इंग्रजी व्याकरणातील संज्ञांची व्याख्या किंवा इतर नियम पाठ करण्याची आवश्यकता नाही. परंतु स्पष्टपणे अर्थ समजणे अत्यंत आवश्यक आहे. त्यासाठी वाक्यरचना जाणून घ्या आणि स्वत: वापर करण्याचा प्रयत्न करा. इंग्रजीमध्ये स्पेलिंग्जना अधिक महत्त्व आहे. स्पेलिंग्ज पक्की करण्यासाठी आणि नवे शब्द शिकण्यासाठी शब्दकोशाचा अधिकाधिक उपयोग करा.
1) Simple Present Tense 2) Simple Past Tense 3) Simple Future Tense 4) Present Continuous Tense 5) Past continuous Tense 6) Future Continuous Tense
Kinds of Sentences –
1) Simple sentence- A sentence which has only one subject and one predicate OR A simple sentence has only one finis verb.
2) Compound sentence or double sentence – A sentence with two main clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions.
3) Multiple sentence- A sentence which has more than two main clauses or main verbs.
4) Complex sentence- A sentence with one main Clause and one subordinate clause or one main verb and one or more sub ordinate verbs.
5) Mixed sentence- A sentence with atleast two main clauses and one or more than one subordinate clauses or mixed sentence has atleast two main verbs and one or more than one subordinate verbs.
Clause – A clause is a part of a sentence, it is a word or a group of words. it does not give a complete sense.
Kind of Clauses- Main or Principal Clause, Dependent or Subordinate Clause
There are three types of dependent or subordinate clauses-
1) Noun clause- A noun clause does the work of a noun. It usually answers the questions ‘what’ to the verb.
2) Adjective Clause- It qualifies a noun or a pronoun in the main clause
3) Adverb Clause- It modifies the verb in the main clause.
i) Adverb Clause of time- It answers the question ‘when’ and is introduced by words such as- Until, till, as, since, while, when, after, before etc.
ii) Adverb clause of place – It answers the question ‘where’ and is introduced by the words- where, wherever.
ii) Adverb clause of manner- It answers the question ‘how’ and is introduced by the words- as, like.
iv) Adverb clause of reason- It answers the question ‘why’ and is introduced by the words- as, since, because etc.
v) Clause of condition- it answers the question on what condition and is introduced by the words if, unless.
vi) Adverb clause of degree/ comparison- It is introduced with as… as.
vii) Adverb clause of contrast- It is introduced with though, although, however.
viii) Adverb clause of purpose- It is introduced with the word. So that, such that.
ix) Adverb clause of result- It is introduced with the words- so, that, such that
i) Active voice , ii) Passive voice
– All transitive verbs have both active as well as passive voice. The intransitive verbs have no passive voice.
– When we change the verb from active to passive, the object of the verb in the active voice becomes the subject of the passive voice. But the meaning does not change.
– In the passive voice, with the verb we use some prepositions like by and with.
– In passive voices, the past participate should always be used with the verb kbel. The tense of the verb be must agree in number and person with the subject.
Changing Direct into Indirect speech.
i) Remove the punctuation marks, comma, inverted comma, full stop, question mark.
ii) The indirect speech is always in the past tense.
iii) After the reporting verb said etc. use the word kthatl.
iv) The first person is changed into third person.
First Published on December 6, 2013 12:55 pm