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jkkj, 8 pv 2008


yOc& c hYk Dmuu v k vhUcOv Duu ov jCb m@vilmvkj FlJ hYk nl J, lm yOc& kծj hu k lv Oc& mnphC mkJj Ju.
Iv yOc&m jpʹճ cUumjK cnCk uilu. mkl: jpv yOc& mkJjuv pvcvmln l Dhu Oc& Dn Dյ Ykv o{ Pu. ծ Hj c uY lyu Pu k Flj oblu yOc& kv, DOhJ bv lycO DCCծ Ư m nTv Ju, k%v, m$ bmn Gc Dծj-kծj, jljkp b hjճ lykmdzbv nTv ly pvlu mboj pkvյu cUu.
hcK hճ&v mbmLb mLUo&vl ly jpOv unmծ mck Ju pl Dmu lj lLu pvlv Juu vo&vbcU mkե cK unm n ծ& k<ճ Puu Dn. ly mboY&l y Oc&, lb Oc&i, unmծ hlu jpk[ n mLU [ȳmcj nJv ll. hծv ly lm kյkmvdz Flnm GhuyO vmu lj n o mcj ov npj k<եhk& Gou Du Dmk Dm mk&mOjC Dbop Dn. lycOu hnu cvk cJ[ k j#m bhmv vc&C Pu Dյ lLu oblJL mbil Dmu lj lm JCln h cUl vn. yOc& k<ճlu k*ddcճ Ʈv k ly uKl mnl, unml Ju iuu GlKvv, mh[uu Jjk uK bj hծv ly Flnmkj L[ Hj hJյ Jl l. F. m. h. 200 JUl lyl ƮDBi pcl kծ&mkkj

 

Dmlv k YlKlծ DjOv k vmi& hp kj DOjl `y@v' Oc& lL hϮul nl. `piծ shhj' mcpu pCj k mjmj 4,250 c. Gbkju ly YiuJ jvlv hhl Puu DkmLl jnv hhl hjmLlǵ cUl pUl Il Dpn Dhumcj GY Dn. lycOu mk&mOjC uJkmnl mcomhnv on l yj npj Hbkj k<եvk<& Dnl. Jn kmnl o npj H Gbkjn Dnl. ynmbK ly pkIC Lb[l jnl Du Dmv lL kvmhl, l k pkvkյJ kml b mo DYk Dm. Dյ hlJu mLllu oyjyj hk& ypiծ JCln hJj mbhJ& l JU l vm. hjmLlǵ mcv ol Dhu Dmllk Jkv kCծ O[h[l ijp, uJmbK bkj vճb$C kCծ DkյJl vc&C nTv SJ Ijlu mk& Ykbm SJծ hlvǮ mkJj, hjbhjil SJծ Ijծ khj, cճ&ol lpcv, cpJ ij{j Dյ kiU pkvյu lL mkJju iu k Dhu mcmbkj lbv Ghճ Jv hnu. Duhl jnCծ lblu hkn lvծ k{u.
mc DյJm yOc& ʹ< GhmJ cvu iu Dmv lv yOc&hmjJj Yjlynj hLc muv (mOծ ʹubJ) k yo L yOc& Kh hϮj Ju. FlJwkj mbl v jnl mc DյJv cmhcճ, mjdz, DHJlu Fphl, jhlu c@m[vճ oj obln yOc&hmjJ hkv Oc&hϮj u ku, hjbl l Oc& u vhճեl hnhճեl c$ Kh c JukO iu Dm Jh clvi k Flj hճ&Jbv vco Ju Dn. yOc& v k JjcO Dvc F. m. 300 k 372 cO hk Pu lj phvcO l hnճu lvblj o[ k<ե JuKb[ iu. ypvc mLUhmv Dl oj Dmuu vjvjȳ obl yOc& hk nTvn pju lyl lծ hk nCm F. m. 640 k<& Gp[k uiu n u#Cdz Dn k lm ly쮳 YiuJ jvmn Flj DvJ JjC Dm Jll n u#l l.

mc m@vilmv ich
(F. m. 605-649)

lycO mklu hϮul Dmuu y@v Oc&k<ճ GuuK kj Duu Dn. ծlu hiu m ly hnu jp cvu pl hC u Hj h cUl vn. Jn JC hmvpl Jmu kbծ v$ lm vh m ly hnu jp cvu pl. l JUl (mcj F. m. 200 cO) lycO hLcծ J<k<ճJ mOjCu hjbY Pu. h{ 200 k<& v$ lm vh pkUpkU Um kbpbv lykj jp Ju k nUnU lyu mbhV jծ mkժh T uiu. lm vhծ kbkUlu ym Jbk lnlmk jp m@vilmv ich m (F. m. 617-649) kճծ ljk k<& pkn mchokj ymku iu, lhk& lծ hlm k<hϳi Jv j Ju nl. mc m@vilmv ich n hjկc mc n<&kO&vծ mcJuv mcpu pl. lycO kծ&mk Dmuu y@v Oc&b kjO Dmvn h{ lծ JjJo&l lycO yOc& hk nTv hmjm mkl Pu Dm cnCl F&u. hjbl lL mklu Oc&m lk%vծ yJ vknl. hn[ mvծ lJ[b k j hճoUծ GYjC Jv m@vilmv ichv [y k cnmbi n hbl mnphC pbJv Ilu. Sk{kj mbl v jnl hƵcJ[u iui k GjJ[u Ʈv lJ&mLvn lv pbJv Ilu. vhU vj Dbkc&vkթ u{F& pbJv lv vhU jpJv kkn Ju. lm l kU Ʈv mcծ oթC hjYk Jv lծ jpJvm lyl DCu. lv jpJvyjyj kkn Ju. lm Ʈv mc Pvi Pvi k cvJ b jpJvbyjyjm kkn Ju. hyU mc Dյ lծ Kl mk&$ hmjl iu.
Do& jpkkmL olv m@vilmvv Jn vk Jճo k vճc Dcul DCu. [ym voǮ Jvj ly jpOv mLhv Jv vblj pkU unm vijǮn mLhv Ju. l kU j-m (cb{b ho) mcpu pCj nj Jubljv un-m (ok Yc) cnCv DUKu pT uiu. lycO unCծ Ju hϮul JjCJjl Jn kvbv k Y<lp%bv cU#jb DYmm Yjll hku iu. Lc kvv JƵcj cU#jbkj yluu ly cU#j k ly Y< k kJjC #$l Juu Jճ& Dpn hcC cvu pl. jpծ kmlj JjCyjyj mc m@vilmvv yOc& DOճvm kvbv Yjll hku. ycb mLhv, pKbiծ hm cboj k hlu jpk[ b ybOJcծ mkl ծ mcjm Pu.
Ʈv mcծ hjYkvblj lLu jpJv kvi vi nv lycO lv SJ hծv k Jjk bov ycl& myl DCu k ukJj unmծ Gju lv `j-c-' cboj GYժv lcO l hծv ycl& mLhv Ju. vhU vj Dbkc&v Jv $mvv (jC YJ ok) Dhu myl c$, D#Y k lj b hlc DCu k lb mLhv hm p Kbi cbojl Ju. (Yk<l m@vilmvծ clvblj ծ cbojl kju Jjk bov cl&n mLhv Ju iu.) kյ< cnCp yOc& c hYk Dmuu v k vhUcOv Duu ov jCb m@vilmvkj FlJ hYk nl J, lm yOc& kծj hu k lv Oc& mnphC mkJj Ju. Iv yOc&m jpʹճ cUumjK cnCk uilu. mkl: jpv yOc& mkJjuv pvcvmln l Dhu Oc& Dn Dյ Ykv o{ Pu. ծ Hj c uY lyu Pu k Flj oblu yOc& kv, DOhJ bv lycO DCCծ Ư m nTv Ju, k%v, m$ bmn Gc Dծj-kծj, jljkp b hjճ lykmdzbv nTv ly pvlu mboj pkvյu cUu. kv hb[l L@v c k Oc&J< bv JcjmbYk, Ƶu cvp, v b mnJճ&v Yjhj mnl ly Y<l DCu. Ʈv DOhJbvn iCl k kJm$l yj Jc Jv ku. L[Jwl cnCճծ lj Dhu oI& JjJo&l m@vilmvv ly쮳 GlJ<&m Juu Jճ& Dpn cuծ cvu pl.

cBimBi cvilmv
(F. m. 638-653 Jbk 655)

mc mBilmvu vhU jChmv hhl Puu h$ $lmvծ DJu vOv Pu. hjmLll mBilmvծ Ʈv jChmv Puu h$ cBimBi cvilmv mchokj Du hjbl jpծ m$ ij lvilmv cb$J[ nl. cBimBi cvilmv hlhcC j k cnkJb# nl. mBilmvծ cl nlծ Ʈv mcbv Dhu ickuu ho hvn cUkCm mvծ pckpck Jv lykj nuu Ju. hjbl cBimBi cvilmvծ mvv Ʈv mvծ hj H[ h[u! DOJ Ʈv hoծ ly Ilu. mkl: cBimBi k lծ cui [bi m$@vi b yOc&kj Dhj ʹ nl. Dm Dmvn mc m@vimv FlJ hl oIbv cUu vn. cBimBi cvilmvծ clvblj lykj jpծ s$ vn n $m JU vճ cnCv cl ylc pvlhmv j k<& ihl kCl Du nl.

$o lmvimv
(680-743)

$o lmcilmv n [bi m$@vi (cBimBi cvilmvծ vl) h$. h$ pvc nlծ [bi m$@viծ cl Pu. Dյ hJj hls$ njhuv $o lmvimvu lv DkmLlծ mcho ymku iu. ly쮳 I[c[kj u# kCN vv Yjl-v ci& cJU nCm ly쮳 lylu iuikj nuu Ju. ly k vcOu n YճvJ lbyU Pu. DKj ly mvv Ʈv mvծ oթC hjYk Ju. Ʈv mcm ho ickk uiu k jpJv vi n kkn ly jph$ p[ unm [h@viyjyj vƵl Jjk uiu. hjbl n jph$ lu DCCm I[kժv hn[ Yil plv kl DhIll clcK h[u. $o lmimvծ JjJo&l l% Y<bljJjbv lycO DCv DvJ mbmJl ibL Y<bljl JjCծ Jճ& m᪮ nl. mkC& hYյc m$ծn Y<blj Jճ& JUl Pu. n mk& hj h[l Dmlv oynju $ k olu Dmbll k Hlj bյ mcv u nl. $u vmlvyl JjCN hjկc mcծ k c$ jpk[lu Hljbv Juu nuul Pu.

$m@vi olmv
(?-845)

ly m$vmj Dյk k<& u Dmlv l k<& ly쮳 mc Yil $m@vi olmvծ pvc Pu. ly Dl mcp cnCv DUKu pT uiu nl k lծ kmlj ncuճhmv Dmchճեl Puu nl. yo k v ob yNծ hblkjn ly m nl. Yjll lj l ibiJvNhճեl Tv Y[u nl. vk jph$ $m@vi olmv ljk k<& mchokj Du lkn ly mkժh kjuhcC nl. m@vilmvծ JjJo&hmv mj k<ե JUl ly hilյu k yu{ mcp yvu nl. SJ ypu lb mv Yjl k vkj O[Jl Dmlv omjJ[ mbhC& j lpcճ Oc&Ykvv PUUv vIl nl. mcpl Ju DC mbmJl b nl Dmuu kJm ly쮳 JvJhNl hnl nl. lycO yOc&m KjKj jpʹճ cUCծ hƯ hk& mcb JjJo&l u Pu Dmu lj $m@vi olmvծ JUl l hƯm kiU mkժh lu Tv ki Du. y knj mLhvm ծ kU hjbY Pu. ʹ Oc&i k Dծճ& bv Yjllv yukv mc Yil yOc&hծ Puu mLhv n Hj cnkծ Iv JUl I[u. lybv ymbvm o# oCm mkl Pu. lcU hpkO vƵl nCm mkl Pu. Jcb[lu yvL mlhծ mLhvn $m@vi olmvծ hϳlvbv Pu. vyjyj ynlJ l lLu jpJv lyl DCv lb jpIjCl kkn nC vlծ Pu nl, hjbl $m@vi olmvծ mk& ml jC lyծ ʹ Kvovlu nl. Oc&ճ&ho c$ Ʈv Oc&hb[lbǮ vcCJ nl Dm. Dm Dmvn yOc& DծjC, mbmJl k hjbhj b huv JCln hJj l[p[ v nl JjCJ[ jp mvծ yjJ vpj Dm. y@v Oc&b cOvծ Gk k Ghok nl Dm. kյ<l: vյ ov nl JjCm mvծ llhjl vnc Dm.

cv lmvh
(?-844)

F.m. 844 mcjm $m@vi olmvծ cl Pu k cv lmvh mchokj ymu. hYk kJwlck uYuu mcծ jpIjCkj lm mbhC& mcpkj Kh c hYk nl. yOmlkծ mkJ hjbhj lծkju mbmJj n lciu SJ JjC nl. lcU mcծ jpJjYjծ hl lյǮ mkJ nl. li Ykvlv jp uu hnp Dյ lծ Ykv DmucU ijy-ʹcbl Dm Yo lծ hJlu cvku vn k llvծ mbh k cuc b mcv kh JjCծ Juhv lծ Dinv h{ Du. l Juhv Jn hcCl hl#l Du Kj, hjbl Jcծ kh k cuchv Jjlv JCln kknj o<h{ DCu iu vn k ʹcbl DOJ ʹcbl k ijy DOJ pml ijy Pu. lcU pvl So nTv Dmbll hcC k{ uiu. lv vc&C Puu mLl DOJjki& DkJwynj pTv mk&$ ibOU cpu. okmbokm k{l uu. cb$ k DOJj Dmnճ Puu hnv cv lmvh DF&v l[JH[J vC& ITv cvǮ k< oTv nl JjCծ Do ou. c Do&kov jpJjYj uk hnCN mcծ JkU SJCm cnvbl Dm oo&k k Pu.

moddv ui
(F. m. 846-877)

cv lmvh oo&k clvblj lծ OJ YT moddv ui mchokj Du. hl $mBi k YT cv lmvhhcC kl&cv mcծn yOc&kj Hj v nl. mbmJl ibLb vճpvy k m$յ Y<blj hlkj k hk& Dvko Jճ&l mOjC JjCkj ծ kյ< Yj nl k ly yoJ< vc&lm kv k Y<hb[lb vk[ k DL&J ljlo Ju. DծJ Y<bljm mbmJl ibLb mboY& DYmC Hj DkյJ Dn. lm l Y<lu mnlծn DYm Ju hnp Dm Do Oc&hb[l k kv bv ou iu. lcU 850 l 900 JuKb[l lycO Oc&m$ ibLb Y<blj #$l Yjldz Y<lp% mjbo yO, Ƶubo yO k yOc$ lm ly Y<bljJj jlvj#l, Oc&u k pճj#l bv hϮb[ Jճ& Jv ku, ծ kU ly mcծ Djyb n pj nl!!

juh v
(F. m. 877-901)

moddv uiծ lmnv DOJ k<ե JjJo&vblj iuvi oc& mchokj Cծ lճjl Dmlv lծ Ykv, juh vv lu [kuu k mkl: jpm$ nl Ilu. Dhu hk&pbhcC juh vծ yOc&kj v nl l ocl vn, hjbl l HJwl mkluծ, cճ&oynj pTv Oc&v Dkmlk ho&v JjCծ Dk[byj hl lծhmv m Pu. hk&pb luvl lծ jpJjYjծ hl kiU k mo< nl. jpJjYjծ c ho yckmdzbv ou k jpOv unmծ JjYj Jճ&vYk vmuu y mbvյJ[ ou. jph$ mvi hu jp mvծ O[ oCSkp mbvmOc& mkJjCծ Dvcl oTv Ju. Dյ mLll jpJjYj KUKU nTv ly DjpJծ ov pCծ mLl vc&C Pu nl, Dյ [UcUl jpJjYjJ[ mcծ Dmbl YT, iuvi oc& u# nl. Ƶkճ yOc& kjOJ y@v Oc&b lu mnvYln uYu nl. iuvi oc&v llu JnpCbv nlյ Oժv mc juh v k kv hb[l b j$k<ճ jpl DHk hmjkCm mkl Ju. lcU pvlcO ibOU G[v uJ#Y GmUCm hjbY Pu. pUhU k nl b m$ m nTv ll yv Oc&b nmlJbv ov kv hb[lb nl Ju. h{ jpmLl nlynj pTv mc juH v ծn F. m. 901 cO nl Ju iu.

iuvi oc&
(F. m. 901-902)

Dhu Ykm j Juvblj iuvi oc& mc nCծ ci& mJj Pu, hjbl lծ IjClu hk& mc hnl iuvi oc& O kթ nl. jp cnCv l puc k Dlծj nl. mchoծ lծ JjJo& Dճյmk juǮ Ƶkճ jplu yOc& lp uճu pCm mkl Pu. l JcuǮ kmv, pij DC kYծj nl. Dhu Ykծ cjJNbm lv mvcvծ cb$ho ou. y mbvյbv hvn inmLʹcl pCծ Do ou k lm v JjCNb nl m$ oTv ƵJj JjCm Yi h[u. Jn hmbi mcծ Doծ huv v JjCNbv Ƶjsoծ Ƶ# ou. y@v Oc&b hYkKu l yOc&<v FlJ DbOU Pu J, lv p Kbi cbojlu hm hծv Jjk bovծ cl& nukv cbojծ hkj k PjJ k v khժv ybo JjCծ Do ou k chv JjCծ hk$lu yOc& Dծճե Ʈ$ lL uku. ly mbmJlǮ k mcpu pCN yncu ibLb vյ JjCծ Do mvJbv ou. mokv Jn ʹUbv Jw nlu lk{ ibL khl uhkv l J[ Yil mj#l pi ku. kv hb[lbv lv Dhcvl Jv lb sU Ju. Iv cuJl Dbi oծ Dծճ& mcOYo k lycOu cծ kv hb[l jlvj cju iu. u lmkm hb[lkj huճv JjCծ hU Du. mk& Iv yOc& lpYbi JjCN nl. Ivb hh lycO mLǮ ji, cnhj k Divhuճ bv D#jM: Lcv Ilu.
mN lycO k kյ<l: unmcO Dm kvյ hoI& JU u jnu. iu Jn lJ lycO kmljuu ydOc&m uiuu PUu Jn Db nlyu Oc&hb[ln pyyoj nl k DKj lbkj hCblJ mbJծ hU Du. n Ykv DuhJU oyv jnu k L[ծ okmbvblj un uvi Lu ik hjbil i ʹkpv Dlծjծ Ƶ# mcm oCծ jku. Dhu jj k hK Jȳ jbiv jbikv Jȳ I[kժv l unmծ ov vIu. hn[ ci& k kF& nkcv ծ lc v yUil l unmlu p Kvi cbojhյ Tv hnu. lL mc iuvi oc& yOc& Dhcv JjCj Ʈ$ hnl Ghnm Jjl nl. i ʹkp v mcm hCc JjCծ vcv h{ pTv, pkUv yC m[u. yC sll Imlծ mc Ku JmUu. hC m[Chk& mcծ cKlv, `cPJ[v Oc& k pvl b Dm Dhcv nChk& cu J cjCl Du vn?' n hյhծ Goddij vIu. l#C i ʹkp un uviu hjlu k vol mvv Jv lv ikm hvn mkl Ju. n JL lycO Dpn uJhϳ Dmv lkju `yu@J n@' n vJ Dpn moj Ju pl.
mBvi lmv IjClu ml h{bv lykj pkUpkU lvյ k<& mvcv, lJo k p b pjkj Fmuc, Ʈv k Yjldz mbv JwJj ol jp Ju, hjbl iuvi oc&mjK puc mccU ly mcpծ klnl nCm hjbY Pu. iuvi oc& h$ n[ mBvi (902-966) k vl Ky&Jv (966-983) m kjmojb ly [UcUl jp hk&hokj DCCծ hϳlv lb DkJwynj ju. DKj kYkյu mcpծ lJ[ h[l iu.
mboY& - The Cultural Heritage of India
ʹ jcJ<C mbvj Jc, yuj c, JuJ
[@. ʹJbl hjUJj



DvJ k<b&hmv `h$J pUC' n kkn pUklvծ SJ DkYp Yi cvu pl. l D cb kծj Jv lbv 1 l 8 cJ& ouu Dnl. 1 l 8 cJե yjp 1 2 3... 8 hlv 36 l. lhJ 18 (50 JwJ) Jbk pml iC cUu n `h$J pUl' Dm cvll DC ciծ `Jbohn' Jճ&c JjCl l. DL&l h$J pUl ծ DL& `Dl cpծ cp' Dm v Il `kknJ Dճ< DOJ mm nCծ Jwl' Dm Ojk n Gc. h$Jlu hnu mLv (mkl: kJwl) DC 7 k mLv (kknJ p[oj) kժv oIb mkYkծ mOjC Juhv l. ibcl cnCp ov mLvlu jյo&J DJ[ kծjl Il l jյb mkYk SJcJb cUlpUl vml DC ov YV ubi kJwl YV mkYkծ Dmv `lPb cPb pcv lP kծv Jjcv' lukj mKv mbmjծ i[ D{lv omll. (D{lv J D{lC ?)
Dl L[bmb mbKյm$. 36 cnCp 3, 6 DC 3 6 9. 3 n DbJ `i' DcuKu l. i cnCp cKl: mcplojhC, k, mbllJjJ in DC mbmjl Jun iJjl `i'yU DkյJ. lծhcC 6 n DbJ ծ DcuKu l. cnCp DJ<&C, DL&JjC, jmJl DC mbmj JjCծ Ju F. F. i ծ mbiv yvuu cbiU (9 DJ[) cnCp O[m, cnkJb# lm SJcJbkj `JjI[' JjCծ hϳlv F. F. DhC 36 n DJ[ v yIlu lj `l' i DC `l' SJcJbJ[ `h' Jv Dyu Oժv Dnl, hC lծyjyj SJcJb `h' m[ճu lճj vn Dnl, Dm iclǵj Ʈ$ [ȳmcj GY jnl, Dm n 36 DJ[ծ cnc. p $+<cvbv n Ov J{ub l i! DhC c$ mkե cvkծ JuCJjl Jm Ghճi nF&u m DOJ mbOvծ ijp Dmlv n mk& Llb[ Jm Dn ծ ծ& JjClծ DvJ k<& kճ Iukl Dnl. mkեJ[ L[ `[Um' vpjv yIlub lj c hCծ Jwl pml Dn. vn lj Dn lcծ DC Dcծ yyll 36 DJ[! Jճ?
- Yuծbo iKu, cbyF&
DhuJ[n Dյ cvjbpJ cnl Dmum Kuu hʳkj hkk
mbhoJ - uJm,
SJwmhm @km&, vjcv h@F&b,
cbyF& - 400 021.
hJkj
uJco - Kpvm
Dm GuuK Dkյ Jjk.