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jkkj 24, Hykj 2008

vCb mkl nj[m FlnmJjծ cl, u[ծ jpv Ƹmlhk& Dk lJl Ju Dmk. u[cOv iJ njbcO lm mmu k Ful n vC YjYj hmju. DuJwPb[j o i쮳 JUvblj vCb SJ ypkj jpծb [Jb Jjuub Dm. cU jpծ DOJj k mn m nF& DC Fljbv K vC lճj JjCbn DkI[ pF&. Ƹmlhk& 540 JUln mcmծ h@uկmvb mh&lu uJbv mvծ K vC oTv Hmkub nlb. cnCv ci Kj vC DUK Cm mjJjbv l vCbkj Dhu Km co Jbk sh Gckճu mkl Ju. c$, l jp Kh j Dmu lj uJbv l vCbn ji F&. GonjCL& J@uiu cuvblj uJbv lծ miU vC SJ$ Jv klUkv Ju. `Ol vml lJ[ cnCp vC vnl, lj hYikj cjuu jpծ cokժv p Ol讳 lJ[ծb kpv DC DmmuhC mh nl lu vCb cnCkb,' Dյ vCծ kK mk&%vjճCvb cvmclkju Jl Juu Dn.

 


Yjll vC $+ikoծ JUhmv nl, Dmb cnCll. F. m. hծk lJծ mcjm yu{ ciO mcpmJ DvJ jpbv Dhhu vC J{u nl. lkj m& Jbk Ov<yC b m Dml. Juծ DL&m$l mkC&h (mvծb), hժh (boǮb), lcϪh (lbyծb) DC ǵժh (Ƶյծb) Dm vCb yj hJj mbilu Dnl. lu hkժv `hճ' n yo Du. jnvb hnu hճ lճj Ju. Ƶkpvb `nv' n mvծb DC `ƵkjF&' n boǮb Dյ ov vC h[u nl.
vCb vc&ll vjvjU Ol khju iu. hk& mh&, cO DHJ k phvcO uKb[ vC khjl. u@m[c@v FL unv uKb[ J[ծ DJjծb vCb Dm. c$, uKb[ ibplb, Ƶkճ l mnphC GhuyO Dmuvb JCn lhmv yvk vC yvk J. lcU uKb[ծ vCbm Hj JU khj nT Ju vn. Ƶյծ Ghճi c$ vCbcO yjծ Ju iu. DhuJ[ hk& DbO hol, Djk lJl cbyF&l lj yol DuJ[hճեl Ƶյծ khj vC yvklv Ju pl nl. mjJwp FLu p@vmDm vb DC Fbiub[cO 1680 mu omN u&mddvb JLuhmv vC h[u. pk, cJwmJ, cuJwJ ybcO lj DuJ[hճեl JLuծ Ghճi vC yvklv Ju pl nl. hծv ny uJb vC lbyծ nl. boǮ khj m nCDioj jccO Dյ lbyhmv vC yvku pl. Dio 100 k<եhk&hճեl jƵճ DC mk[v oblu cK vC lbyծǮ nl. Yjlln DvJ k<ե lbyծ vC khju pl nl. hk& vcO `liu' n hlUb vCb khjub pF&. vblj c$ boǮ vC piծ JvJhNl uJhϳ Pu. Fbiub[cO lmN S[k[& JUhճեl HJwl boǮǮ vC khju pճծ. 1828 mu jƵճv mjJjvb hu@vcծ vC yvku. c$, l yvkCb Hj KƮ&J Jc Dmuvb l uvl Hj Du vnl. mvl DmCN kƵ iCOcեcU mvծ vCn pil miUJ[ yvku iu. ybv Yjll mvծ vC h[u.
Jc JclǮ vCbm L[ nuJw op& Olb Ghճi Ju pl Dm. ll vJu, JLu, yBP n Ol khju pճծ. lbb kpvn Jc Dmճծb. Fbiub[, DcjJ, Fu, mk[v, pc&v, Yjl Dյ DvJ obl yBPծ Ghճi Dյ vCbm Ju iu. hl&ipbv vծ vC khju. F&m Fb[ Jbhvvb h[uu SJ vCծb vk v nlb. hjlb$ծ JUlu hk DC, DO& hm n DC mklb$vblj j DC, D DC, SJ hճ kij vC vJuծ nl. vblj lbyb-vJu, vJu- yBP, D@ucvճc- yBP Dm Ol khju iu.
19 k lJծ k쮳 oJl D@ucvճcծ vC yvku iu. SJ h, hm, DO& DC, ov, j, D DC DC hճ n vCn D@ucvճcծ nl. mklb$ Yjll 1964 mu hLc lv h̵ծb D@ucvճcծb vCb khjCl Dub. lvblj 1, 2, 5, 10 DC 20 h̵b D@ucvճcծ vC Du. 1975 mu SJ ibclծ Pu. D@ucvճcծ ov h̵b vC SJoc cUvյ Pu. mbybO Jn lկj Dukj Jn Ybijkubkj O[ h[u lkn lbv ov h̵b npj vC mh[u. ծb JjC kƮ$ծ nlb. ov h̵b vCl khjuu hl# D@ucvճcծ Jbcl ov h̵bh# pml nl! SKvb 850 . ov h̵b vC (42,500 vC) ou lj YbijkuJ[v lծ cyoul 1000 . cUճծ. cnCp JwJ 18 JwJ vH! l Ybijku lkjn 10-15 vH ITv l JjKvojbv kJ!
Dp DhC D@ucvճcu Kh Kuծb cvl Dmu lj pkn D@ucvճcծ O vJlծ uiu nl lkn l oc&U Dmuvb mvh#n pml cukv mcpub pF&. Hvmծ lmN vhuճvvb ouu cpkvǮ kU ojyjlu miU uJ mv-boǮ l-kbl Ku cv Iuv pkl nl. hC mkl: mc k lծ vlkF&J c$ yyl D@ucvճcծ ll pkl nl! DC miȳ ojyju jpծ Khծ nk kl nl.
JlJ kU vCbkժv Kh iclpcln nl. 1863 mu cJwmJl lmN vhuճvծb jp Dukj lvb lL mkl: vC h[u. hC Jn JUvb l vCbcOu lծ nNծb [Jb Huծb omճu uiub. miU b$b lhmvn lbl Jn o< D{Uu vn. pmpյ vC h[u iu, lmlյ [Jwkj Yi k{lծ iu. ծb JjC v JUuvb Jc&Nbv Jc ybo Jub. hC lhճեl sm vC h[v Pu nl. `l DյY Dnl' Dյ mcplvb l v Ju iu. hC SJ vCb c$ v Jjl Dub vn. Kh Ovn Dpvn l mh[uub vn. iճivb lmj vhuճv 36 k<ե piu. Mk lu iȳ IuCl Du. llu SJ iU [Jwkj uiu DC lkU smk vCkj pmb nlb lmb lծb [Jb Hub iub. l `Yk<kC' (!) JjCjb vCb MOCb Dpvn u Dn. DC Dmb cnCll J, l pu cUu, lu l cyoul on uK [@um& (j J hճ) cUlu!
vCb DJjbcO Khծ kkO omv lb. mklu vC Jv nl. cChj vC Jv Dml. lj JMcj, Dmc DC MK uJb vC Jv DLk DJv Dml. vmթv, puuv kij jpb vCbkj kl&Ul ov Jv Dml. ci vC iuJj Pu. hMծ mllծ SJ nllv omjJ[ HjCծ iCOc&u i Dm iuJj hLc Ʈvbv vCu ou, Dmbn cnub plb. ʹubJ DC o#C Yjll mh[uu Jn vCb DJj cm OjCծ iUmjK Dn. phvcOub `J[c' vkծb vCb c kCmjKb iuJj Dm. mճclub vCb I[ծ vumjKb nlb. vcOub `liu' vkծb vCb kl&UJj Dmճծb DC lkj SJ Jv so Dmճծb. FjCcO SJJU lukjǮ DJjծ vC yvku pl Dml. lj mk[vcO M lbyծ m[ml Fb jmծ cc h$ vC cnCv khju pl nl! h$ծ hlJ JhNkj SJ DC cOYi SJ Dm kl&UJj Mkwk cjuu Dml.
vC yvklv cCmծ mkճ D[ Duծ ibcloj GojnCb Flnml D{Ull. S[k[& yoMnծ cKk Dmuu hճծ vkv vC pkn ypjl Du lkn JlJ uJ l mklu nlln Il vknl. lmb noj DC h n nbo Oc& Jfj M$. c$, lbv h[uu vCbkj `ʹ' n D#j Jbk mkmlJ DM MYƮvnb Dml. DC yjծ JU cmucv jpkl J{uvblj Mkpjpb JUl pkn vC vIu lkn lkj cmucv njh kk uiu nl!
vCb Jcl jpJl& DvJo youln Dml. h mulv Dhu Hplu Ƶhճb hij olv vCծ Jbcl k{kl Dm. Dյ k{k Jbcl h{ on okmbhճեl Jճc kv vblj hvn l hnuFlJǮ Jjl Dm. coll k{kuu JclǮ h̵vb Jp& H[Cծ cJUJ l Dhu Ƶhճbv oF&. D@jm@uծ DL&m$kj ibLl lvb DLvmcOu cLDmvb Ƶhճbv DC khNbv u{F& JUl hSkp lbyb vC ICm Jmb Yi h[ub, DC u{F& mbhukj hvn hծ vC oCծb kծv oub, k<ճ mbilub.
cOճil k{l khjyjyj Kj DC YmU Juu K vC H uiu. DhC pmb Huu v oJvl Khkճծ hϳlv Jjl, lյծ hJjlv khjl YmU JuuǮ vC pml omճu uiu. kժvծ `kF& hm n biu h̵u ci {Jul', n hnubo Djmc DC Jhv&Jm bv DC vblj mj L@cm ic bv DUKub. 1558 mu ծ SJ vճcծ yvu. uծ `icծ vճc' cnCll. i@uyLծ cl, DL&m$l `icծ vճc' nծ SJck mk&cv vճc nl!
khj pmpm k{ճu uiu lmlյ vC ijmǮ k uiu. c kknj vCb hvb JjCb Hj DkI[ nlb. lJjl SJlj hϮb[ c JclǮ vC h[Cb ijpb nlb, Jbk ci Kh mbKl l vC pkU yUiճu uil nl. Dmb mbill J, l JUl ub[vծ h{bkj pkUhm ov J hb[b kknj nl Dml. n ny mvծ vCbl Jl Jjճծ Pum 157 vbh# pml mvb DC l lLv nukճu pkUpkU 80 I[ uiu Dml! vCb uvlu Dյ D[CbcOvծ ci h̵vb Jio h OjC Jub!
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