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yOkj, 10 [mbyj 2008

hjlkdz mbOv Yjll lm Hjm pv vn. SJCmk lJծ omN lL&Jl mbOvu y Dcovl mJdz b$CcH&l DuJwPb[j Jv&n@c b vo&vKu mkl Pu. DOǮ mbOv mbIl mkժhծ k pvhk&J DKuu vknl. c$ SJCmk lJծ DOn hjlkdz DYmծ i[ Yjllu Fbip DOJNbv uiuu nl. Jbynv ծ hjhJ cnCv 1784 mu SƵճJ mmճ mbOv mbIv mLhv Pu. lvblj J@vbin@c b JuKb[hճեl kkO kvbv Yjldz ƵuuK, JulcJ kml, hծv mLU bkj k̳JwlJjl uK unv Dյ lNn hjlkdz mbOvծ DC DYmծ vJ[Ǯ hճ Ilu l bJ vn. hjbl J@vbin@c b JUhmv mbOvu pml pvhk&J mkժh Dmuv Yjldz hjlkdz mbOvv Dhu Dmllkծ lJ hj Ju. `hjlk' n yon Yjll Dio DuJ[ khjl { Puu Dn. SJJU `hjJ kmlmbOv' Dյ ubyuծJ mb% m$m khju pl nl. kh DC Yjl mjJj bv c$ Dl hjlk mb% vƵl Ju Dmuv k n mb% DL&l lծhcC mml Dmuv l Dl pkUpkU
 

mk&mcv Pu Dn.
hjlk n mb% Dio DuJ[ { Pu Dmuv lծ khjծ Flnm OC vjL&J Dn. hjlk mb% Fbip Y<lu mcvL&J yo `DJ&D@u@p' (Archaeology) n Dn. n Fbip yon cU iJ Y<lv Duu Dmv lծ ov Yi h[ll. DJ&D@m (Archaios) iJ yoծ DL& `hծv' (Ancient) Dm nl. lծn cU DJ& (arche) cnCp mkl (beginning) yol mh[l. omj yo `uim' (Logos) Dm Dmv lծ DL& `kkv' (discourse) Dm Dn. lkn `DJ&D@u@p' Fbip yoծ hC& DL& `cvkծ GlhǮ kյu<C' Dm yo: Jjl F&u. L `cvkծ GlhǮ' mb% DL& cճ&ol mkժhl v Il cvk mbmJlǮ kյu<C Dm JjC F ju. JjC cvkծ Glh Sk{ծ DYm hjlku DYhl vmuv cvk kJm k mbmJl Dm khJ O m$ծ J#l l. cճ&ocU hjlk cnCp Flnmu hjk GhuyO Jv oCj SJ DYm K Sk{ mbJƮl mkժh mbOvu nl. cU m$ծ mklǮ JUlu mkժh mOծ lծ mkժhh# Dio YV omv l. Flnmu p[ oCj hjkn mkեJ<jl pckk k DYmk Dյ pCk JUl vknl. jhl cOճil kյ<l: 15/16 k lJl JkU mboj hlU DLk GlJ JU Jbk jbil coY< JulcJo vk[v k kJl ITv Dhu mbin kC huJ[ hjlkծ Dk[ kJml Pu vknl. DL&lծ n Jc JkU ʹcbl ki&hjl cճ&ol nl. JjC Dյ mboj kml mbin kC JkU lbvծ DL&Jo hjk[l nl. Dյ mbinu hC&lk C JC nl. JjC hծv kmlǮ vk[ n JkU k̳JwlJ mbo&oǮ yy nl.
hjlkծ kKl DC mbOv J#l v$ohJ khJl SJCmk lJl Pu. FlnmJUծ yNծ DO cvk mbmJl JCl lj mkժhl Dmllkl nl. ծ ikn llJuv Yk%v m$%bv k cvk kbյm$%bv kճm mkl Ju. SJCmk lJծ ldzO&l hjlkk<ճJ vk pCkb nu uiu.
hjlkյm$ծ G :
1) JkU Flnm GY JjC k JulcJ kmlb DYm JjC DLk kƵ cvk kbծ k ki& DLk SKծ Yhoծ DYm JjCծ mbJƮl O Dl jnu vn. lcU kյu cvk mcpծ mbhC& Dmllkծ, kJmծ DC l kJmu k DOilu JjCYl juu mk& hjkb DYm JjC n O hjlkյm$v kmk lJhl h{ kuv m$ծ J# Dl mybO cvk mcpծ Flnmյ SJh Pu Dnl.
2) hjlk% n hcKv kmlv hjkbkj Yj ol. JjC kժv hծv cvk pkv Jm nl ծ Ʈ$C Jjl l. Flnm hcKv jpJdz IJbkj Yj ol. mk&mcvb pkv Jm nl ծ oKu Flnm Hjm Il vn. Ƶkճ Flnm n uKl hjkkj ynlb Dkubyv Dmuv DOǮ JUlu cvk pkvծ Ʈ$C lcO JwkƮl mh[l. Gu Flnmhk& JUlu kmlh hjk cvkv Jճ Ju DC Jm Ju n mbil. cvkv Dhuyu Jճ unv ku Dn n pCCh# lv Jճ Jճ Ju n lv ci kuu kkO kmlh hjkbkժv pCCծ ci& n hjlkյm$ծ G Dn.
3) i@n@c JwuJ& `DJ&D@u@p D@C[ mmճ' ibLl cnCll, ``hjlkյm$ծ DYmlv cvk kJwlck DC vmi&J hjmLl b hjmhjkubylkծ khl Jl nl ծ cik IC n hjlkյm$ծ G Dnl.''
4) hjlk m$ծ DYmJ n DOYlJ mbmJlǮ DYmJ Dml k lծ G Dhu ijp YikCm mnJj mbIvj cvk mcpv GlhV Juu mOvb DYm JjC Dm Dmu hnp Dm cvll. ծծ DL& kmlh hjkbkժv cvk mcp, lծ mbIv, lծ hjbhj, lծ Juhv ծ lb$%v DC lծ DL&J kkmL mkե kO IC hjlk k Jc Dn.
5) h<C JuKb[hmv l ll Dճkl Juhճեlծ cvk mbmJlǮ Flnm kmlh hjkbkժv GY JjC n hjlkյm$ծ G Dn. h<C ilu cvkծ Flnm pCkճծ cnCp Kh ci pk uil. SJJU jhl Ƹյv ho uJbv piծ Glh F.m.h. 4004 k<&l Pu Dm cl cb[u l Jknծ hjlkյm$v JuyԳ jku. hjlkյm$ k Yk%vյm$ b colv Dl hLkǮ k lծhcC cvkծ hծvl Hj ci vl Du Dn. JuvƵlǮ vkvkv m$dz hl Ov J{Cl Duv hk& DHJl mh[uu cvk Dkյ<b JU Dl h@Ƶճc Di&v hlv 19 u# k<& FlJ hծv jku Dn.
hjlkdz hjkkժv cvk cvծ kO IC n m$ծ G Dn. l lm IC n hjlk%ծ Jc Dn. hjlkdz ilOkvv JkU kmlh hjk cnCv KCv J{u mcpC J Dn. l cvk mcpծ kJwlck KCv J{l Dm cnCC jml jl. mk& cvk mcpծ mkեJ< DYm JjC n hjlkյm$ծ Jճ& k G Dn. n Jc Jjl Dmlv Dյ DYml Flj m$b col IC Dhjnճ& ju Dn. c$ l col cvk Flnmծ JuKb[ծ mkժhյ vy Dml. p JUlu FlnmuKl hjkbkժv pCl L l JUծ DYml Y<յm$%b k uhlp%b col IC Dhjnճ& jl. hjbl p JUl uKvծ %vծ cvku vknl l JUlu lծ Flnm pCCm Flj m$b col Ik uiu n GI[ Dn.
cvkkb m$յ mbybO :
u#kO k<ե ilJuv kuǮ cik cnCp Flnm ilJuv kuǮ p DmbK hTuKC ci Gju l hTuKC cnCp Flnmծ mOv. mOvb mkmlj DYm JjCծ ov Flnmյ mbybOl Dյ Dv oᳳc DYmյK kJml Pu lbv D@vmuj mճvmm cnCv Fbipl mbyOu pl. lծhcC ilJUծ cik cnCp cvkծ mci kuǮ D{k. n mci ku cnCp cvkծ DL&J, mcpJ, jpJdz, Oc&J, kknj lb JulcJ DYkJwl k*dcճv vc&l k mbmJlJ O[h[. cvkծ mk& Jlb DYm JjCN mklb$ DYm K, DL&m$, jpյm$, mcpյm$, Oc&m$ mkժhl kJml Pu. DYmյK k n mcpJ m$ Flnmծ mnճJj m$ cnCv DUKu pll. ll Kuu m$b mck nl DC hjlkյm$ h{u m$ mnճJj m$ Dnl : 1) ƵuuK m$ 2) uhǵm$ 3) vCm$ 4) JuiCvյm$ 5) hjlkյm$ 6) cvkkbյm$ 7) hjYuKյm$ 8)YiY&m$ 9) cl&m$ 10) Ƶuhյm$ 11) mLhlյm$ 12) k%vյm$.
hjlkյm$ k cvkkbյm$ mbybO : GlKvvcO mh[CN DmL Dkյ<b cnCp n[b DYm Jv cvkkb Jm Jm kJml nl iu ծ DYm p m$l Ju pl lu cvkkbյm$ Dm cnCll. Fbip Y<l n m$ DBL@h@u@p cnCv DUKu pl. cvk JkǮ DYmkժv, vJծ kCkժv, JhUծ k nvkǮ hJjkժv, [ȳb KyCkժv cvkծ vjvjU kb m$l jku iu Dnl. hծ uK k<եhk& cCmծ Jk v jl hJbi Lu GlKvvl lm Div DƵճlu pk Lu GlKvvl mh[u Dnl. lkժv JUl cJ[ծ cCm Pu Dm v<J<& cvkkbյm$v J{u Dn.
GlKvvl mh[uu DmL Dkյ<bkժv l JUl lL JCl kbծ uJb kml nl ծ cnl cvkkbյm$ծ mnJճ&v ol l. n[hh k cnbpoj GlKvvl JCJCl cvkkbծ uJb Dkյ< mh[u n m$ծ DOj hlh#u iu. Go. mbO mbmJl 1) cbiuճv 2) DuhF&v 3) hD@muF&[.
k%vյm$յ Dmuu mbybO :
1) j[D Jy&v
2) Jy&v 14 n jmճvJ hƯ Jv GhuyO Puu DmL Dkյ<ծ k%vJ oJvlv DYm Jv GhuyO DmL Dkյ<b kճcv hv 1 kժk J{Cm j[D Jy&v k Jy&v 14 b khj PucU vƵl Dյ JuiCv JjCl Du. JuiCvm k%vյm$ծ col IluƵkճ h{ pl l vn.
SƵճJ mmճǮ G : DƵճ Kb[lu kkO ob Flnmծ hծv Dkյ<b, Jub, m$b, k*dcճb DYm k mbOv JjC Dm Dmuծ mhhC vco JjCl Du. cvkjb hby k llJuv Flnm mbOJb p%m cU mmճ L[ծ JUl vkժhu Du. vkvkv Ob cnl mmճJ[ Kh c hcCl T uiuv 1788 mu mmճv `SƵճJ jmծbm' vkծ vճlJuJ m Ju. mmճǮ mombv k Flj mbOJbv pc Juu cnl uKժhv vճlJuJlv hm nT uiu. Glmn mbOJbv k mombv pc Juu kkO Dkյ<b v plv knk k l DvJbv hnl k DYml kl Gv mbmLv 1814 mu JuJ JC kmlmbinuճծ mLhv Ju. ծծ hjCc cnCv cbyF& k com JCn Dյծ lNn mmճb mLhv Pu. lj mYmobv hjlkdz mbOvծ m$dz lb$ Dkil vmuv mklǮ lb mbOv JkU hծv k*dcճծ DYmhjl cճ&ol jnu. lpcnu, kU DLk Jlycvj b kC&v SJCmk lJlu hkm FlnmJjbv Ju Dn; hjbl ll m$dz cnlh# mbo& mc#C k Dյճ&JjJlu pml hOv ou. J@vbin@cvblj Duu yp&mծ JjJo&ln GlKvvծ lb$l Hjm you Pu vn. Ju Flnm cnCp hjlkk n lb hcCJ mcpl nl. hjCkmlm$% nT FƮsCN kJwlJ[ JulcJ oJv, mbc, y׮l&, G op& GlJb, kծv , uKv, cvv DC Ʈblv JjCծ cvmJl, m#ckuJv, vpJ kml nlUCFlhl nmlJ̵u, mcnl (DC hmbi Dio SJvb) Jc JjCծ lճj i nklծ. Ƶkճ GlKvvlv SK iǮ O uiu lj llu DkC&vdz Dvbo ul CFlhl l mp&vյum Dmճu nk. n mbhC& m$ Ijhmv Jblj oj ITv pTv Jճ&jl JjCj Dn, n u#l kv Dhuu mllծb `DT[j' Jc Dk[Cj, PhCj DC hjk[Cj Dn J, ծ v Dbop ITvծ Kl hk Ik. DuJ[ hjCkmlm$l mij hjCkmlm$ծ (Marine Archaelogy) vk K DblY&k Dn. pihm `ճ@vJ' y[uu yǮb p mij GlKvv Pub l hl# hnCb jcn<&J nlb. lծ vճvb Dhu y[uu jJb mij GlKvv nT Jub lj Dhu mkC&iծ m#lJj nT Ju. Dhu ol kյ< Kb %v `cjv D@H DJ&@u@p mbj, v@vu Fvm D@H DviH, ik kյ< mbmLl GhuyO Dn.
Klu Jn vk[J mbmL h{uhcC :
1) Gj cnj kh, pUik-425002
2) ybiuj kh, ybiuj-560056
3) [@. yymny Dby[Jj cjk[ kh, Djbiyo-431004
4) J#$ kh, J#$-136119
5) cbiuj kh, cbiuibi$-574199
6) Sc. Sm. y[o kh, y[o-390002
khbcO mmkO Dnl.
hokj Ƶ#Cկc
1) Dunyo kh, Dunyo-211002
2) Dmcvճ kh, nojyo-500007
3) com kh, VF&-600005
4) cnmj kh, cnmj-570005
5) DbO kh, kյKhfCcd-530003
khbcO Jճ&jl Dnl.
p kLեv Hu hjllk, Yjlk<& mbmJl DC Yjldz hjCkmlmbOv k<ճl hkC cUkճծ Dmu Dյbv :
1) hC kh, hC-411007
2) [JwJv cnkuճ hm i@pS D@C[ jmծ& Fvm., jk[, hC-411006
3) vihj kh, vihj-440001
4) ipjl kh, Dncoyo-380009
5) JuJ kh, JuJ-700073
6) yvjm nbo kh, kjCm-221005
7) s$hl n cnjp kh, Jvhj-208024
8) Ƶkp kh, ikunj-474011
9) Sc. Sm. kh, y[o-390002
10) jC oi&ok kյkkuճ, pyuhj-482001
Ƶkճ J#$, hbpy, hC, kյkYjl khbcOv n kյ< %v hhl Jv Il F&u. kljJwl DJ&@u@pJu mkn& D@H Fb[, Fvm. D@H DJ&@u@p (24, UJ ci&, vk ouu-110001) JC ov k<ե hokj DYmկc GhuyO Dn. ouu Fvm. D@H njp jmծ& D@C[ c@vpcb (FbohmL kh, 18-D, mlmbi knj, Jly Fvm. Sj, vk ouu-110067) mbmLjm ov k<& JukOǮ kյ< hokj DYmկc jyku Dn.
JCln mcpծ mbmJlJ DC vlJ mc l mcpծ YlJUlu mbmJlǮb mbJuv DC mbkO&vkj Dkubyv Dml. Dhu Yjlk<&u pil Flj JCln ou uYu vn Dm npj k<ե mkC&lnm Dn. mokv hvյ Yjl pilu SJ mc mbmJlJ o nCծ ci&kj Dn. mbiCJm$u nlյ Oժv Dhu oծ mbmJlJ kjm piծ JvJhNl hnkl Cb Dl Jw Pub Dn. cnCvծ JkU Ovoul DC hl< ci v uil Dhu vk h{Ǯ hF&Jbv hjCkmlm$ծ Dkuby Ju hnp. JUplv JU vc&C JjCN GodOkml yclǥv nǮ Dhu mcvbpu!

Yjldz hjlkծ Flnm (1742 l 1902)
Yjldz hծv Dkյ<byu pml cnl cUkCծ p%m Dmuu Jn Glmn kvbv 15 pvkj 1784 jp `SƵճJ mmճ' mbmL mLhv Ju. n mbmL mLhCl mj kuc pvm b h{Jj nl DC mbmLu llJuv cvkjb hyU uYuu nl. cvkjbl k@jv nmbip b vk hcKv Ilu hnp. kuc pvm DC SƵճJ mmճ mLhv JjChk& DvJ FlnmJjbv, kvbv Yjldz hծv mcjJb uinb k hծv Ƶuhb DYm mbOvhj uKvl DLk hkm kC&vl hϳlv Ju nl n pj Kj Dmu lj hϳlvb k mbOvծ mkժh Jnm kmJUl DodYl DlcJbol nl.
h<Jj cb[u
mbhJ&: 9969463610