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jkkj, 28 [mbyj 2008

`Dhu cK Jc cjl mJm, llk%lcJ mnlծ vc&l Jv l cj kծJbv GhuyO Jv oC Dn' Dm ji cvl DC lhcC l Dճ<Yj Jc Jjl jnu. hjcc$ hyuJvmlH& c. hb. ji b mclov cnCp Dp ohJ Ij b `kծj#lp'
n hmlJ hJƵl nl Dn. hmlJծ hmlkv.
cnju bYj-mkkյ k<ե p k̮jJ hjbhj Dn l cu, mhvmjhmv m nl. SJJ[ cJwm& hYkv mbmJjl nl Dmlvծ hjbhju jpJdz, mcpJ #$l cnlc ibO, kvy Yk b hv DOlcJ DC o pCkbn mL uYu. kmk lJծ hk&O&l o hjlb$l DmucU mcpJ kծjl jko, Dmcl bv hOv nl. JCl lj SJ kծj mbhoճյ SJv jnCծ, ci l ibOko Dm k cJwm&ko Dm, mk&mOjC k nl. mklb$hhlvblj, cnCp kmk lJծ GjO&l vk kծjOj cjl Du. H@F&[ DC biծ cvmյm$dz oJv lm m$ճ, oul mcp Dյ kƵ IJb oJvlv kծj nT uiu. mcpJ kծj, k%v, Y<յm$ Dյ kkO %vյKbcOv mcpkl&vծ O DC kծjcbLv nT uiu. jpJdz ko DC mcpmOjC Ykl IUCj lkkծj Jubljv mnl DC mc# mblb ծ&l mLjku. Jb, niu, vl Flo lk% cj kծJu cnl Pu l mc# mbl DC mbo&m$dz ծ& vcv. Dp Y<k%vծ vcv kuc pvmhmv vc @cmJhճեlծ lk%/DYmJ Dhuu hjƮl Puu Dnl.

 


p@v mD& cu n GhճJwllkoծ hjmJl& nl. mcplu DOJOJ uJb JuC knk cnCv p OjC DKk uill l DOlcJ hjCh# DvYkpv, k%vJ %vkj DOjl Dmkl. DlckJmծ mkեv mcv mbO Dmk, GhճJwllkoծ DC Gojclkoծ lkkj cnjlu hyOvծ hjC DOjuu nl. mcp n SJmbO Dml. l Dhu DbljJ hjCv, Dhu ilv kJml nl. n lvծ Duu hjC niu-cJwm& bv mLj Ju. DOvJlkoծ n SJ hu Pu. cvk kJwlu cUuu mkճbY hl DC lծ mklb$ n DOvJl JUlu DCK SJ cu Dn. DOvJlkocU lJ&Ol k%vJ hlbv mk&OJ cnk hhl Pu. cnjl mcvl lkkj mcpծ jv, cvk nJwJb pCk, mklb$mjK cub phCJ yyl kծjcbLv Pu. hjbhjJ Yjldz lk%v DC DOvJ lkkծj b mbi[ IuCծn hϳlv Pu. hk&-DOvJ, DOvJ DC Gj-DOvJ Dm pj lv JuKb[ cvu lj kmk lJծ hk&O&, cnCp cnjծ hyOvJU n DOvJ JuKb[ jl, lj l DOǮ Yjldz hjbhjlv Duu lkkծj hk&-DOvJ Dn. SJCmյ mvblj k̮jJ DC mnlJu #$l p you I[v Du lu DOvJj Jbk Gj-DOvJ JuKb[ cvu pl.
DOvJlkol kJwlkoծ DljJ Pu. k%vJ hlbh{ Flj kծjhl ls cvu iu. hյʳ oJvlv p omu lk{ ml cvCծ k yUku DC jhJbol mbmJlJ kmnlko vc&C Pu.
Gj-DOvJ JuKb[l DvJ kծjkblbv DOvJlkolu inlJbv Dknv ou DC %vmbhovծ DC kծjhlǮ kJboJjC Ju. Ju DC ovbov kknj blu mcj< hmu iu. m. p. bi bv cvmյm$dz kյu<Cm hk&l lkhCulu mbJuhvb DOj Ilu lj S[k[& mF&o bv DjSb@uPcmjK mbJuhvbcOu HuhC DC mbmJlJ kmnlkolu lJ&ol GI[ Ju. k%vJ %v noKu Flnmmh# DLk mbmJlmh# Dml ծ hlճ Gj-DOvJ JuKb[l j[& [@Jvm, J@vj@[ u@jvP, j@pj hvjp b uKvcU Du. kmlk n SJ SJ vml lj DvJ Dbibv Dhuu l Gcil. kmlkծ Dhuu nCj pCk n Kj lj DYmcճ ƮvnbJv Dmll Dյ Dpծ OjC Dn.
mbinlu ynlJ mk& uK n Gj-DOvJ pCk kJwl JjCj Dnl. Dp kkO %vյKb Ghճi Jv DvJ vk kծj, mbJuhv cb[u pl Dnl. lb cj kծJbv hjճ knk, llv pkvk<ճJ SJ vk mcp vc&C knk cnCv n uK unu iu. l hk& vճlJuJbcOv hJƵl Puu Dnl. Gj-DOvJlcOu DvJ mbJuhv uKbcOv hv: hvn l jnll. lcU Jn mcvm$bv n uK p[u iuu Dnl. mkluծ S[k[& mF&o bkju uK Dn. mF&o b `DjSb@uPc' DC j[& [@Jvm b `o muH pv' n SJծ JuKb[l hm Puu hmlJ. ovn hmlJbv Dp mcpJ m$bcO cnkծ mLv Dn. DjSb n mlo&vh# JkJuhv J Dn DC ll kmnlko DC mcpko b jpJdz o J hlybyl nl n mF&o bv mbilu. mF&o b k̮jJ YcJ hjճ uKbcOv l. Gj-DOvJ JUl Flnm n mbJuhv J ukƮJ Pu l mF&o DC j[& [@Jvm b hmlJblv Dhuu Gcil. mcpko oJvlv unu iuu Flnm Jm hk&ino<l Dml l mF&o bcU Dhuu JUl, lj pk hlUkj cvk pkvծ jj hlUkj I[l iuu pkյm$dz Flnm [@Jvm bcU Dhuu JUl.
kmlk n mnl-JucO Jm mbmJjl nTv l DC JO l Y< cnCv lj JO JuhvJ hlUkj mlծ DYm cnCv Jm l l pmH J@vj@[ DC y jp Ʈ$h bkju uKbcO Duu Dn. kn. Sm. v@h@u b JobyjuKv DC k̮jJ uKv SJծ vCծ ov yp Dnl. mk& uKbcOv kmnlko, Dvkm Yjldzb cvmJl, hյʳb SJjuu oJvu DƵճ, o#C DcjJ, DHJ Dյ kkO mbmJlblu kծjkblbv, uKJbv ouu ynmbmJlJ hճ& b ծ& Duu Dn.
Yjllu jpJdz kծj nbm DC Dnbm Dյ ov OkbcO vncǮ Dboul jnuu Dn. lyuծ mcpյm$dz DC jpJdz oJv `nbm DC JC' k `ibOko DC v#uko' uKbcO Duu Dn. `Do& jcjpծ lv mkhv' uKbcO hk&-DOvJ DC DOvJ JUu p[Cj Do& kkmL mkhv DC lծ ծ& Duu Dn. SjJ H@c bkju uKln Pv lk%v DC DOvJ cvmյm$ blu mckjOb ծ& Dn.
Y<kծj n %vյK Gj-DOvJ JuKb[l mbmJl DC cvk kl&vծ Ohkml cnkծ Jcij ypkl Dn. l ov kյkvL Kj b mbclkծjծ cb[C u#Cdz jk DյǮ Dn.
S[k[& [ yv n vk lk%b ol ymCmjK vn. JjC lkkծjծ ovbov pkvlu Ghճpv Dյ lb kծjJlǮ cb[C Dml, hC Dm kծj SJCծ pkvյOu kiU o oT Jll DC cCmlu mp&Jlu l mbmJjl Jjll, n u#l Ilu lj Dյ kծjhlJ[n ou&# Jv uCj vn.
L[Jwl mbiճծb lj n uK cnCp Dpծ k̮jJ pill I[CN mbJuhvknb SJ PuJ Dnl. n uK hnv mbJuhvb O ICծ p%m kծJbcO pil Pu lj uKծ mL&J Pu Dm cnCl F&u.

Dhlc, vmi&mbo& uCb uYuu mbOoi& pun, [bijcLkj njkij vmi&ukC, Gb Gb vjUծ P[ծ kNmbi [uCN Pkȳ, Ku pcvkj lhJj uu jbiծ GOUC JjCj k, lU JJClu kkO ov J[U, mUik, Kvu... lU JJClu uu clv DvJ OjbOjv - mnlJbv - Jkbv pvc ouճ.
Dյծ `Kvu' iklu uu cll Gou Duu kJwlck cnCp mnlJ ibiOj okjk KvuJj.
k*ddcճmkJծ JJClu uu clǮ kcOvծ k*ddcճծ Oճ$ m Pu. kl lbv k*ddcճ #$lu DvJ vcbJl jLcnjL Yu. Kjb lj mkl: ci& oo&c k K[lj nl hC pkvծ kkj YCN oiip cvkjbv %vmbhovծ pl GpUl vu. lbv ci& oKku l kծj pilǮ, lLv h{ pCj, j$uKv, mbhov, JJճ&, h$Jjl, hJյJ J[ kUCj ci& oKku. lb cvl mklb$ mvJb hl ohcծ mHuubi pil Ju.
Dm n KvuJjb kkObi lj kJwlck I[kCl k mmbmJjl cv I[kCl DF&-k[ub mnYi nlծ, lծyjyj ʹho J<C JunJj, JJj [@. ʹOj kbJ JlJj, mnlJ k. m. Kb[Jj, h$Jj, mnlJ ib. $b. c[KuJj, cOk puճv, mvip, kuծbob j$ unCm hk JjCj Gi #$lu lp% k ci&o&J JJmny TH& b. y. vkUJj, kյkYjl kյkkuճծ `ilbpu' Jkծ vyu hjl<J cUkCj kյkkKl Jkcvծ `blvJlv' mk&mk& jkbovL ij Dյ Jllj Gbi kJwlckbv Dhulu L[ Db oTv lbv I[ku.
k*ddcճծ #$lu vv lNn huYv, cvmvcv, chCծ nkm kv cjkCծ nm mk&hmv ib. o. KvuJj Duhl k hmhj*ddcK jnu.
SJCmk lJ mbhv pilJ[ ku JjCj kmk lJ m Pu. JU hjlb$ծ nl, SJJ[ mkjpm uuu vJjծ u{ lj omN ypu mcpծ nl Dmuu mkեiC hil Dm Ʈ$ oml nl. JCl v JCl Okov Yjuu cCm kkO #$bl Gom l nl. JUծ cncv KvuJjbv Dbly& hjl Ju. nǮ hjJ Jwl ITv F&kjv lb DbpUl Juu vkko k<b& JuKb[lu hlJ #C mnl mkl k oJճ& mkl mch&l JjCծ hϳlv lbv mj k<& Ju.
KvuJjb k lb ybOb Ƶ#C cukCծ `hku' nճmJucO Pu. c ybO kcvjk hCծ Hi&mv J@uplv y.S.y.. nTv ub[v Lv Sc.S. k .[. hok mbhov Yjll hjlu. cnjl cvkj Ƶ#Clp% cnCv lb uJJ nl. y mjJj Ƶ#C Kll DOJjhokj nl.
Gu ib. o. KvuJjbv SJ kiUǮ k ohcm vk[u. c@J Pukj c. ibOb DmnJjծ UkUcU yJuv Ƶ#Cծ knk Uv Yjldz mko Ƶ#Cծ ci& KUu k JuJʳcOu jkbovL ijb blvJlv kյkkuճl hk Ilu. J Yjlծ hƵc JvNkju JJC DC J hk&J[u ybiu hbllu JuJ; hC lL pkvlu Dlbl cnkծ Dյ SJ kiȳ Ƶ#Cծ vk hk& ku m Pu.
jkbovLb kյkYjl khl piYjlu kL& l. vmi& mbo&ml k#hC& mVOl, vȳ vYծ slKu Ku klkjCl hծv lhkvhcC Ƶ#C #$lu oiipbJ[v Ovp&v nl Dm. kյkkuճl Jk jkbovL ij mkl: DvJ k<ճ ƵJkl. DOճvծ m knk k %vծ yyll DճklhC Dmk cnCv mkol GhuyO vmCj hmlJ l mkl: hjolv DCl. hk&l k hƵcl o lcO DOճvlu mnճ&v muK GlhV JjCծ hϳlv lbv Ju. Sk{ vn lj jkbovLbv Dhu Kmi ibLmbinoKu lbv kյkkuճu oTv Ju.
blvJlvl kյkYjl n mklb$ kYi m Jv k*ddcճ k mbOv k uul Ju ծ G kmbiծ m mklb$ ov Ju. KvuJjbv, jkbovL, D@[p, kOKj Yfծճ&, Oc&Oj jpi cnjLkj, Ycjkյm$ nmjJj Dյ oiip cb[U mnl, uulJu, mc#յm$, nbo lk%v, y o&v, pkյm$, nbomLv mbil, F. k<ճ ƵJkl.
KvuJjbv, kL& cnCv ƵJl Dmlv jkbovLbv pkUv hnCծ, l Fbip Jk ƵJklv lm lb mbY<C, kKv SJCծ Yi cUu. lcU lb cvkj lLu klkjCծ Dhl#hC biu h[mo Gcu.
l cnCll, `ijb I[uu mnkmծ, Dծճ& #lcnv mv, cncnhOճ kKj Yfծճ&, Dծճ& ioU cuuJ b ci&o&vKu Juu mkOճծ pkn pkn c DkC J Jl lkn lkn cP cv Jl%lv Yժv l. mkե mmbmJjl kCǮ hYkcU cP cvu mmbmJjl o cUu.' DC cnCvծ h{u Jn k<եvblj KvuJjbv (jkbovL- pkvJL) n j$ unv cuծ Yj Ilu.
Kjb lj KvuJjb uKvծ mkl hLc U nmluKllv Pu. h{ llmny JunJj (ʹho J<C JunJj) mnl #$lu i Pu. KvuJj hLc JL unl. `hc DC k' F.mjK JL unCj KvuJj, ʹho J<C JunJjb cUuu cuJ muuv j$ uKvJ[ kUu, llhk& DvJ pilJ j$Jjb uKCծ DYm Jv n lb$%v hhl Ju. hLc j$ ʹho J<C JunJjb unu, cOk puճv bյ Puu c$Ǯ hblj lb mci j$ unCl Pu hC l Dioj Dk&v cj k*ddcճmkJ ml Kb[bcOu JJճ& Jc Ju. n hJuh l kU kLե ijp YikCJjl nl Ilu nl. n Jc Gc PucU KvuJjbv cj k*ddcճJ pv pvJ n jml GhO cUu. Jv&J hmlH& `mci kkJvbo' lj Yibl hm Ju, JjC lbv ybiu Y< biu l nl. lbv unuu kuծbo njծbo b j$ uKvծ Jc lyyu mn k<& uu.
Fbiplu y@mku, uv m@, u[yi, cu&, Dvock& n lb Dk[l j$Jj nl. KvuJjbv DvJ k<ճbkj DvJ ibL unu. lbv s-c 23 ibL k 17 mbhol Ju. Dm n KvuJj cnCp cj k*ddcճծ iu mj k<ե ul-yul %vJծ nl.
k*ddcճv Jճ&m KvuJj bv lb mkl: Ijl mkl: npj hճ Kծ&v Ijlu SJ KuǮ jn Ybl yJ uHcOu hmlJbv Kծv Yժv Ju nl. Dճ<lu m-mj k<& ibL Kjo Ju. k*ddcճv DYmu GhճJwl kvb mci ibL, mc# ibL, oc&U ibL, Flnm k Dյ DvJ ipuu oc&U ibLbv lbb hmlJuճ mc nlb. cnJճ ibLmbinծ uY lbv DvJ kGhmJbv Jծn Dh# v Jjl ou.
KvuJjb mnl mk k omk Y<Ckn Jճ& DUK mcph{ mll pil jnk k lb ibLժh mcjJ lճj knk m lb n mkJp&l cnJճ oc&U ibLb mbin cbyF& khծ Jui cvvdz [@. kpճ Ku b nl mho& JjCl Du.
JkU khv DYmկcl ukv ouu hmlJkljJwl Dkblj hmlJb kծvn l DYmկcծ oJvlv DkյJ Dml. Jn kUm l l k<ճu Dvmժv Dmuu hmlJ oc&U Dm Jll. Jn kUm SKoǮ hl GhuyO Dml. Dյ kU ibLYb[jծ Ghճi nF&u.
cbyF& khծ ibLuճl DvJ kv hb[lv lb Dճ<l mbinl Juu c mbin cbyF& khu ou Dnl. ol cP k[ub ibLmbinծ Yj h[u Dn. n SJ FlnmJuv %vmbho Kpvծ khl hnճu cUCj Dn.
hlY KvuJj-p

cO holu pyuhjhmv 87 J. c. Dbljkju IIk ob[j pulu ikl n jdz pkյc Gv (H@mum v@vu hJ&) mLhv JjCl Du Dn. pulu IIk, Ghj, okjKo&, yjymhj, b num, jik DC okj Jv ml ikblu SJC 2 uK 74 npj 100 mJwk. cj #$kj n jdz Gv Dmv olu Dյ mkժhծ n hnu k SJck Gv Dmk. #$ծ ynj DCK lv K[bln mjK pkյc mh[u Dnl. nhj n llu ll c ik Gvhmv 13 J. c. Dbljkj DC jpci& . 11 kj vkmhmv 15 J. c. Dbljkj Dn. JC P[b Jj[ k<& hծv pkյcb mbj#C JjCl Du Dn.
IIk lm Ghj L oudz ypku k#b pkյc c hcCl cUu Dnl. lm Hu k hvbn pkյc D{Uu Dnl. P[b K[kj p pkյc D{Uu Dnl l pc>mhc&mdd (Gymnosperms), DBpDmhc&mdd (Angiosperms), cvJ@uv[@vm (SJoudz kvmhl- Monocotylendons), DC hc P[kj Dmuծ oml. Ƶkճ Jn yճHF&ddm (Bryophytes) n Dnl. hJ Jn pkյc pj@mJ hj[ vblj Jbk hk& Jbk cO ƯƵճm (Cretaceous) JUlu DmCծ Jwln kJwl Ju pl. KN hCծ pkU GikCN kvmhlkju pkյcbƵkճ h<Clu bK pkյcn FL mh[u Dnl. mOծ hƵc Ilu mo hk&lծ hjmjlu lm Gjhk& Yilu moynj pbiul D{UCN Hyphnene, Polyalthia, Dand Barim Cloxnia hplǮ pkյcn #$l mh[u Dnl. [JwJv @hծ vc&CkmLl ib[kv #$ Dpծh# Kh kiU nl. lkU l #$ hϮb[ o pbiu DC P[P[hv Dծsol nl. lL mcj 2000 c. c.hճեl hTm h[l Dm. n ƯƵճm iծ cOJU nl lm Physian Trunk Dating Polymagnetic Radiometric Data v<J<&vmj pkյcb JU 50 uK l m[mn J k<& FlJ pv Dn. hjmjl mh[uu P[b jhծ pkյc vjU hplǮ Dnl. n k# JCllj puյճծ #$l m[l h[u Dmkl DC l JUl Ycb[ukj DծvJ Puu YiuJ youcU ukn jmծ c Yiv LJU PJu iu Dmkl. FL J@uhm hplǮ P[bn pkյc mh[u Dnl p Dhu ol mnm cUl vnl. n k# cKlk D@muճlu Dnl. lkժv 6-7 Jj[ k<եhk& D@muճ cnh, SƵճ cnhյ p[uu Dmk k YiY&lu GuLhuLl n k# FJ[ Du Dmkl Dm oml. pL n pkյc mh[u Dnl l #$ vc&o KNծ #$l Dmv pkUhm 40 uK k<եhk& Puu YiuJ GlLhvl l JUlu unv h$ Dmuu vc&o voǮ mOծ KNl hjkl&v Puu Dmk DC vc&o k lh voǮ hkn p DjyJ mcoJ[ pl ll youu Dmk. n miU Dbop Dnl. JjC pkյcb DYml iu Jn k<&lծ Jn pCv jm Iluv n mk& mbOv hLcJ DkmLl Dn. lcU DOJ mbOvn ijp Dn.
pkյcb O mk&hLc 1970 cO pyuhj k%v cnkuճlu [@. Sm. Dj. FbiU DC yjyu mnv Fvm D@H h@uDy@vǮ [@. Sc. y. kIv (Vaughan) bv uku. cb[Uծ llJuv pun mbKJdz DOJj [@. Ocohmo p pun hjk mbIծ mƮk nl lbvn muij lm IIk L pkյcb kյu Yb[j Ou nl. hC n mk& mbOv Hj hLcJ DkmLlu nl. n jdz H@mum Gv mLhv JjCծ ʹ [@. Oco lm llJuv kv cb[uOJj [@. jchmo DC cO ho mvծ llJuv kv mƮk ʹ. jbplmbn b Dn. 10 D@im 1982 jp ʹ. jbplmbn b DO#lKu Puu yJl kFu[ uF&H hJwv D@Jw 1982 Juc 35(1) Dvkճ pkյc jdz Gvծ mLhv JjCծ vC& Pu k l 5 c 1983 jp pnj JjCl Du. DJjk k Dճiv IIk H@mum jdz Gvծ kJmm 1 J 50 uK . pnj Ju. Gvl Fbjhv mbj vc&C Jv Gvծ kJm SJ hճ&v Jbo cnCv JjCծ Jc m Dmv lj JkO k<եhk& pkյcb cnl hJƵl Ju pCj Dn.
pkյcb o㵳 mkժh SK K[JmjK Dmuv lJNbv lծ cnkծ cnl vknl. lcU DvkOvv l llv J{v Ju pll Jbk vJmv Ju pl. Jn hճ&Jn Jbk l Yilu L[Hj yylծ cnl Dmuu vթi uJ lv Jn hm cUkCծ Dյv lծ kOkbm Jjl jnll. lcU n miU hJj LbykCm k cukv vmi&J Kpvծ j#C JjCm SKo mklb$ b$C Jv l mbhC& #$u JbhC Iuv j#C JjC ijp Dn. pkյcb mbj#Cm SKo mklb$ hϵmJdz kkmL Jv pyuhjmjK pkU khv lkj mbOvhj Km kYi m Jjk Dյ mvn cO ho mjJjv Jjճu nkl. lj Dvcu Kpvծ i j#C nT Ju Dm kl.
Yjl ipboi[Jj