c$ plkj cUk Yjkճծ. ll Dvճ Puyu pjoj Y<C Jjճծ DC cUk mbhukj myU kiեh{ vcv jnճծ. h# JnǮ nl uiCj vn. jpJjCl hJU jnl vml. DL&JjCl lj cUǮ jnl vml. l SJv kUǮ Yju vn, lj omj h{ mjmkll.
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