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jkkj, 11 c 2008

pil mk&l pml Dk[Cj, Kuu pCj DC JCn JOn vn v cnCCj Dm SJck hoL& cnCp y! hƵcl pkCl `jm[dd', `c@[dd' Jbk lUuu y nkծ nk. Jbynv yƵkճ hƵcl pkC nT Jl vn! hƵcl pihcC Yjlln mk& Ypbl uJhϳ Yp cnCp yYp. Jun mcjbYծb, uiv-cbpǮb pkC yծ YpƵkճ, k[bƵkճ nl vn. FlJb vkn lj jhճv uJbv Dhuyjyj DCuu ym DhC Dhu Ghmծ HjUcOn mLv oub Dn.
yk[- hk n lj jpcv, uJcv hoL& Dn. Dyukbl, ijybhmv ʹcblbhճեl mkեcO y FlJ uJhϳ Dn, J p@v j[jmnybv yծb j$ unkbmb kub! `Dk[lb K- piծ Flnml y' (Propitious Erculent : The Potato in World History) n yծb j$ vJlb p@v j[j bv hm Jub Dn. 2008 mu n `Dbljjdz y k<&' cnCv I<l Puub Dn. mbJwl j mbIm Dյ Dn J, `Dbljjdz y k<&' mpjb JucU yծ iCOc&k<ճ uJbl k{l hcCl pCkpil nTv ijy nkCm, DVծ mj#ll k{Cm DC DL&J kJmm col nF&u DC `mn k<&J kJm O' (Millennium Development Goals) mO nCm mnճ nF&u. o#C DcjJlu DB[pd hk&ljpcO yծ hnu uik[ Pu. 7000 k<եhk& h ol yծb hJ Ilub iub. DL&l lcU hFlJ `yծ DYcv' o pil omj vn! h jpOv uc Lu `Dbljjdz y Jbo' (International Potato Center) mbmL ok Dn J, hcO KCճi `ym&' (tubers- yծb SJ vk. omjb hϮul vk `mh[dd'- spud) 3500 kikiU hJj hJll.

 


vblj JUl yծ k{l uJhϳlk<ճ uJb cvl Ʈbl vc&C nT uiu. JjC cyuJ hcCl Glhol nCN ycU uJmbK pml hcCl k{ uiu! pvl hC&hC ykj pi uiu. Dյ hJj piCm ykj Dmuu hC& Dkubyvծ OJ hJ<&v pCku l 1845 Dճj y o<JUl. o<JUl u#kO Dճj uJ cjC hku DC u#kObv Dճuե[ m[ub.
cJ, in DC lboUvblj y n pilu mk&OJ cnkծb hJ Dn. ycU pml J@ujp k ln Kh ukJj cUll. JCln Flj hJbh# y oj okյ hlJ `v'ci pml Tp& (energy) vc&C Jjl. lծyjyj ycO DVIJn (nutrients) mblul hcCl Dmll. lcU HJwl ykjn- pj l JbUkCb Dmub ljn- pil lb. kkO hJj nkcvbl, Jcl Jc pil pml GlhV oCjb hJ cnCp y!
pilJJjCծb DC yծb Dio pkUb vlb Dn. FlJb, J mk& Ưbl y hC&hC iblu Dn! pj Jw kl vmub, mh oml vmub, lj SJCmk lJlu Fbiub[cOu DiJ blm yv DOj ou, lJo ou! ycU mkmll J@ujp cUll, yծb hJ J{Cb mhb Dmlb. lcU Jcij ʹccJwl nTv DiJ blm Jcij hjk Pu. Gj Fbiub[cOu lJj cb{, iF& hUl. [Jjb hom Jjl. Jby[b hom Jjl. DC Ijil GiObon Jjl. lcU yծb hJ Gj Fbiub[cO lJjhϳ Pub. o#C Fbiub[cO pcvǮ op& biu DmucU Lu lJj iknծb hJ J{l. Gj Fbiub[cO JUm cyuJ hcCl GhuyO nl. lcU lL DiJ Ư- hƯ Jbol Pu DC yծ YjIm hJkj k{l Dmuu hp vkvkv Gibv, JjKvbv Jc&j hjk uiu. FlJw c hcCl, J H[jJ Sbium cnCu, `uKb[yjyj yv SlnmJ bll yjyjǮ nmm... k Guu!'
Fbiub[cOu ipuu cJwծ Jճbb (corn laws) Gv nCm y JjCYl Pu DC cJwl khjm mkl Pu! cU `FJ@v@cm'mjK op&oj mhlnJծ mkl 1843 cO Pu. pcvojbv mkl:b GlhV Jc nT vճ cnCv mkmllu DVOv Dճl vyեOv hby ou, lj GpJbv vyեObv kjO Ju. JjC mkml DVOv DճlcU Fbiub[cOu DVOvծ Jcl Jc nTv vkvkv Glhol kml kJl ICm uJbpkU hm ƵuuJ jnlu DC vkv Glhovb ciC k{u!
mjlk cJwծ Jճo j Pu. hC lծb JjC Jճծ kթ DmCNb koծ lJo vkn, lj 1845 muծ Dճuե[cOu o<JUծ lkl, khl DC mbJ. ykj h[uu jicU yծb hJ Hj c hcCkj v Pub. o<JUkj cl JjCm DVOvծ Dճl JjCƵkճ omj hճ& vknl. cnCv pcvojb hYlkKu Dmuu llJuv mjJju cJwծ Jճo j Jv DVOvb Dճl JjCb Yi h[ub.
`cJwծ Jճo' yjKml PucU Flj #$bln GojJjCm (liberalisation) mkl Pu DC cJwl khj n y OjC lճj Pub. lcU [J D@H kubivv lկj Ju J, Jpuu ybv mk& Jn Jub!
yi&j DC JJyjyj Hb HFp nklծ. lƵkճ yi&j pC Klծ l vn. Fbiub[cO H ƮhmƵkճ Kl l, kj Fbipb mkhvlm kյkm ymCj vn. yƵkճ Dhu Ghmծ HjU k mcjbYծb pkC DյJw Dn. pilu Jun ol p- Ʈhm cUCj vnl, Dmb nCj vn. DC Ʈhm Dk[l vnl Dյ kJwln mh[Cj vn. mǮ oJl hCl vUYT ucճ b `hvc'cOu mk&l uJhϳ hoL& nl- Hbij Ʈhm k c Jh! lUuu yv DKK pim iu DvJ k<& cnkv Jub Dn. cnCvծ cnCl lb J, y n pilJJjCծ hcK IJ Dn... cnkծb GonjC DC mk&cv KhoL& (icon) Dn!
mUk lJhmv Dpliճl yv n Jk{ DI[ cju Dn! Jk{b hjkl&v Jub Dn! mUk lJl yծb jhcO Dkյkmv, mյbJlv mkil Pub nlb. `mh['cU Jji nl, n HJwl pvkjbb K Dn, n k<j KhoL& Dn, Jbk mlvյ lծb vlb Dn, Dյ ijmcplbvյ jhv yծb mkil Jub nlb. hC Djk lJlu jhcOu o<JUbv k u{ճbv oKkv oub J, y Jl Yjkյծ Dn, Jl kkO Ghճiծ Dn. DC yƵkճ omjb Jnn Kճu cUub vn lkn jhճv uJbv yծb cnk, iCk DC DkյJl JUu. h{ yv pilJ hJƯbl, hoLեcO Dhub mkl:b Dmb Km mLv vc&C Jub... DOjp mLhv Jub!
Djk lJծ k lj `Dյճ&pvJ DV' cnCv KmJv ijybm yծ ijk jhճvm J uiu. yծ hmj- hϮj JjCm cj DBFvdd (Marie Antoinette) mc%v yծ Hub Jjv [Jwl IuCm mkl Ju!
DL&m$ծ hl DC yYJwl D@[c mcL cnCvծ cnCu J, jhcOu DvJ jpbl, jbl uJbb DV cnCv yծ pi mk&mOjC DC mj&m Dn. lcU m Pub J, SK j<ծ KC-hCk<ճ Jln Kukj puu ijmcp Dmu, lj l ijmcp JuyOl jn Jl vn. Dյ ijmcpbkj kpճ cUkl l.
GJ[uu, lUuu, Ypuu, mc@ Juu vc `yj'v pi youv Jub. piծ KCծ Dk[ youu. kn[JmjK hbv lnv Yiku. mk& hJj hJhll mk&L&vb Kjb pilJ K cnCv lvb cv-mvcv cUku. cnCvծ cJwl khj, pilJJjCծ hjmJlեv yu Ovko ճu nkl... yծb pilJ յ mpjb Jjճu nkb.
h j<O# D@uv im& b cl, hv hjl SJo yյ Dmuub Dhub vlb, mbybO hmLhl Jjճծ kU Du Dn. JjC hv yNծ JUhk& yJ[ h Hjku DC vճ&l ypjcOu Dhu nmm icku. Dhu n k hjl cUkCm im&bb mjJj y GlhoJbv mk& hJj m-mkul ol Dn. hhcC Yjlvn Dm hϳlv Ju lj?
Dvu vv

Juճkvծ cl cJboծ nlv nCj nl...
pjmbO k Juճkv n oIn pj J<Cծ yu{ $ nl, lj oIbn $lk hl# J<Cյ vmv, J<C k ok bյ nl. pjmbOv cLjkj 17 kU DկcC Ju. hlJ kU J<C DC yujc bv lծ 23 D#nC mvu cju, hC pjmbOu cJU m[u. JjC pjmbO kj k cnkJb# nl. lcU l hvn olmv SJ$ Jv cLjkj DկcC Jju, n J<Cu cnl nl. DC Ghճv olb mbK Jc nF&u, Dm J<Cծ Jm nl DC lm I[u. Djkbo pkn pjmbOv cLjkj nuu Ju lkn Juճkv vn lծ kU cLjkj nuu Ju. pjmbOծ 23 D#nC k Juճkvծ lv Jj[ mv mcv JjCh# J<Cv jJu pCծ jku. mk& okbv jJl mKժh hnkv ʹJ<Cv pjmbOծ hjYk Ju. hjbl lu cju vn. JjC pjmbOծ cl Ycծ nlv unu nl. vblj J<Cv Juճkvյ mcv Ju. Juճkv J<Cu cjCJjl Oku lkn J<Cv lu nuJkC ol jCYckժv huճv Ju. FL J<Cծ vk `jCs[' h[u. J<C SJ hk&lծ ibHl Ƶju. Juճkvn lծci ibHl Ƶju. lL jp cJbo Phu nl. cJbo F#kJ kbl cvOlծ h$ nl. lv Fbou okmj mbicl col Ju nl. DlʹccU Fboo oklbv lu oI& vo kj ou. p lծ vo Ybi Jju, l cJboծ o h[lծ Ymc nF&u, Dmn kj lu ou nl. cJbou J<C mcpv Juճkvv lu uL cju. cJbo pi Pu k lv FJ[ lJ[ hnu. lծ ou Juճkv h[u DC kjծ hYkv l Ymc Pu. (ʹcoddYikl hjC, oc mJbO, DOճ 50- 51) Juճkvծ cl cJboծ nlv nCj nl, cnCvծ ʹJ<Cv lծkթ mo&vծկ khju vn.
Ƶյhu n oyU vmv, kj k yu{ nl. Ƶkճ Ƶյhuծ J<Cյ kj ծ pvcծ vmv, hnu lv pvcծ nl. nbo cvlhcC hvp&vc mbl cvlho Dn. Ƶյhuծ pvcծ JL Dյ- SJo ypb cvmh$ mvJ, mvlv, mvbov DC mvlJcj n Yikv k<C讳 o&vJjl kJbu iu. kJbծ jhu pճ-kpճ bv mvJo $+<bv DUKu vn. lbv mOjC yuJ mcpv D[ku. lkn $+<bv lbv h ou J, lcn mlkhOv kJbl jnճu i vn. lcծJjl lchOv Dmj vǮ i Dn. n ibOU SJv ʹk<C lL Du k lbv pճ-kpճ blH& cH cilu. lkn mvJo $+<bv lbv G:h ou J, lv pvc Dmj v Yiukj n h bl nF&u k pճ-kpճ hjl kJbl ʹk<CJ[ hjl u. lvn Dmj-pvcbl lcծ cl k<C讳 DkljJ[v nF&u.
n pճ-kpճ hnu pvcl njC# k njCJh vkv YT cnCv Jh k ol b h pvcu Du. kjn Dkljl Yikv k<Cv njC#u cju, lj vjmbnkljl njCJh kO Ju. omN pvcl l kʹk cv k JJm b h$ cnCv jkC k JbYJC& cnCv pvcu. jckljv lb kO Ju. lmN pvcl l o jpծ jp ocI< k ʹlʹk b h$ Ƶյhu k oblkJw$ cnCv pvcu. ʹlʹk n ʹJ<Cծ Dl nl. Ƶյhuծ pvcծ JL Dյ. Ƶյhu lkn pvcu lkn lu j nl k lv [U nl. Dյ Dpy cuu hnv ocI<bv lծ li Jjճծ jku. lkn DJյkC Pu. `n h$ cnyu k ʹmbhV Dn. pծ mhյ&v ծ ov nl iUv h[lu k [U JhUl uv nF&u. lծ nlv ծ cl nF&u.'
J<C k yujc Dlծ h$ hnճu o ol Du lkn J<Cv Ƶյhuu cb[kj Ilծ lծ ov nl hLkkj iUv h[u k [U vnm Pu. ծ DL& mcpv ʹlʹkv Dhu cuծ hCծ YJ cilu. ʹJ<Cv Dlu kծv ou, ծ 100 DhjO c cH Jjv. vblj c$ ծ c kO Jjv (cnYjl, mYhk&C, ƵյhukOhk&, DOճ 43) Ƶյhu o jpծ jp Pu k Gvcl nTv, J<Cյ kj ITv uJbv $m oT uiu.
Ojծ jpm %l Ƶյhun GhmLl nl. %l Dihp cv ʹJ<Cu ou iu. hlcn Y<cbvn J<Cծ hϵbm Jv Dvcl ou. lkn Ƶյhuv Y<c k ʹJ<Cծ Yjhj vbo Ju. Ƶյhuծ n kJwlk cpj Dn l cUlvծ kծճu nk (cnYjl, mYhk&C, ƵյhukO hk&, DOճ- 41) vcvJjl SJ GonjC. J<Cծ vbo Jjlv Ƶյhu cnCl, `J<Cv ikO&v hk&l ml okm nlkj Guv Oju l Dյճ& Jnn i vn, JjC ikO&v cbibv KTv hJU Juu clǮ {JU nl.'
hlcn Y<cb Ƶյhuv cnlj, Y, v:mblv yobl Dhcv Ju. SJ SJ vbo yomyl Ƶյhuծ 100 DhjO hC& nl nl.
100 DhjO hC& Pukj ʹJ<Cv mo&vծկ ITv Yj mYl I<C Ju, `Ƶյhuծ DF&u kծv ouhcC ծ 100 DhjO c cH Ju. Dp mk& jp k Yhl bmcj c ծ kO Jjl.' DC ʹJ<Cv mo&vծկv Ƶյhuծ [J G[ku. Ƶյhuծ jjlv SJ lpmk pl vIu. l lp ʹJ<Cծ hճu mhյ& Jv ʹJ<Cծ jjl hk Pu. (cnYjl, mYhk&C, ƵյhukO hk&, DOճ 45, uJ 26-27) hcC pճkpճ lv pvc Dmj v Yiv J<CcO kuv nTv hjl ʹk<CJ[ iu.
- pl [, hkF&.

mOb hj$C k ob vյ n kl
ʹJ<Cv pvchmv DKjhճեl hUu.
mOb hj$C k ob vյ n kl ʹJ<Cv pvchmv DKjhճեl hUu. ob vյ lv mkl: Jbk mkYJwlbJjk Ju.
JbmkOvblj lծ Dml k hhl kOk hlv hl pjmbOJ[ J<Cծ m[ I Dm mbiCm iu. pjmbOv klUv J<CkO JjCm cLjkj hϮb[ mvvյ DկcC Ju. ʹJ<Cv lծ mv Jhv J{v lu Jo Ju. hC m[v ou. SJo vkn mlj- Djbo. J? l Hv Hv o< mnJNbmn hϮb[ mbKv DկcC Jukծv jnCj vn n cnl Dmvm hjYl pjmbOu m[v ouv ob ITJ kvյ I[kl F&u n lu kjbkj cJwl JjCciu nl nl.
k쮳 Khm SJ ypv pjmbO lj omjJ[v hjJdz Juճkv cLjkj u Jv Du. Juճkvծ hlJj v Jjl ʹJ<Cv ijvj hk&lծ ov JwJ huճv Ju. cU lծ jCs[jճ Dm vkn h[u.
ʹJ<Cv lLu ibHl kʹblm Phuu cJbokj Dhu u hbIժv omjJ[ l uhv ymu. hui Jjl Duu Juճkvv nծ ʹJ<C Dm mcpv cJbou uL cju. cJbov lu llJU j cju.
pjmbOu h{ hb[kb %mHulJjl Ycmyl DlLkl lծ %յUl pTv YcJjk j cjku. h{ o Jjkbn vյ JwlhϳJwlv hb[kbJ[v I[kv DCu.
D@cycy pkU Dmvn DuJ[ FjJkթ Juu l DcjJv lծ hϳi v Jjl hjbhjJ m$ khju. D@cy@cyծ Ghճi vC&J Jjlծ Jjճծ Dml. ʹJ<Cun vC&J Jjlծ mo&vծկ khjճծ nl.
- [@. kmbl hjnl, kmF&.

cnYjll JCծ cl, JCծ nlv k Jm nCj, n mbJl juu nl.
ʹJ<Cv pjmbO k Juճkv bkթ mo&vծկ v khjl oyȳ Ƶյhukj c$ m[u, JjC cnYjll JCծ cl, JCծ nlv k Jm nCj n mbJl juu nl. pjmbOծ kO Ycծ nlv juu nl. lծ JL L[Jwl Dյ Dn- ciO oծ jp ynoL v Jյǵkjծ oI Dkȳpkȳ Jv mu#C k iCmboj mkճbkjcO pbJv kju nl. hC lbv h$mblv vmucU l o:K nl Dm. yj hϳlv Jvn Huhhl v PucU l m$ճbm ITv DjCl Hjl Dmlv C[JƵJ $+<b o&v Pu. jpv Dhuu h$mblvծ Fs kJwl Ju. p Dbyծ P[Ku $+< ymu nl, llu SJ Dby Ku h[u. l HU hmom oTv ovn m$ճbv Kkճm mbilu. jpv Ij Tv l Dby Ʈժv ovn m$ճbv mjK kv Kճu ou. lcU oIbv DO& DO& GY JjkluhcC cui Pu. Dյ hjmLll jpv ovn DO& h$bm km$l ib[Uv vijynj vTv Ju. cOj$ Guukj `pj' vkծ #Cv l lJ[ p[ucU `pjmbO' n vk kv l yuJ hjl jpu ou. jpv Dvbolmk Ij Ju. mcjbYu C[JƵJ cvn Du nl. lbv jpu mbilu, `lP h$ mk& hLk k okolbm pbJu k hLkkju ynlJ jp yboml ku hC l pj ʹJ<Cb kjOv kiu lj lծ vյ nF&u. h{ pjmbO j DmucU lv hLkkju jp pbJv ybokv Ju. pjmbOv mlj kU cLjvijkj mkj Ju. hlJ kU yUjcoov lծ hjYk Ju. h{ pjmbOv `Juճkv'u' colu Ilub. hC ʹJ<Cv Jwlv Juճkvu Ymc Ju. k kvյJu pkU Dukj J<C, Yc k Dp&v pjmbOծ jpOvl Du. Ycծ k pjmbOծ 14 okm cuuճ Pu. J<Cv iklծ J[ Ʈժv kթ ou `pjv' p[uu mbOkj Ʈժv J Dm Ycm mbJl ou. l KCkժv pjmbOծ [k yp GpkJ[ k Gpk yp [kJ[ Jlծ pjmbOծ cl Pu.
Ƶյhu n kmokծ ynC mlkl k ocI<ծ h$; n pkn pvcu lkn lծ Ypbkj omN ov Yp k cmlJ lmj [U nl. l oƵvn hnv DF&v lu Jv oCm mbilu. FlJwl DJյkC Pu J `n yuJ mkեm oKkl p. pծ ov ծ ov Yp k SJ [U iUu lծծ nlv m cl nF&u.' hcC mlkl mkեv n cui oKkl Dm. p kU ʹJ<C o&v Pu l kU ծ ov Yp k lmj [U vnm Pu. clv ʹJ<CpkU lծ j#C JjCk<ճ kծv cilu, lkn ʹJ<Cv D Ilu J c m 100 DhjO cH Jjv hC DOJ Pum ly[ly j cjv. Dhu cui 100 DhjO Ju Jju Dm DF&u ku.
hC h{ (hb[kb) Oc& jpm %ծ kU Dihp cv ʹJ<Cu oucU Ƶյhuծ O Dvkj nTv hLc Oc&u yuu, ` ikȳծ hjv Dm Jճ hjկc Ju' vblj Y<cbvn l yuu. k ʹJ<Cծ Dbikj Okv yuu, `JwcCu jhcC hUkv vum, OJwJj Dm' Dյ vbo SJv Ƶյhuծ 100 DhjO hj PucU ʹJ<Cv mo&vծկv Ƶյhuծ Ƶj G[ku.
(mboY&- hb[khlh ibL, njkpճ ibL)
- mvl p, [byku.

ʹJ<Cv y khժv Juճkvu c# ou

piծ m$Oj hjckj Dmv lծ Db J<C Dn. hhl cboj, yjku (h.) L Puu Jl&vl Dյ cnl ou J, Yikv k<Cb pճ-kpճ vkծ ov jhubv SJ $+<Ǯ lb Jh[bkժv Dhcv Ju. lkn lbv Ʈ[v oIbv h ou J `cl& uJbhcC lcn Jh[bkժv kJwlǮ Jbcl Jjl cnCv o<#uv nF&l hLkkj pvc Ik uilu.' lkn Yikv ʹk<C i[y[ SJv ynj Tv $+<b #c ci uiu. oI cP jhu Dmuv cn Dhu vlJ DhjO Ju Dn. YJwlci&v ml pvc lj kjO YJwlv lv pvcbl hh#uv nF&u cnCv
(1) njC#- njCJh (2) jkC- JbYJC& (3) oblkկ- Ƶյhu Dm lv pvc lbv Ik uiu. Yikv k<Cu kjn, vmbn, jc k J<C Dm j Dklj Ik uiu. ʹlʹk Dlu Yikv J<Cv `bYj DhjO I[ukv cjCj vn' Dm kծv ouv bYj DhjO I[hճեl J<C ihh jnu. jpm %hmbi DhjOb JUm Pukj DbJ cpv (cnCp hk&Juhv oTv) bYj DhjO Jukj mo&vծկ uku.
Juճkvu JCln m$v-Dm$v cjC Cj vknl cnCv ʹJ<Cv y khժv lu c# ou. SJ inl cJbo $+< J[ k<& Phu nl. lbv volv GkCNu cl F&u Dm kj nl. l Kj JjCm ʹJ<Cv jJu huճv Jv Iyjuծ Ymkv Jwuhlv Juճkvu cJbo $+<b inl vu. lDO Dhu u lb Dbikj hbIժv mkl: uhu. J<Cծ GhjC hnv Juճkv cJbo $+<u J<C mcpv nuk uiu. lb Oivl Juճkv Ymc Pu. J<Cծ o&v ITv cJbo $+<bv c# cUu. lvblj oթJv mo&vծկ k jL J<Cu DCv ou.
pjmbOv mkl:nv DhuJ[ hnC cnCv Duu hb[kbhJ Ycծ Jmlm vk[ Ju. cnv cnlmk Jjl kկccdd~ Ycv Jln kU pjmbOծ lJ[ Ju, lj l lkjl p[u pl. l hvյ pkl nF&. nlյ nTv Ycv J<CJ[ hnu. J<C SJ lCJ[ l[v kթ ou HJl nl. l hnv Ycv hvյ pjmbOծ ov lJ[ Jv kթ ou HJu. l mbOu v iuv pjmbO cjC hku.
- mcl hu, yjku.

׵m$lu J vlǮ khj

hlJ hCc$ծ hh-hCvmj pvcpvcǮ kOuK yokv DOjKl Juu Dml. cnCvծ l Juծկծ JUkU YjuƵkճ Iv I[l vnl Jbk JCln okǵJwln lcO {kU{kU Jjl vn Dm F&kj mbJl Dn.
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