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jkkj, 11 c 2008

cuLm DC uJmbK bb SJ Dl vlb ov lJbhmv ul Dub. hC hl# uJmbK Jl Dn k<ճ l JU JCuծ h vmճծ. 1801 mu hnubo Fbiub[cO pviCv Pu. lDioj ol vJwJ Jl uJ Dnl k<ճ vmlǮ Dbophb uճծ. Sk{b Jճ hC pkn Kvmcj Pu lkn `l SJ Fbip mklb$u Iu Dn' Dյ mk&$ ybyybyn Pu nl! lDioj [@. hF&m n SJ cb$, n-J@H kJCj Գv DC vJյ yvkCj iij Jbi Dյ cb[Ubv Juu uJmbK Dbopծ uJ Kj cvl.
18 k lJծ cOkj DiJ bl Sv Yjl Du nl. hC Jcijb mLl hϮb[ nuKǮ nl. 18 k lJծ khճեl l DCKvծ YճvJ Pu. hjmLllv ci& J{Cm JB[jm DC cb$ Dmuu kuc i@[kv Dյ cvklko cb[Ubv kծj Jjճu mkl Ju nl. i@[kvvb SJ h$Jl unub nlb, `Gծ pil ijy, ivn, jijF& DC < vmlu, lcU vճuճb, mjJj kijbn ijp jnCj vn.' n Jճ mboj mki& mkhv nlb! l JU miȳ ʹcbl uJb Gb h&bl i@[kvծ hmlJծ ծ& JjCb n SJ H@vծ Pu nl.

 


Dյծ SJ Duyj nTmcOu ծ&l [@vճu cuLmvbn Yi Ilu nl. pbucv c@iPvvb `SJwmbJ cCm' Dm GuuK Juu [@vճu [kn[ Գcծ c$ nl. [@vճu yNծo Dhu L@cm cuLm nj cuyjyjn koծ& Jjl Dm. Dmb SJo kuc i@[kvvb 1793 mu unuu `SvJwkճj Jvmvեi huJu pmm' hmlJl kC&uu `mki&'kj ko m Pu. [@vճu cuLmu i@[kvծ hճ Khծ hճծ. hC OJ cuLm k[ubSk{ Dյko vknl. k lb ko kJhu iu. OJ cuLmvb lծ miU c unv J{ճծ jku. l kծv [@vճu Sk{ K Pu J lvb OJu lծb hmlJ shճu mbilub. DC ծ kU cuLmvb i@[kv DC JB[jm bv Gj oCm SJ hybO unu. lծb vk nlb `D@v Sm D@v o hvmhu D@H h@huv, D@p F D@HJwmd o hwj Fchkncb D@H mmճ, kL jcJ&md D@v o mhJwuvm D@H cmj i@[kv-Sc. JB[jm DB[ Doj jճm&'! Sk{b cb vk JCuծ hvn GjCbn Jw vknlb. cnCv ci lծb `Sm D@v h@huv' Dmb mhb, mml vk kCl Dub. hC l hVm npj yob hmlJkj uKJծb vkծ unub vknlb! hmlJծ j cuLmvb i@[kvծ `mki&u' l[ ou nl. lu cCmծ Yk<l mki& DC hճ lj m[ծ, hC mO hiln oml vknl. lu cCmծ h{ HJwl o:K, ojo k{v kub Dmb kl nlb. cuLmծ vjյko kծjbcU FlnmJj `L@cm Ju&F&u' DL&m$u `[mcu mճvm' cnCճu uiu nl.
`cCmb mll ubiJ mKծ ci k[mjK Okl DmucU uJmbKkj vճb$C kCb pkUhm DյJwծ nlb' Dmb cuLmvb cb[ub. lծ cl uJmbK pDcJ hh&vvb k{l. cnCp l oj jkJ Jn k<եv ohh nl DC l ci 1, 2, 4, 8, 16... Dյ lNnvb k{l. hC Ovlhov n DjLcJ hh&vvb k{lb. cnCp l 1, 2, 3, 4, 5... Dյծ lNnvb k{lb. lcU Jn JUvb uJmbKu hjmb DV v cUuvb Ghmcj m nl Dmb lvb cb[ub.
hmlJծ hnu Dkl lj lvb uJmbKk{cU CN mbJbl o<JU, vmi&J Dh, hui DC bn mck Ju nl. DC lծ Yilu hծk hJjCl yunl, Kv, iY&vjOv (J@vmhv) DC mcubi mbybO bcUn uJmbKk{ Lby Jl Dmb lvb cb[ub. hC vblj DkʳbcO cuLmvb uJmbKk{ UCծ `ubiJ mbybO UCb, GƵj uiv JjCb' DյbmjK Jn Ghճn mku. hC ljn cuLmծ cl cCmծ ubiJ YJ n FlJ hϮb[ Dml J SJ cճ&ohuJ[ uJmbKk{ jKl Cb Jw vn DC lcU mk& uJb DL&J mLl mOjCb Jw vn!
`Sm'cU cuLmu jljl hm cUu. 1798 l 1826 ojcv lծ hmlJծ mn Dkʳ vIu. oj DkcO l vkb Jnlj Jl Dm. lծkj pv Ju Gj ol Dm. Jbk mkl: kծjl nCj L[Hj youn ll cb[l Dm.
`ijybv col Ju DC lb mLl mOju lj lbv cubn pml nlu DC hvn hjmLl Kuku cnCv lbv coln J vճ' Dmn v<J<& cuLmծ LDjkժv DvJbv J{u. Jn k<եv unuu `D@v Fvknmiv D@H o J@p D@H o hPb nճ hF&m D@H hknpvm'cO lj cuLm ijybv col JjCkթ׮ Jwlkol DCKvծ Jծb yuu. `Dյ ijybv col Ju lj Ovծ Jcln k{lu. Fbiub[cO cJwծ Jcl cU k{u Dnl. lcU ijy oj nCb lj oj jn hC ijyb mLl DCKvծ Kuku' Dmb lvb ll mbilub. cuLmծ kծj lknhmv Dphճեl koiml ju. 1984 mu cjvb Dm kծj cb[u.
cuLmծ LSjǮ DvJ #$blu DvJbkj hYk h[u. pkյm$cO lj DuH[ k@um DC u&mdd [k&v bv l hYk cvծ Ju. ny&& mhvmjkjn lծ Khծ hjCc Pu. Ƶkճ pjn[& uvmJ DC ck&v n@jm b DOvJ FJ@u@pJu- Sknuvj mu LSjkjn cuLmծ Khծ c hYk oml nl. 1968 mu h@u Sujvb `o h@huv y@cy' vkծb SJ hmlJ unub. Khծ koiml juu DC ipuu hmlJln cuLm hvhv [Jkl nlծ! ll lvb 1970 oJcO uJmbKk{cU JkO uJ cjlu DC 1980 muhճեll DcjJcOm uF&H SJwmhJwvm n HJwl 42 k<& Dmu' Dmb YJl Jub nlb. DL&lծ l mhյu Jub.
n cuLm nl lj JC? mjcOu kv ik 1766 mu cuLm pvcu. lծb mbhC& vk nlb L@cm j@y& cuLm. cuLmծ mmLllu k[ubv DC Ij Tv ƵJkCN Ƶ#Jbv cuLmu unvhC ƵJkub. Jubljvb Jbypծ pPm J@upcO kճծ 18 k k<& l iu DC iCl k `v@ju Hu@m@H' ƵJճu uiu. k[ubv l mkn&Dj knk Dmb kl Dmub lj cuLm ծ&cO Ƶju DC 1788 mu `jknjb[ cuLm' Pu.
lծ hCpybhmv miȳbvծ Dbhյ SJ yjJ Jmuǵ H Dmuvb lbb yuCb JUճu $m knճծ. cU cuLmvb mkl:b h& 1833 muhճեl JOǮ J{ oub vn, hC vblj SJ m$ƯcU lb D J Pu. c$ n m[ub lj cuLm Gb DC oKC nl. lvb lծ iuy s Dmuu mvj Jm k{ku nl. lծ l lm JjU Jm iclյj oml. 12 Shu 1804 jp lvb n@jS SJm&u lծh# on k<եv unv JPvյ uiv JjCm `DBiuJv hmn[' li Ju. lu nvj, Scu DC um Dյ lv cubn Pu.
1805 mu cuLmvb ub[vpkU `F&m Fb[ J@up'cO DOvJ Flnm DC DL&m$ ƵJkCm hOhJ cnCv vJj u Ju. cuLm n pilu HJwl hnu FJ@v@cJwmծ hHmj yvu vn lj hnu `kkmƳJ DL&lp%'n Pu! cuLmu lծ kL& hcvb `h@h cuLm' Jbk `h@huv cuLm' Dmb cnCl. ծ JUl [kn[ jJ[& lծ c$ Pu. lbl DL&m$k<ճ J[Jwծ Yb[Cb nTvn lb c$ khճեl DyOl jnu. 1818 mu cuLm j@u mmճǮ Hu Pu.
hC cuLmvb HJwl uJmbKkj uKC Jub vknlb. `cCmb Dhu GlhVhJ Kծ& JjCSkp yծl pml Jjճu uiu lj cuծ ciC Jc nTv cbo F&u (cuLm u `iu' cnC)' n cuLmvb mbilub. Jvm Jn oJbvblj n mbiCj nl. hC cuLmvb n FlJw k<եhk& mbikb ծb Jvmu Kh JlJ k. lvb unuu cuLmծ j$l lmb cnCv kub. Ƶkճ pcvǮ lJ[bcOu mhJl HjJcU pcv Y[b vc&C nlb Dյ pcv Y[k<ճǮ LDjn cuLmvb cb[u.
clvblj cuLmu Fbiub[cOu yL D@ycO hjCl Dub. 1978 mu cճJu n&vb `o 100 : S j@vJbi D@H o cm FvhwuSvճu hm&vm Fv nmj' n hmlJ unub. ll lvb cuLmծ 80 k vbyj uku nl!
cuLmkj cJwm&hmv Dlhճեl yNծ pCbv J Judz. hl# Flnml uJmbK DC Ovlhov n cuLmvb mbiluu iClhcC k{uub vn DC vkv lb$%vvb Dlh#n yjǮ pml uJmbK hml F&u; uJmbKh# uJmbK Ivl (uJmbK Yiu hC, Kvpb, uik[uճJ pcv... Dյ vmi&J mOvb) n cnkծ DC (n lj Yjlծ Flj DvJ obh# biu Dn!) ijy DC D[ChCcU uJmbK k{l. uJmbKcU ijy vn, lcU hLc ijy oj Jv m#jl k{kճu hnp, lcU Gu uJmbK DJwl F&u kij DvJ Jwlko cuLmkjO Jjll. lcU `uJmbKkj vճb$C pժj kkb, hC ijyǮb Khj uJmbKkj v H[l Flj JC Okb' Dmb l cnCll. lmb `uJmbKk{cU hճ&kjCծb vJmv nlb, lcU ijyǮb l JjC Dmub vmub lj uJmbK vճb$C n cvkplǮ Yk<Jjl Dvkճ& Dn' Dmb Jn hճ&kjCko cnCll.
SJC cuLmծ kծj hϮb[ koiml ju. hC lvb DL&m$l Fljn cnkծ kծj cb[u Dmvn `cuLm cnCp uJmbK mbl' Dmb mcJjC uJb [Jwl pTv ymub l iu 150 k<ե Dpv iuub vndz!
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